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Next-generation automotive radar sensors are increasingly becoming sensitive to cost and size, which will leverage monolithically integrated radar system-on-Chips (SoC). This article discusses the challenges and the opportunities of the integration of the millimeter-wave frontend along with the digital backend. A 76–81 GHz radar SoC is presented as an evaluation vehicle for an automotive, fully depleted silicon-over-insulator 22 nm CMOS technology. It features a digitally controlled oscillator, 2-millimeter-wave transmit channels and receive channels, an analog base-band with analog-to-digital conversion as well as a digital signal processing unit with on-chip memory. The radar SoC evaluation chip is packaged and flip-chip mounted to a high frequency printed circuit board for functional demonstration and performance evaluation.
In this work, the scattering characteristics of 3D-printed samples are being investigated by using a single-polarized and a cross-polarized radar system. The 3D-printed technology participates in a wide range of applications nowadays. The idea of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has been utilized to investigate the reflected electromagnetic energy from the 3D-printed samples by setting each of the radar systems in a fixed position and the mounting sample on an x-y positioning table which has been used to achieve rectangular-scan mode for SAR. The data have been ported and processed by the matched filter approach. For better image interpretation, the data have been further processed by the median filter in order to reduce noise level while preserving the main image details. Afterwards, the data have been further investigated for determining and classifying any possible defects. This process has been accomplished by deploying the unsupervised learning concept to cluster the SAR responses into two groups, compromising the defected positions responses and the non-defected responses. The obtained results of both radar sensors have been compared and evaluated using different quality assessment factors. Moreover, unsupervised learning techniques have been investigated and the obtained results show a high degree of efficiency in clustering the SAR responses.
This paper considers the ability of polarization measurements for microwave remote sensing of clouds and precipitation. The simulation of reflections from liquid hydrometeors with a multi-polarization radar system is presented. The mathematical expression of energy received by a radar antenna with arbitrary polarization is obtained. The simulation of the energy redistribution of the signal reflected from liquid hydrometeors assembled over the antennas of multi-polarimetric radar for different wind conditions and different drop-size distributions is obtained and analyzed. The simulation results demonstrate the possibility to register wind and wind-related phenomena by polarimetric radar. The results of the paper can also be used to exclude an impact of drop vibration or oscillation into the radar signal to eliminate errors and underestimation during parameter measurements. The approach to segregate the reflected signal magnitude variations due to the wind-related phenomena from other factors is discussed.
This chapter contains a broad overview of the technical and environmental issues to be addressed in the construction of onshore wind energy projects. The former include ecological considerations, including birds and mammals; the requirements of typical pre-construction ornithological surveys are described with an example. Public safety and acceptance is discussed in the context of catastrophic damage to wind turbines, visual impact, shadow flicker, and noise nuisance. In the last case, equations and simple rules for noise assessment are given in the context of typical planning guidelines. Sound power levels for a range of commercial wind turbines are compared, and empirical relationships are given relating noise to rated output, rotor size, and tip speed. Risks to aviation are discussed, covering aircraft collision and interference to radar systems, including both primary and secondary surveillance radars. The concept of ‘stealthy’ wind turbine blades is discussed and described in outline. Other siting criteria include avoidance of RF and microwave communications beams and television interference. Rules are given to avoid interference, while minimising required separation distances.
This chapter reviews key findings from analyses of spectral reflectance measurements of Mercury taken by the MESSENGER mission. Mercury’s crust lacks the 1-µm crystal field absorption due to ferrous iron that is common on other silicate bodies, yet is unusually low in reflectance. The most likely darkening phase is carbon as graphite. Variations in reflectance and color reveal that volcanic plains averaging >5 km in thickness overlie graphite-rich low-reflectance material, which may have originated as a graphite flotation crust from a magma ocean. The one unambiguous absorption due to an oxidized transition metal, an ultraviolet oxygen–metal charge transfer band in bright, pyroclastic deposits, may originate by oxidation of carbon and sulfides, reducing 0.3–1 wt.% ferrous iron in silicates to a metallic state, unsaturating the very strong oxygen–metal charge transfer band.
