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The subject here is the absorption coefficient, expressing the net power loss from the field over a unit path. At its heart is the line shape, which may be identified with the power spectral density function for fluctuations of the active dipole in the presence of an equilibrium bath of perturbers, and, as such, should satisfy the fluctuation–dissipation theorem. The more general properties of the absorption coefficient, which must reflect this balance, are first examined in some detail, particularly for the Van Vleck–Huber form. It is then shown that this, when expanded as a sum over individual lines, may be folded into more compact expressions. Outside the line core, these expressions must incorporate the fluctuation–dissipation theorem, and special attention is given to distinguish this case and that of the core itself, where it is of no consequence. Even the very general Fano theory does not, as it stands, satisfy the theorem, and can be used for the far-wing line shape only if these expressions are modified. Finally, some account is given of how they may be used with a molecular line database, and how a calculation of radiative transfer might proceed in the simplest of cases.
A provisional setup for X-ray microprobe experiments at 35 keV is described. It is based on compound refractive lenses (CRLs) for nanofocusing and a Vortex silicon drift detector with 2 mm sensor thickness for increased sensitivity at high energies. The Microprobe experiment (PETRA III) generally uses Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors for submicrometer focusing in the energy range of 5–21 keV. However, various types of scanning X-ray microscopy experiments require higher excitation energies. The CRL optics were characterized by X-ray ptychography and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) knife edge scans on a siemens star pattern and showed beam sizes down to 110 nm. The performance of the new setup for microscopic X-ray diffraction (XRD)–XRF scanning X-ray microscopy measurements at 35 keV is demonstrated on a cross-section of a painting fragment.
There are no restrictions on how many bosons can occupy a single particle state, which has important consequences for their thermodynamic behaviour. Photons, quanta of the electromagnetic field, can be viewed as bosons with zero chemical potential, which allows the derivation of the thermodynamic properties of blackbody radiation, including the Stefan--Boltzmann Law. Non-interacting bosons with non-zero chemical potential can exhibit Bose--Einstein condensation at low temperatures, and interacting bosons may form a superfluid state. Low energy excitations in materials -- lattice vibrations (phonons) and spin waves (magnons) -- also behave as bosons, and are important for understanding the specific heat of materials at low temperatures. Of particular note is the Debye model which gives a simple account of the contributions of phonons to specific heat.
Massive, early-type stars have been detected as radio sources for many decades. Their thermal winds radiate free–free continuum and in binary systems hosting a colliding-wind region, non-thermal emission has also been detected. To date, the most abundant data have been collected from frequencies higher than 1 GHz. We present here the results obtained from observations at 325 and 610 MHz, carried out with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope, of all known Wolf-Rayet and O-type stars encompassed in area of
15 sq degrees centred on the Cygnus region. We report on the detection of 11 massive stars, including both Wolf-Rayet and O-type systems. The measured flux densities at decimeter wavelengths allowed us to study the radio spectrum of the binary systems and to propose a consistent interpretation in terms of physical processes affecting the wide-band radio emission from these objects. WR 140 was detected at 610 MHz, but not at 325 MHz, very likely because of the strong impact of free–free absorption (FFA). We also report—for the first time—on the detection of a colliding-wind binary system down to 150 MHz, pertaining to the system of WR 146, making use of complementary information extracted from the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research GMRT Sky Survey. Its spectral energy distribution clearly shows the turnover at a frequency of about 600 MHz, that we interpret to be due to FFA. Finally, we report on the identification of two additional particle-accelerating colliding-wind binaries, namely Cyg OB2 12 and ALS 15108 AB.
