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This study aimed to investigate the rate of dizziness and occurrence of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo in the elderly by physical examination in those reporting dizziness symptoms when lying down or turning over in bed.
A total of 498 people, aged 70–85 years, were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding dizziness symptoms. Subjects answering that they became dizzy in bed were asked to participate in a physical examination and diagnostic manoeuvres investigating benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.
A total of 324 participants (65 per cent) completed the questionnaire. More than one-quarter (29 per cent) reported dizziness and 32 (10 per cent) reported dizziness when turning in bed. Of these 32 persons, 22 (69 per cent) underwent a physical examination. Six participants tested positive for benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.
Ten per cent of the elderly participants reported positional symptoms, and 6 out of 22 fulfilled diagnostic criteria for benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. Furthermore, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo was established despite a delay between questionnaire completion and investigation, emphasising that this type of dizziness may not be a self-limiting disorder.
The Assessing and Caring for Patients’ Expectations in Laryngology (‘ACaPELa’) questionnaire was developed to guide laryngology clinic consultations. This study aimed to audit its use, revise it depending on outcomes and validate it.
The questionnaire was completed by all new patients attending a laryngology clinic over one year. The questionnaire was refined and validated in a new cohort of patients over a six-month period.
Thirty-seven of 242 patients (15.3 per cent) incorrectly gave the same ranking to more than one question. Questions with similar content were collapsed to cover broader themes, and an outcome question was added, resulting in the five-item Assessing and Caring for Patients’ Expectations in Laryngology – Revised (‘ACaPELa-R’) questionnaire. Using this revised questionnaire, there was a significant reduction in the number of same-ranked questions (4.4 vs 15.3 per cent; p = 0.003) and high patient satisfaction post-consultation (95.7 per cent).
The Assessing and Caring for Patients' Expectations in Laryngology – Revised questionnaire makes patients’ rank ordering of questions easier. It can be used to inform how different topics should be approached during the consultation and utilised for clinician self-audit.
The aim of the study is to develop an amyotrophic lateral sclerosis supportive care needs (ALSSCN) instrument based on Fitch's Supportive Care Needs Framework and to test its psychometric properties.
This study consists of three parts: (1) item generation from the literature review and qualitative interview; (2) content validation; and (3) psychometric evaluation of the instrument. Participants who were diagnosed with ALS (n = 139) were recruited from two ALS clinics in Seoul, Korea, and Busan, Korea for the psychometric testing.
The ALSSCN consisted of 37 items with seven domains: physical, psychological, emotional, spiritual, social, informational, and practical needs. The Cronbach's alpha of each domain ranged from 0.61 (social needs) to 0.90 (emotional needs). The intra-class correlation coefficient for test-retest was 0.89, indicating good test-retest reliability. The overall ALSSCN was significantly negatively correlated with the quality of life, which supported convergent validity. Confirmatory factor analysis of the ALSSCN supported a seven-factor model.
Significance of results
The ALSSCN has acceptable internal consistency, stability, and content and construct validity in a Korean ALS population. ALSSCN is a psychometrically sound measure and can be adopted by healthcare professionals, researchers, and administrators to comprehensively assess the perceived supportive care needs of patients with ALS.
This study aimed to screen young adults for sleep-disordered breathing, and compare those with high and low risk for sleep-disordered breathing.
A survey based on the Berlin questionnaire was completed by 330 university students, and the results were used to divide them into sleep-disordered breathing positive and sleep-disordered breathing negative groups. A representative group was selected from each cohort (positive group, n = 16; negative group, n = 21), and assessed with sleep study, ENT examination, the Nose Obstruction Symptom Evaluation scale, and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale.
Sleep-disordered breathing prevalence was 11.2 per cent in the questionnaire and 24 per cent according to the sleep study. The sleep-disordered breathing positive and negative groups significantly differed in terms of coexisting sleep-disordered breathing symptoms. There were no significant differences between the positive and negative groups with regard to sleep study parameters (apnoea/hypopnoea index, respiratory disturbance index, oxygen desaturation index, snoring intensity) and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale.
Subjective and objective diagnostic tools revealed that sleep-disordered breathing is a common problem among young adults.
The Chronic Otitis Media Questionnaire 12 was developed initially in the UK to assess patient-reported health-related quality of life associated with chronic otitis media. This study aimed to determine whether this tool is applicable to the Russian population, which has a materially different healthcare system.
A total of 108 patients with different forms of chronic otitis media completed the Russian Chronic Otitis Media Questionnaire 12.