The advent of multiple orbital and in situ missions to planetary bodies beyond Earth has enabled characterization of extraterrestrial shallow crustal processes. We describe examples of interpreting geochemical, isotopic, and radar properties from multiple remote datasets, supplemented with in situ observations from rovers and landers, meteorites, and lunar samples. Given the availability of distinct data types and the relevance to bulk-silicate bodies in the Solar System, we present five case studies for the Moon and Mars. The first involves lunar magmatic processes in relation to TiO2 and radargram-derived physical properties. Next, O and Fe isotope variations relative to the Mg number provide insight into the degree of fractional crystallization in lunar lava flows. Physical mixing of endmembers and chemical weathering processes in Gusev crater soil on Mars are discussed. Effective use of the Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA) is also considered by comparing mineralogic observations across Mars with terrestrial references. Lastly, the nature of bulk soil hydration on Mars is described by assessing chemical variations with Principal Component Analysis (PCA). This chapter describes in situ analyses and mapping across local and regional scales. Data synthesis also involves contrasting depth scales from tens of microns to multiple kilometers.
Radar has proven to be a powerful tool in planetary exploration. Most of the major solid bodies of the Solar System have been observed with radar, either from Earth or from spacecraft. Planetary radar studies are reviewed in this chapter, with information on the various techniques of radar remote sensing provided along with key results. Recent radar results are emphasized. Concluding remarks are provided on future directions in planetary radar remote sensing.
Imaging radars are all-weather instruments that can image planetary surfaces regardless of local atmospheric or solar illumination conditions. Radar images provide information about surfaces that are complementary to the chemistry usually inferred from visible and infrared images. Instead, radar images are strongly influenced by surface roughness and geomorphology, and to a lesser extent by the bulk electrical properties of the surface. This chapter describes the basic principles of high-resolution synthetic aperture radars (SARs), as well as advanced SAR implementations. Radar polarimetry provides information about surface roughness and electrical properties, while radar interferometry allows the measurement of surface topography and surface deformation following events such as earthquakes or volcanic inflation. Radar imagers have returned spectacular information about the surfaces of both Venus and Titan, bodies with dense, opaque atmospheres that are difficult to image using traditional camera systems. Examples of both planetary and Earth observations with SAR are discussed to illustrate the utility of these images.
This paper presents a comparative cyber security resilience estimation of shipboard radars that are implemented on two oil/chemical tankers certified as SOLAS ships. The estimated radars were chosen from the same manufacturer, but belonged to different generations. The estimation was conducted by means of ships' crew interviews and computational testing of the radars using a widely deployed vulnerability scanning software tool. The identified cyber threats were analysed qualitatively in order to gain a holistic understanding of cyber risks threatening shipboard radar systems. The results obtained experimentally indicate that potential cyber threats mainly relate to maintenance of the radars' underlying operating system, suggesting the need for regulatory standardisation of periodic cyber security testing of radar systems.
We derive the surface and basal radar reflectance and backscatter coefficients of the southern McMurdo Ice Shelf (SMIS) and part of the nearby Ross Ice Shelf (RIS), Antarctica, from radar statistical reconnaissance using a 60-MHZ airborne survey. The surface coefficients are further inverted in terms of snow density and roughness, providing a spatial distribution of the processes contributing to the surface boundary conditions. We disentangle the basal coefficients from surface transmission losses, and we provide the basal coherent content, an indicator of the boundary geometric disorder that is also self-corrected from englacial attenuation. The basal radar properties exhibit sharp gradients along specific iso-depths, suggesting an abrupt modification of the ice composition and geometric structure. We interpret this behavior as locations where the pressure-melting point is reached, outlining fields of freezing and melting ice. Basal steps are observed at both SMIS and RIS, suggesting a common geometric expression of widespread basal processes. This technique offers a simultaneous view of both the surface and basal boundary conditions to help investigate the ice-shelf stability, while its application to airborne data significantly improves coverage of the difficult-to-observe ice–ocean boundary. It also provides constraints on thermohaline circulation in ice shelves cavities, which are analogs for ice-covered ocean worlds.
This paper presents a novel approach for the determination of True-Speed-Over-Ground for trains. Speed determination is accomplished by correlating the received signals of two side-looking radar sensors. The theoretically achievable precision is derived. Test measurements are done in two different scenarios to give a proof of concept. Thereafter a series of field measurements is performed to rate the practical suitability of the approach. The results of the measurements are thoroughly evaluated. The test and field measurements are carried out using a 24 GHz frequency modulated continuous wave radar.
