To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Adolescent females are at elevated risk for the development of depression. In this study, we addressed two questions: Are pubertal hormones associated with adolescent mental health? Might this association depend on pubertal development? We tested the hypothesis that estradiol, which has been associated with adolescent social sensitivity, might interact with pubertal stage to predict depression risk at three time points in ninth and tenth grade. Hormones and pubertal development were measured ninth-grade females. Linear regression analyses were used to predict fall ninth-grade (N = 79), spring ninth-grade (N = 76), and spring tenth-grade (N = 67) Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) scores. The hypothesized model was not statistically significant, but exploratory analyses revealed that two- and three-way interactions incorporating estradiol, puberty (stage and perceived onset), and cortisol predicted current and future CDI scores. Our exploratory model did not predict changes in CDI but did account for future (spring of ninth grade) CDI scores. Specifically, estradiol was positively correlated with fall and spring ninth-grade depressive symptoms in participants with high cortisol who also reported earlier stages and later perceived onset of pubertal development. These findings suggest that hormones associated with sensitivity to the social environment deserve consideration in models of adolescent depression risk.
Psychosocial acceleration theory suggests that pubertal maturation is accelerated in response to adversity. In addition, suboptimal caregiving accelerates development of the amygdala–medial prefrontal cortex circuit. These findings may be related. Here, we assess whether associations between family environment and measures of the amygdala–medial prefrontal cortex circuit are mediated by pubertal development in more than 2000 9- and 10-year-old children from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study (http://dx.doi.org/10.15154/1412097). Using structural equation modeling, demographic, child-reported, and parent-reported data on family dynamics were compiled into a higher level family environment latent variable. Magnetic resonance imaging preprocessing and compilations were performed by the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study's data analysis core. Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) thickness, area, white matter fractional anisotropy, amygdala volume, and cingulo-opercular network–amygdala resting-state functional connectivity were assessed. For ACC cortical thickness and ACC fractional anisotropy, significant indirect effects indicated that a stressful family environment relates to more advanced pubertal stage and more mature brain structure. For cingulo-opercular network–amygdala functional connectivity, results indicated a trend in the expected direction. For ACC area, evidence for quadratic mediation by pubertal stage was found. Sex-stratified analyses suggest stronger results for girls. Despite small effect sizes, structural measures of circuits important for emotional behavior are associated with family environment and show initial evidence of accelerated pubertal development.
A review of the qualitative literature on young women's experiences of menarche revealed that menarche had a major impact on lives physically, psychologically, socially and culturally. Pubertal development before the age of eight and menarche before the age of nine should be investigated by an endocrinologist. Early menarche is associated with an increase in all cancer mortality, whereas late menarche is associated with increased risk of osteoporosis and fractures. Sometimes girls will continue to have heavy bleeding on combined hormonal contraception (CHC). A recent addition to treatment options is oestradiol valerate with dienogest (Qlaira) with a license to treat heavy menstrual bleeding. The authors have found it useful in the treatment of peri-menarchal dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB) and also useful for young girls who find it difficult to tolerate oestrogenic side effects including headache and nausea.
A total of 190 rabbit females were used to evaluate five feeding programmes from 9 weeks of age to the first parturition: CAL, fed ad libitum with a control diet (C: 11.0 MJ digestible energy (DE) and 114 g digestible protein (DP)/kg dry matter (DM)) until first parturition; CR, fed ad libitum with C diet until 12 weeks of age and then C diet restricted (140 g/day) until first parturition; F, fed ad libitum with a low-energy, high-fibre diet (F: 8.7 MJ DE and 88 g DP/kg DM) until first parturition; FC, fed with F diet ad libitum until 16 weeks of age, and C diet ad libitum until first parturition; FCF, fed with F diet ad libitum until 16 weeks of age, then C diet ad libitum until 20 weeks and then F diet ad libitum until first parturition. The rabbits were artificially inseminated at 18 weeks of age. CAL group had a higher mortality rate compared with the other groups between 9 and 12 weeks of age (34% v. 3%; P < 0.05) and during the last 3 weeks of first pregnancy (14% v. 3%; P < 0.05). The CAL and FC females presented higher BW and perirenal fat thickness (PFT) than CR females at 11 days of pregnancy (+0.41 kg and +0.6 mm; P < 0.05), with F females showing medium values. The type of feeding procedure did not affect the fertility rate of young females at first artificial insemination. Differences in BW disappeared at parturition, when only CAL females presented a greater PFT than CR and FC females (+0.3 mm; P < 0.05). In comparison with FCF, CAL females had smaller and thinner live born litters (−2.5 kits and −139 g, respectively; P < 0.05), with CR, F and FC females showing medium values. The low number of kits born alive for CAL females was because of their lesser total number of kits born (−1.7 kits; P < 0.05) and the greater mortality of their litters at birth (+13.9%; P < 0.05) compared with FCF females. Non-esterified fatty acid was higher in the blood of females fed C diet (CAL and CR) than in others at partum day (on average +0.15 mmol/l; P < 0.05). In conclusion, the ad libitum use of diets for lactating rabbit does throughout the rearing period could lead young rabbit females to present a higher risk of early death and smaller litter size at first parturition. Feed restriction or earlier use of suitably fibrous diets led females to achieve the critical BW and fat mass at first mating to ensure reproduction.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.