The average Russian Chronic Otitis Media Questionnaire 12 score was 19.4 (standard deviation = 8.3). The internal consistency of the Russian Chronic Otitis Media Questionnaire 12 was high, with a Cronbach's alpha value of 0.860.
The Russian version of the Chronic Otitis Media Questionnaire 12 was found to be a reliable tool for the assessment of health-related quality of life in patients with chronic otitis media. This sets the scene for international collaboration, using this tool to assess the effectiveness of surgical treatments even amongst countries with different healthcare systems.
This study aimed to assess head and neck cancer patient satisfaction with the use of a touch-screen computer patient-completed questionnaire for assessing Adult Co-morbidity Evaluation 27 co-morbidity scores prior to treatment, along with its clinical reliability.
A total of 96 head and neck cancer patients were included in the audit. An accurate Adult Co-morbidity Evaluation 27 co-morbidity score was achieved via patient-completed questionnaire assessment for 97 per cent of participants.
In all, 96 per cent of patients found the use of a touch-screen computer acceptable and would be willing to use one again, and 62 per cent would be willing to do so without help. Patients were more likely to be willing to use the computer again without help if they were aged 65 years or younger (χ2 test; p = 0.0054) or had a performance status of 0 or 1 (χ2 test; p = 0.00034).
Use of a touch-screen computer is an acceptable approach for assessing Adult Co-morbidity Evaluation 27 scores at pre-treatment assessment in a multidisciplinary joint surgical–oncology clinic.
A need exists for public health strategies regarding extreme weather disasters, which in recent years have become more frequent. This study aimed to understand the public’s perception of extreme cold and its related health risks, which may provide detailed information for public health preparedness during an extreme cold weather event.
To evaluate public perceptions of cold-related health risk and to identify vulnerable groups, we collected responses from 891 participants in a face-to-face survey in Harbin, China. Public perception was measured by calculating the score for each perception question.
Locals perceived that extreme cold weather and related health risks were serious, but thought they could not avoid these risks. The significant difference in perceived acceptance level between age groups suggested that the elderly are a “high health risk, low risk perception” group, meaning that they are relatively more vulnerable owing to their high susceptibility and low awareness of the health risks associated with extreme cold weather.
The elderly should be a priority in risk communication and health protective interventions. This study demonstrated that introducing risk perception into the public health field can identify vulnerable groups with greater needs, which may improve the decision-making of public health intervention strategies. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:417–421)
Workplace dietary intervention studies in low- and middle-income countries using psychometrically sound measures are scarce. This study aimed to validate a nutrition knowledge questionnaire (NQ) and its utility in evaluating the changes in knowledge among participants of a Nutrition Education Program (NEP) conducted at the workplace. A NQ was tested for construct validity, internal consistency and discriminant validity. It was applied in a NEP conducted at six workplaces, in order to evaluate the effect of an interactive or a lecture-based education programme on nutrition knowledge. Four knowledge domains comprising twenty-three items were extracted in the final version of the NQ. Internal consistency of each domain was significant, with Kuder–Richardson formula values>0·60. These four domains presented a good fit in the confirmatory factor analysis. In the discriminant validity test, both the Expert and Lay groups scored>0·52, but the Expert group scores were significantly higher than those of the Lay group in all domains. When the NQ was applied in the NEP, the overall questionnaire scores increased significantly because of the NEP intervention, in both groups (P<0·001). However, the increase in NQ scores was significantly higher in the interactive group than in the lecture group, in the overall score (P=0·008) and in the healthy eating domain (P=0·009). The validated NQ is a short and useful tool to assess gain in nutrition knowledge among participants of NEP at the workplace. According to the NQ, an interactive nutrition education had a higher impact on nutrition knowledge than a lecture programme.
Interviews with local people have been widely used by biologists as a cost-effective approach to studying certain topics in wildlife ecology and conservation. However, doubts still exist about the validity and quality of the information gathered, especially in studies targeting cryptic or elusive species, such as carnivores. We assessed the reliability of interviews (n = 155) in detecting the presence of three species of carnivores with different characteristics, by comparing interview results with data obtained through camera trapping surveys at 52 sites in central Argentina. The degree of concordance between methods was low for Geoffroy's cat Leopardus geoffroyi and especially for the puma Puma concolor. However, Geoffroy's cats were detected more frequently by camera traps than interviews, whereas the opposite was true for pumas. For the pampas fox Pseudalopex gymnocercus, a less elusive species, we observed a high degree of concordance and a similar probability of occurrence between methods. Our results indicate that data obtained by interviewing local inhabitants should be used with caution because the information about species presence provided by local people may be inaccurate and biased.