The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of thinning eucalyptus trees on yield and nutritive value of corn for silage and palisadegrass in a crop–livestock–forest integrated system and to evaluate the total aboveground biomass yield in systems with and without trees. Plant variables, as well as the incidence of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and soil moisture, were evaluated between October 2016 and March 2018 in São Carlos, Brazil, in a crop–livestock–forest and a crop–livestock system. In the crop–livestock–forest system, eucalyptus trees (Eucalyptus urograndis clone GG100) were planted in April 2011, in single rows, with 15 × 2 m spacing. In 2016, the trees were thinned, and the spacing was changed to 15 × 4 m. The treatments comprised measurements at 0.00, 3.75, 7.50, and 11.25 m from the trees of the North row in the integrated crop–livestock–forest (iCLF) system and integrated crop–livestock (iCL) system. Palisadegrass (Urochloa brizantha) was sown after harvesting the corn. Corn yields were similar between treatments, with an average of 13.6 Mg ha−1. Corn for silage presented a higher percentage of grain in total biomass in the crop–livestock–forest positions (41.4 and 42.1%) than in the crop–livestock system (35.6%). No differences in forage accumulation were observed. Crude protein content in corn for silage and palisadegrass was higher in the crop–livestock–forest treatments than in the crop–livestock system. Such results indicate that thinning was favorable to production in the crop–livestock–forest system. Total aboveground biomass yield was higher in the iCLF system, indicating better land use for this type of integrated system.
Therapeutic radiation for cancer is more than 100 years old. Side effects constitute the main limitation to its use. Side effects may be acute or chronic, but these categories overlap. As cancer survival improves, chronic radiation damage becomes more common. The gastrointestinal (GI) tract, particularly the bowel, is particularly vulnerable because of its anatomical location and the rapidity of turnover of many GI epithelial cell types. Severity of radiation damage depends also on patient factors, chemotherapy, radiotherapy regimen, and organ mobility. Histologically, common mucosal changes include ulceration, acute inflammation, eosinophilic infiltrates, and architectural abnormalities. Fibrosis may occur later. Vascular changes are more common in chronic disease, affect deeper layers, and include ectasia, intimal thickening, fibrinoid change, thrombosis, and luminal obliteration. Atypia of epithelium, fibroblasts, and endothelium is common and can mimic neoplasia. Epithelial atypia has a lower nuclear:cytoplasmic ratio than dysplasia and matures towards the mucosal surface, aiding the distinction. Features sometimes resemble viral cytopathic change. Chronic radiation colitis may resemble inflammatory bowel disease, ischaemia, and mucosal prolapse while vascular changes may resemble amyloid. In summary, histological clues to radiation damage include fibrosis, atypical fibroblasts, eosinophilic infiltrates, and vascular changes. Confident diagnosis as radiation damage requires a clinical history but this may be unavailable, especially if decades have elapsed since therapy.
The assessment of gastrointestinal specimens from immunosuppressed patients can be challenging, particularly because of the increased likelihood of multiple diseases and of rarer diseases. This chapter documents and presents the wide range of luminal gastrointestinal pathologies that can develop in the three main groups of immunosuppressed patients, i.e. HIV/AIDS patients, individuals with primary immunodeficiencies, and patients receiving iatrogenic immunosuppression. These gastrointestinal pathologies include infections, neoplasms, drug-related injuries, and diseases that are more specific to certain groups of immunosuppressed patients such as graft versus host disease in bone marrow transplant recipients.
The lack of radiation knowledge among the general public continues to be a challenge for building communities prepared for radiological emergencies. This study applied a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) to the results of an expert survey to identify priority risk reduction messages and challenges to increasing community radiological emergency preparedness.
Professionals with expertise in radiological emergency preparedness, state/local health and emergency management officials, and journalists/journalism academics were surveyed following a purposive sampling methodology. An MCDA was used to weight criteria of importance in a radiological emergency, and the weighted criteria were applied to topics such as sheltering-in-place, decontamination, and use of potassium iodide. Results were reviewed by respondent group and in aggregate.
Sheltering-in-place and evacuation plans were identified as the most important risk reduction measures to communicate to the public. Possible communication challenges during a radiological emergency included access to accurate information; low levels of public trust; public knowledge about radiation; and communications infrastructure failures.
Future assessments for community readiness for a radiological emergency should include questions about sheltering-in-place and evacuation plans to inform risk communication.
Comparison of the integral dose (ID) delivered to organs at risk (OAR), non-target body and target body by using different techniques of craniospinal irradiation (CSI).
Materials and methods:
Ten CSI patients (medulloblastoma) already planned and treated either with linear accelerator three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (Linac-3DCRT) technique or with linear accelerator RapidArc (Linac-RapidArc) technique by Novalis-Tx Linac machine have been analysed. Retrospectively, these patients are again planned on Radixact-X9 Linac with Helical, Direct-3DCRT and Direct-intensity-modulated radiation therapy (Direct-IMRT) techniques. The dose prescription to planning target volume brain (PTV-Brain) and PTV-Spine is 36 Gy in 20 fractions and is kept the same for all techniques. The target body, non-target body, OARs and total body dose are compared.