This paper presents a W-band MIMO radar transceiver chipset for automotive applications, based on a Silicon Germanium technology. It consists of a reference VCO, operating at a center frequency of 38 GHz and a companion IC that comprises a complete millimeter-wave transceiver at 76 GHz. This chipset enables building multipurpose MIMO radar systems that can be scaled in terms of transmitter and receiver count. What makes this system innovative is the fact that it is able to handle more broadband signals than systems presented in current literature and is furthermore not limited to one modulation scheme. The chipset is capable of transmitting and receiving any signal waveform. The main goal of this work was to create a functional version of a VCO and a one-channel transceiver MMIC. Furthermore a demonstrator for a proof of concept was designed to test the MMICs on a system level. The realized VCO MMIC achieves a tuning frequency range of 6 GHz with a center frequency of 38 GHz and consumes 152 mW from a 3.3 V supply. The transceiver MMIC is fully functional and achieves a saturated output power of 11.5 dBm while drawing 670 mW from a 3.3 V supply.
In this work, a new concentric circles detection method for object detection is proposed. It has been applied to the images of a commercial radar, captured with a Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) camera. The processing includes the detection of centres and concentric circles in the images and the identification of the radar scale. Several methods found in the literature have been applied and compared with our novel proposal for multiple concentric circles detection, called “Propagation Method based on Circular Regression”. This methodology has been validated with real radar images, proving its efficiency in obtaining the distance of any object to a marine vessel, with high accuracy and low computational cost, in real time. This system can not only be applied to most existing radars in the market by adjusting the parameters of each model but our proposal for concentric circle detection can be also applied to other sensing applications.
In order to ensure low-altitude safety, a tracking and recognition method of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and bird targets based on traditional surveillance radar data is proposed. First, several motion models for UAV and flying bird targets are established. Second, the target trajectories are filtered and smoothed with multiple motion models. Third, by calculating the time-domain variance of the model occurrence probability, the model conversion probability of the target is estimated, and then the target type is identified and classified. The effectiveness and robustness of the algorithm is demonstrated by several groups of Monte Carlo simulation experiments, including setting different recognition steps, different model transformation probability, filtering and smoothing algorithm comparison. The algorithm is also successfully applied on the ground-truth radar data collected by the low-altitude surveillance radar at airport and coastal environments, where the targets of UAVs and flying birds could be tracked and recognised.
A new time reversal (TR) method for target imaging is proposed in this paper. Through single measurement by the antenna array, the received signals are utilized to form the space–frequency–frequency multistatic data matrix (MDM). Singular value decomposition is applied to the matrix to obtain the left singular vectors which span the signal subspace. The obtained vectors are divided into multiple subvectors by two different schemes and used to provide target signatures in the form of coarse frequency dependence and relative phase shifts that can be exploited to construct the imaging function. The performance of the proposed method is investigated through numerical simulations for both single and multiple targets, and the results are compared with the traditional TR method using the frequency–frequency MDM. It turned out that the proposed method is able to achieve high resolution with limited array aperture and shows satisfactory robustness in noise environment. Furthermore, experimental results are provided to show the availability of the method in practical applications.
Though compact polarimetric approaches have been developed and applied in space and geo researching systems they have not been taken into consideration in automotive applications, yet. A sensor system has been designed to conduct polarimetric measurements in the 77 GHz frequency band, which is permitted for automotive usage. This system is able to transceive linearly as well as circularly polarized electromagnetic continuous waves. Depending on the case of application, the frequency output can be set statically or modulated over time within adjustable parameters. Hence, a variety of compact polarimetric modes can be performed and compared with full polarimetric approaches. Two compact polarimetric modes, dual-circular polarimetric mode, and circular-transmit-linear-receive, will be introduced and applied in this contribution. Their operability in this frequency range will be investigated after the microstrip antennas as well as the beam focusing dielectrical lense are characterized. Finally, results of a realistical measurement set-up will confirm the practicability of compact polarimetric approaches for double bounce recognition.
For a fully 360° detection around a vehicle, novel automotive radar system concepts consist of up to eight radar sensors. The existing sensor-mounting areas, such as front grill or bumper corners would no longer be sufficient. Therefore, additional mounting positions such as B-pillars and side skirts have to be considered, where the radar can observe the side area of the vehicle. However, these new mounting positions usually offer significantly less space, than the established mounting areas. The solution is, to build separate miniature radar frontends that can be placed all over the vehicle and are connected to one central signal processing and power supply unit. Investigations for a miniature radar frontend have been done, based on RF360 low loss non-shrinkage low-temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) substrate. For the automotive radar band (76–81 GHz), an array antenna has been simulated, manufactured, and the radiation pattern has been measured. A first sensor with a miniature radar frontend based on an LTCC multilayer has been designed and manufactured.