Mild deficits in instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) have consistently been reported in the individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). A variety of functional assessment tools, including self-and informant report questionnaires and performance-based measures, have been employed in MCI. Previously, a limited focus has been directed at appraising the quality of questionnaires. The goal of this study was to identify the questionnaires that have been validated in the MCI population. Additionally, the quality of validation studies and psychometric attributes of these questionnaires were appraised.
Relevant articles were systematically searched in PsychINFO, Ovid MEDLINE, and CINAHL against specific eligibility criteria. To evaluate the methodology of the psychometric studies, the COSMIN checklist was employed. Also, the psychometric properties of the assessment tools were evaluated based upon Terwee's criteria.
A total of five psychometric studies and questionnaires were critically evaluated. Varying psychometric properties were available for the chosen tools. None of the studies received the best possible rating for their methodological quality. It was found that questionnaires with high discriminative ability to distinguish MCI from other diagnostic groups were: Disability Assessment in Dementia-6 (DAD-6), Functional Activity Questionnaire (FAQ), and Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study/Activities of Daily Living scale adapted for MCI patients (ADCS-MCI-ADL-24).
Psychometric studies with strong methodological rigor are required in the future. Considering the fact that IADL decline has been associated with dementia, early detection of functional difficulties in MCI needs to be encouraged as it will allow suitable and timely interventions to prolong functional independence of affected individuals.
Superficial siderosis is a rare disease that results from chronic bleeding in the subarachnoid space. Haemosiderin deposits throughout the subpial layers of the brain and spinal cord lead to progressive sensorineural hearing loss, which is seen in 95 per cent of patients with superficial siderosis. The impact of cochlear implantation on the quality of life of superficial siderosis patients is under debate.
A 38-year-old male with superficial siderosis presented with bilateral progressive sensorineural hearing loss. The patient underwent cochlear implantation and his quality of life was improved as evaluated by the Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit inventory.
The remarkable improvement in Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit scores shown in this study indicates that cochlear implantation leads to a better quality of life in superficial siderosis patients.
The Chicago Multiscale Depression Inventory (CMDI) was developed to improve accuracy in measuring depression symptoms in individuals with non-psychiatric medical illness. Earlier psychometric evaluation of the CMDI has emphasized properties of items that measure negative affect and experience. In this study, we provide an initial evaluation of an outcome scale of positive items that are also included within the CMDI but have previously been excluded from calculation of the total score. Psychometric data for the CMDI negative and positive item subscales were determined in healthy adults and patients with multiple sclerosis. Analysis included measurements of factor structure, reliability, and validity in comparison with other established measures of depression and affect. Study findings indicate that in healthy and patient samples, the CMDI Positive scale has very good reliability and validity. The Positive scale score also appears to predict depression symptoms beyond the negative item scale scores. The CMDI Positive scale could be a valuable clinical and research tool. Inclusion of the Positive scale in the CMDI total score appears to improve the measure by further capturing symptoms of affect and experience that are important to diagnosis of depression and are not covered by the negative scales alone. (JINS, 2016, 22, 76–82)
To determine if total lifetime physical activity (PA) is associated with better cognitive functioning with aging and if cerebrovascular function mediates this association. A sample of 226 (52.2% female) community dwelling middle-aged and older adults (66.5±6.4 years) in the Brain in Motion Study, completed the Lifetime Total Physical Activity Questionnaire and underwent neuropsychological and cerebrovascular blood flow testing. Multiple robust linear regressions were used to model the associations between lifetime PA and global cognition after adjusting for age, sex, North American Adult Reading Test results (i.e., an estimate of premorbid intellectual ability), maximal aerobic capacity, body mass index and interactions between age, sex, and lifetime PA. Mediation analysis assessed the effect of cerebrovascular measures on the association between lifetime PA and global cognition. Post hoc analyses assessed past year PA and current fitness levels relation to global cognition and cerebrovascular measures. Better global cognitive performance was associated with higher lifetime PA (p=.045), recreational PA (p=.021), and vigorous intensity PA (p=.004), PA between the ages of 0 and 20 years (p=.036), and between the ages of 21 and 35 years (p<.0001). Cerebrovascular measures did not mediate the association between PA and global cognition scores (p>.5), but partially mediated the relation between current fitness and global cognition. This study revealed significant associations between higher levels of PA (i.e., total lifetime, recreational, vigorous PA, and past year) and better cognitive function in later life. Current fitness levels relation to cognitive function may be partially mediated through current cerebrovascular function. (JINS, 2015, 21, 816–830)
While the benefits of routine outcome measurement have been extolled and to some degree researched, it is surprising that service user opinions on this common therapy practice have largely not been investigated. This study aimed to assess service users’ experiences of completing measures during psychological therapy, with a view to exploring how therapists can maximize how helpful measures are in therapy. Fifteen participants completed surveys about the use of measures in their current episode of care. Ten clinicians also completed a survey about their use of, and views about, measures. Results showed that despite mixed experiences in how measures were explained and used, service users showed generally favourable attitudes towards their use in therapy, with them being perceived as most helpful when well integrated into sessions by their therapists. Clinicians reported using a wide range of measures, and generally endorsed positive beliefs about measures more strongly than negative ones. Implications for clinical practice, service development, and further research are discussed.