ID is lowest in the RapidArc plan for every patient in comparison to Helical and Direct-IMRT. The ID for Body-PTV was found slightly higher in the RapidArc plan in comparison to 3DCRT plans. But there is better normal tissue sparing for most of the OARs in RapidArc plans if it compares with 3DCRT plans.
RapidArc is a better alternative for the treatment of CSI. It provides better target coverage and better OARs sparing from any other treatment techniques.
Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy is a well-established method of dating based on trapped charges, applied to various crystalline materials, including carbonates, bones, and teeth. It provides a detailed insight into the structure of radiation defects—paramagnetic centers generated by irradiation, without the need of a painstaking sample preparation, often challenging in other methods. Using EPR we studied the effect of γ radiation on lime mortars and plasters from ancient settlement Hippos in Israel, in order to analyze the process of defect generation. Analysis of the complex spectra revealed the presence of radiation-induced species, including CO2–, NO32– and organic radical. Using an artificial UV source, we generated relatively strong signals of paramagnetic centers, analogous to those created by γ irradiation, reaching their maximum intensity after 5–6 hr of UV exposure. Our results confirm the previous reports that radiation defects can also be generated, instead of bleached, in calcite by UV radiation, which is crucial for identifying the issues related to light exposition, affecting the accuracy of age determinations in trapped-charge dating methods.
Chapter 5 is mainly devoted to the interaction between waves and immersed bodies. In general, an immersed body may oscillate in six different modes, three translating modes (surge, sway, heave) and three rotating modes (roll, pitch, yaw). An oscillating body radiates waves, and an incident wave may induce a corresponding excitation force for each one of the six modes. When a body oscillates, it radiates waves. Such radiated waves and excitation forces are related by so-called reciprocity relationships. Such relations are derived not only for a single oscillating body but even for a group (or 'array') of immersed bodies. Axisymmeric bodies and two-dimensional bodies are discussed in separate sections of the chapter. Although most of this chapter discusses wave-body dynamics in the frequency domain, a final section treats an immersed body in the time domain.
Chapter 1 mentions some previous books on ocean waves, and how the present book is different and serves as a source of supplementary information, which is mainly concerned with the utilisation of the energy of ocean waves. Then a short summary is given for each of the other chapters of the book.
Chapter 3 is a general, rather short and partly descriptive introduction to general wave theory, without application of any differential equation. The emphasis is on mechanical waves, e.g., acoustic waves.
Referring to a simple illustration, a verbal explanation is given by the essential, but perhaps paradoxical, statement that to absorb wave energy from a wave by means of an oscillating system, it is required that the system radiates a wave which interferes destructively with the incident wave. Then various mathematical relations are derived concerning the conditions for an oscillating body to remove energy from an incident wave. The mathematical conditions for wave-power absorption may be illustrated as a paraboloid-shaped 'island' on an infinite complex-plane 'ocean' surface. The top of this 'island' corresponds to maximum absorbed power. An additional matter is the optimum control of a wave-energy converter (WEC) body. Thus far, the WEC body's shape and oscillation mode have been taken into account, but not its physical size. The latter is an important parameter related to the cost of the WEC, when the Budal upper bound is explained and discussed. Another important phenomenon, related to the Keulegan–Carpenter number, is discussed, in relation to an example of a WEC body. In a final section of the chapter, a WEC body, oscillating in several modes of motion, is discussed.
Chapter 8 concerns a group of WEC units that may be realised in a more distant future, namely groups or arrays of individual WEC units and two-dimensional WEC units, which needs to be rather big structures. Firstly, a group of WEC bodies is analysed. Next a group consisting of WEC bodies as well as OWCs is analysed. Then the previous real radiation resistance needs to be replaced by a complex radiation damping matrix which is complex, but Hermitian, which means that its eigenvalues are real.
