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The identification of people at high risk for future mental disorders is accompanied by the imperative to provide stage-adequate treatments that successfully prevent progression to more severe illness stages. Current evidence-based treatments include psychological and psychosocial treatments on one hand as well as pharmacotherapy. The latter is limited by inadequate efficacy and prominent side effects in many cases, making the discovery of novel biological treatment strategies necessary. Such novel treatments need to be safe, effective, characterised by a benign side effect profile and accessible to young people. In this chapter, emerging biological treatment approaches are reviewed and discussed in regard to their potential impact on early intervention and clinical staging. Substances reviewed here include long-chain omega-3 fatty acids (fish oil), n-acetylcysteine (NAC), cannabidiol and repeated transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) with a particular focus on recent advancements in their application in youth with incipient mental disorders. Finally, research priorities in the field of treatment trials are discussed in this chapter.
Traditionally a focus on functional recovery in mental illness was seen as something that happened, if at all, after symptoms had been dealt with. In the context of staging, this would be in the later stages of more established illness. Recent research has shown that a focus on functional recovery goals is a necessary part of early stage interventions (stages 1 and 2) both as a means to the prevention of disability and for long term functional recovery. In practice, this means that young people with mental illness need attention not only to their mental health symptoms, but also to the areas of functioning that restrict their capacity to live a fulfilled life in the community from their earliest contacts with mental health services. This is because despite improvements in medications and psychological therapies, people with mental illness still have poor outcomes in functional domains such as vocation, physical health, housing, and incarceration. This chapter reviews two of these areas: vocational functioning and physical health. It examines the extent of these issues, provides guidance on evidence-based interventions, and highlights evidence gaps, and considers new modes of intervention based on better utilisation of existing and emerging technologies. For clinicians working with young people with mental ill health, it is imperative to address functional recovery as part of the core treatment of early stage illness. To this end the chapter also details the clinical and research lessons in each of these areas.
There is a need for ecological approaches to guide global mental health programmes that can appropriately address the personal, family, social and cultural needs of displaced populations. A transactional ecological model of adaptation to displacement was developed and applied to the case of Syrian refugees living in Jordan.
Syrian and Jordanian psychosocial workers (n = 29) supporting the Syrian refugee community in Jordan were interviewed in three waves (2013–2016). A grounded-theory approach was used to develop a model of key local concepts of distress. Emergent themes were compared with the ecological model, including the five ADAPT pillars identified by Silove (2013).
The application of the ecological concept of niche construction demonstrated how the adaptive functions of a culturally significant concept of dignity (karama) are moderated by gender and displacement. This transactional concept brought to light the adaptive capacities of many Syrian women while highlighting the ways that stigma may restrict culturally sanctioned opportunities for others, in particular men. By examining responses to potentially traumatic events at the levels of individual, family/peers, society and culture, adaptive responses to environmental change can be included in the formulation of distress. The five ADAPT pillars showed congruence with the psychosocial needs reported in the community.
The transactional concepts in this model can help clinicians working with displaced people to consider and formulate a broader range of causal factors than is commonly included in individualistic therapy approaches. Researchers may use this model to develop testable hypotheses.
Cancer of the vulva is rare, it is a disease commonly diagnosed in elderly women, however, the incidence in younger women is rising. Many patients diagnosed and treated for vulval cancer face physical, social, sexual and psychological challenges. It is essential that therapy radiographers and members of the wider multidisciplinary team understand such challenges in order to provide patient centred care.
This review aims to highlight the key psycho-social issues experienced by patients with cancer of the vulva, identifying implications for practice in order to improve the holistic care for this patient group.
A search of English literature was performed using Medline, Pubmed, CINAHL and PsycINFO. Search terms included, vulva or vulval cancer, psychosocial, psychosexual impact and quality of life. Articles were excluded if they focussed on cancers other than gynaecological and vulval cancers.
Results and Conclusions
Although there are numerous reports on the psychological and psychosocial problems faced by gynaecological cancer patients; there was a paucity of literature pertaining to patients with cancer of the vulva, this is consistent with previous research. Studies show a significant negative, psychosocial impact experienced by these women. Common themes being isolation, loneliness, stigmatisation and lack of information for patients and their carers, themes spanning over three decades. Nevertheless, it is important to be aware of the findings from recent studies consistent with patient’s needs, highlighting that listening to women’s narratives on living with cancer of the vulva is essential if we are to help with the psychosocial issues experienced by these women. They underline a necessity to raise awareness among healthcare professionals and the general public, to improve holistic support for this particular group of women. This is particularly important in the radiotherapy setting as many of these women undergo lengthy courses of treatment and the appropriately trained therapeutic radiographer can play a vital role in addressing the physical and psychosocial problems.