The challenges presented by traumatic injuries in low-resource communities are especially relevant in South Sudan. This study was conducted to assess whether a 3-day wilderness first aid (WFA) training course taught in South Sudan improved first aid knowledge. Stonehearth Open Learning Opportunities (SOLO) Schools designed the course to teach people with limited medical knowledge to use materials from their environment to provide life-saving care in the event of an emergency.
A pre-test/post-test study design was used to assess first aid knowledge of 46 community members in Kit, South Sudan, according to a protocol approved by the University of New England Institutional Review Board. The course and assessments were administered in English and translated in real-time to Acholi and Arabic, the two primary languages spoken in the Kit region. Descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, and correlation analyses were conducted.
Results included a statistically significant improvement in first aid knowledge after the 3-day training course: t(38)=3.94; P<.001. Although men started with more health care knowledge: (t(37)=2.79; P=.008), men and women demonstrated equal levels of knowledge upon course completion: t(37)=1.56; P=.88.
This research, which may be the first of its kind in South Sudan, provides evidence that a WFA training course in South Sudan is efficacious. These findings suggest that similar training opportunities could be used in other parts of the world to improve basic medical knowledge in communities with limited access to medical resources and varying levels of education and professional experiences.
KatonaLB, DouglasWS, LenaSR, RatnerKG, CrothersD, ZondervanRL, RadisCD. Wilderness First Aid Training as a Tool for Improving Basic Medical Knowledge in South Sudan. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2015;30(6):574–578.
The Geriatric Anxiety Inventory is a 20-item geriatric-specific measure of anxiety severity. While studies suggest good internal consistency and convergent validity, divergent validity from measures of depression are weak. Clinical cutoffs have been developed that vary across studies due to the small clinical samples used. A six-item short form (GAI-SF) has been developed, and while this scale is promising, the research assessing the psychometrics of this scale is limited.
This study examined the psychometric properties of GAI and GAI-SF in a large sample of 197 clinical geriatric participants with a comorbid anxiety and unipolar mood disorder, and a non-clinical control sample (N = 59).
The internal consistency and convergent validity with other measures of anxiety was adequate for GAI and GAI-SF. Divergent validity from depressive symptoms was good in the clinical sample but weak in the total and non-clinical samples. Divergent validity from cognitive functioning was good in all samples. The one-factor structure was replicated for both measures. Receiver Operating Characteristic analyses indicated that the GAI is more accurate at identifying clinical status than the GAI-SF, although the sensitivity and specificity for the recommended cutoffs was adequate for both measures.
Both GAI and GAI-SF show good psychometric properties for identifying geriatric anxiety. The GAI-SF may be a useful alternative screening measure for identifying anxiety in older adults.
To conduct a systematic review aimed at identifying and characterizing the experience-based household food security scales and to synthesize their psychometric properties.
Search in the MEDLINE, LILACS and SciELO databases, using the descriptors (‘food insecurity’ OR ‘food security’) AND (‘questionnaires’ OR ‘scales’ OR ‘validity’ OR ‘reliability’). There was no limitation on the period of publication. All articles had their titles and abstracts analysed by two reviewers. The studies of interest were read in their entirety and the relevant information extracted using a standard form.
The initial bibliographic search identified 299 articles. Of these, the 159 that seemed to meet the criteria for inclusion were read fully. After consultation of the bibliographic references of these articles, twenty articles and five documents were added, as they satisfied the previously determined criteria for inclusion. Twenty-four different instruments were identified; all were brief and of easy application. The majority were devised in the USA. Forty-seven references reported results of psychometric studies. The instruments that presented the highest number of psychometric studies were the Core Food Security Measurement/Household Food Security Survey Module (CFSM/HFSSM) and the Self-Perceived Household Food Security Scale.