Chapter 4 introduces basic differential equations and boundary conditions for gravity waves propagating along a water surface. Assuming low wave amplitudes, equations are linearised. Then a quantitative discussion is given for harmonical (sinusoidal) waves propagating either on deep water, or otherwise on water of constant depth. Phase and group velocities are introduced, and then formulas are derived for the potential energy and the kinetic energy associated with a water wave. A closely related result is an important formula for the wave-power level, which equals the wave’s group velocity multiplied by the wave’s stored – kinetic + potential – energy per unit of sea surface. An additional subject is the wave’s momentum density. A section concerns real sea waves. Further, circular waves are mathematically described. Two sections of the chapter concern mathematical tools to be applied in Chapters 5–8 of the book. A final section considers water waves analysed in the time domain.
The first part of Chapter 7 deals with oscillating water columns (OWCs). The concepts of radiation conductance and susceptance are introduced. The former is related to the radiated power, whereas the latter represents the reactive power. Expressions for the power absorbed by the OWC are derived, which are analogous to those of the oscillating body WEC. The potential energy of the OWC is also discussed. The last part of Chapter 7 deals with wave energy converters that move in modes other than the six conventional rigid-body modes. The theory of generalised modes are described, and some examples are given to illustrate the utility of the theory.
A compact multiple input multiple output (MIMO) antenna operating at 2.45 GHz industrial scientific and medical band is presented for wearable devices. Open-end slotting is used to miniaturize the antenna dimensions. Inverted U-shaped ground stub is incorporated to reduce mutual coupling. On-body performance is analyzed on a three-layered equivalent tissue phantom model. The wide bandwidth of 300 MHz and port isolation of 30 dB are obtained from measured results. The antenna shows the efficiency of 40% and directivity of 4.56 dBi when placed at a gap of “s” = 4 mm from the body. Broadside radiation pattern and low specific absorption rate make the antenna suitable for on-body communication. Further, diversity performance is measured in terms of envelope correlation coefficient (ECC), diversity gain (DG), and channel capacity loss (CCL). The value of ECC is 0.025, DG is 9.98 dB, and CCL is 0.12 bits/s/Hz at 2.45 GHz. Antenna robustness is examined by bending the structure at different radii along the x-axis and y-axis. Performance of the proposed structure is reliable with structural deformation.
Radiation-induced malignancies are a rare phenomenon. Post-radiation sarcoma accounts for 0·5–5·5% of all sarcomas. Adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) after surgery plays a significant role in the treatment of breast cancer. Sarcomas of the breast, chest wall, sternum, axilla or supraclavicular region have been reported as a rare complication of RT for breast cancer. Osteosarcoma (OS) of the sternal bone is a rarely reported entity. OS of the sternum secondary to therapeutic ionising radiation is an even rarer diagnosis, and no such cases have been reported in India as per our literature search. Here we report such a case of post-radiation sarcoma after breast cancer treatment—OS presenting in the sternum and both the second ribs in a young lady.
Our patient developed a sarcoma within a previously irradiated field. The latent period was 7·5 years. She initially suffered from a breast carcinoma for which she underwent radical surgery in the form of modified radical mastectomy. She also received 50 Gy RT dose to the chest wall and axilla. She subsequently developed an OS of chest wall in the high-dose region of RT. Another key factor is the high possibility of familial/hereditary cancer inheritance syndrome like Li-Fraumeni in our patient. Though she was never tested for p53 mutations, her young age at first diagnosis (26 years), extremely strong positive family history and spectra of cancers affecting her first-degree blood relatives (brain tumours, leukaemia) strongly hint at the possibility of such a cancer syndrome. Retrospectively, the question certainly arises, given her young age and family history, whether this patient was a right candidate for RT even once as compared to the fact that she received radiation twice.
I distinguish between two versions of the black hole information-loss paradox. The first arises from apparent failure of unitarity on the spacetime of a completely evaporating black hole, which appears to be non-globally hyperbolic; this is the most commonly discussed version of the paradox in the foundational and semipopular literature, and the case for calling it `paradoxical' is less than compelling. But the second arises from a clash between a fully statistical-mechanical interpretation of black hole evaporation and the quantum-field-theoretic description used in derivations of the Hawking effect. This version of the paradox arises long before a black hole completely evaporates, seems to be the version that has played a central role in quantum gravity, and is genuinely paradoxical. After explicating the paradox, I discuss the implications of more recent work on AdS/CFT duality and on the `Firewall paradox', and conclude that the paradox is if anything now sharper. The article is written at a (relatively) introductory level and does not assume advanced knowledge of quantum gravity.