There are a number of structured scales available in the literature for characterization of household food insecurity. However, despite some psychometric studies already existing about the majority of the instruments, it is observed that, except for the studies of the CFSM/HFSSM, these are still restricted to appraisal of a few aspects of reliability and validity.
Identifying toddlers at dietary risk is crucial for determining who requires intervention to improve dietary patterns and reduce health consequences. The objectives of the present study were to develop a simple tool that assesses toddlers' dietary risk and investigate its reliability and validity. The nineteen-item Toddler Dietary Questionnaire (TDQ) is informed by dietary patterns observed in Australian children aged 14 (n 552) and 24 (n 493) months and the Australian dietary guidelines. It assesses the intake of ‘core’ food groups (e.g. fruit, vegetables and dairy products) and ‘non-core’ food groups (e.g. high-fat, high-sugar and/or high-salt foods and sweetened beverages) over the previous 7 d, which is then scored against a dietary risk criterion (0–100; higher score = higher risk). Parents of toddlers aged 12–36 months (Socio-Economic Index for Areas decile range 5–9) were asked to complete the TDQ for their child (n 111) on two occasions, 3·2 (sd 1·8) weeks apart, to assess test–retest reliability. They were also asked to complete a validated FFQ from which the risk score was calculated and compared with the TDQ-derived risk score (relative validity). Mean scores were highly correlated and not significantly different for reliability (intra-class correlation = 0·90, TDQ1 30·2 (sd 8·6) v. TDQ2 30·9 (sd 8·9); P= 0·14) and validity (r 0·83, average TDQ ((TDQ1+TDQ2)/2) 30·5 (sd 8·4) v. FFQ 31·4 (sd 8·1); P= 0·05). All the participants were classified into the same (reliability 75 %; validity 79 %) or adjacent (reliability 25 %; validity 21 %) risk category (low (0–24), moderate (25–49), high (50–74) and very high (75–100)). Overall, the TDQ is a valid and reliable screening tool for identifying at-risk toddlers in relatively advantaged samples.
Caregivers of cancer patients are faced with significant demands that can seriously impact their physical and mental health. It is important for healthcare professionals to be aware of caregivers' support needs in order for these to be adequately addressed. Our study develops a German version of the Family Inventory of Needs (FIN) and provides a comprehensive evaluation of its acceptability and psychometric properties.
Cross-sectional data from 308 participants were taken from the baseline assessment of an ongoing prospective study. Retests were completed by 46 participants approximately one week after baseline. Informal caregivers of terminally ill cancer patients were recruited from three hospitals in Vienna. Questionnaires for hope (IHS), traumatic stress (IES–R), and depression and anxiety (HADS) were employed together with the translated FIN to assess concurrent and discriminant validity.
The internal consistency of FIN–Importance had a Cronbach's α of 0.94, and that for FIN–Fulfillment was α = 0.96. Retest reliability for FIN–Importance was r = 0.97, while that for FIN–Fulfillment could not be calculated due to missing responses to this subscale. Concurrent and discriminant validity tests for the scale and the discriminative power of items were adequate. However, missing responses may limit the feasibility of using this scale in research settings. We identified six questions that could be excluded from the scale in order to increase its acceptability and further improve its psychometric properties.
Significance of results:
Our results suggest that the FIN is suitable for clinical settings. For use in research, we suggest four adaptations to increase the scale's acceptability and psychometric properties. The FIN can be a valuable tool for informing the emotional, physical, and psychological support provided to family carers of people who are terminally ill with cancer.
To compare the efficacy of two modes of delivery of information for patients undergoing functional endoscopic sinus surgery: website and printed leaflet.
A two-centre, prospective, single-blinded, randomised, controlled trial was conducted, comparing mode of information delivery. Adult patients were randomly allocated to receive pre-operative information regarding functional endoscopic sinus surgery, either via a website or a printed leaflet. Primary outcomes, measured by questionnaire, were: readability, usability and recall of complications.
Fifty-eight patients were recruited. Fifty met the inclusion criteria, of which 40 were analysed in the study (20 patients per group), meeting the power criteria set. There were 18 male and 22 female patients, ranging in age from 21 to 76 years (mean, 47 years). Patients found both the printed leaflet and the website readable, and were satisfied with the usability of both modes. There were similar rates for recall of complications in both study arms.
Patient information on functional endoscopic sinus surgery can be provided either as a printed leaflet or a website, with similar rates for usability, readability and recall of complications. These findings could help tailor the provision of pre-operative information for patients undergoing functional endoscopic sinus surgery, based on patient preference.