Refugees are at risk of experiencing a combined constellation of complicated bereavement and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms following exposure to complex traumas associated with personal threat and loss. Features of identity confusion are central to both complicated bereavement and PTSD and these characteristics may be particularly prominent amongst refugees from traditional cultures displaced from their homelands, families, and kinship groups. We investigate whether a combined pattern of complicated bereavement and PTSD can be identified amongst West Papuan refugees participating in an epidemiological survey (n = 486, response rate: 85.8%) in a remote town in Papua New Guinea.
Latent class analysis was applied to derive subpopulations of refugees based on symptoms of complicated bereavement and PTSD. Associations were examined between classes and traumatic loss events, post-migration living difficulties (PMLDs), and psychosocial support systems.
The four classes identified comprised a complicated bereavement class (11%), a combined posttraumatic bereavement class (10%), a PTSD class (11%), and a low symptom class (67%). Symptoms of identity confusion were prominent in the posttraumatic bereavement class. Compared with the low symptom class, the combined posttraumatic bereavement class reported greater exposure to traumatic loss events (OR 2.43, 95% CI 1.11–5.34), PMLDs (OR 2.24, 95% CI 1.01–4.6), disruptions to interpersonal bonds and networks (OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.47–7.38), and erosion of roles and identities (OR 2.18, 95% CI 1.11–4.27).
Refugees appear to manifest a combined pattern of complicated bereavement and PTSD symptoms in which identity confusion is a prominent feature. This response appears to reflect the combined impact of high levels of exposure to traumatic losses, PMLDs, and disruption of relevant psychosocial systems.
The frequency of bioevents is increasing worldwide. In the United States, as elsewhere, control of contagion may require the cooperation of community members with emergency public health measures. The US general public is largely unfamiliar with these measures, and our understanding of factors that influence behaviors in this context is limited. The few previous reviews of research on this topic focused on non-US samples. For this review, we examined published research on the psychosocial influences of adherence in US sample populations. Of 153 articles identified, only 9 met the inclusion criteria. Adherence behaviors were categorized into 2 groups: self-protective behaviors (personal hygiene, social distancing, face mask use, seeking out health care advice, and vaccination) and protecting others (isolation, temperature screening, and quarantine). A lack of uniformity across studies regarding definitions and measures was noted. Only 5 of the 9 articles reported tests of association between adherence with emergency measures and psychosocial factors; perceived risk and perceived seriousness were found to be significantly associated with adherence or adherence intentions. Although it is well documented that psychosocial factors are important predictors of protective health behaviors in general, this has not been rigorously studied in the context of bioevents. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:528–535)
The present study aimed to examine the correlates of fruit and vegetable intake (FVI) separately among parents and their adolescents.
Parents and adolescents completed the Family Life, Activity, Sun, Health, and Eating (FLASHE) survey through the National Cancer Institute. The survey assessed daily intake frequencies of food/beverage groups, psychosocial, parenting and sociodemographic factors. Generalized linear models were run for both parents and adolescents, for a total of six models (three each): (i) sociodemographic characteristics; (ii) psychosocial factors; (iii) parent/caregiver factors.
Parent participants (n 1542) were predominantly 35–59 years old (86 %), female (73 %), non-Hispanic White (71 %) or non-Hispanic Black (17 %), with household income <$US 100 000 (79 %). Adolescents (n 805) were aged 12–14 years (50 %), non-Hispanic White (66 %) and non-Hispanic Black (15 %). Parents consumed 2·9 cups fruits and vegetables (F&V) daily, while adolescents consumed 2·2 cups daily. Educational attainment (higher education had greater FVI) and sex (men consumed more than women; all P<0·001) were significant FVI predictors. Parents with greater autonomous and controlled motivation, self-efficacy and preferences for fruit reported higher FVI (all P<0·001). Similarly, adolescents with greater autonomous and controlled motivation, self-efficacy and knowledge reported higher FVI (all P<0·001). Parenting factors of importance were co-deciding how many F&V teens should have, rules, having F&V in the home and cooking meals from scratch (all P<0·05).
Findings suggest factors that impact FVI among parents and their adolescent(s), which highlight the importance of the role of parent behaviour and can inform tailored approaches for increasing FVI in various settings.
To evaluate the psychometric properties of HEARTSMAP, an emergency psychosocial assessment and management tool, and its impact on patient care and flow measures.
We conducted the study in two phases: first validating the tool using extracted information from a retrospective cohort, then evaluating implementation on a prospective cohort of youth presenting with mental health complaints to a tertiary Pediatric Emergency Department (PED). In phase 1, six PED clinicians applied HEARTSMAP to extracted narratives and we calculated inter-rater agreement for referral recommendations using Cohen’s Kappa and the sensitivity and specificity for identifying youth requiring psychiatric consultation and hospitalization. In phase 2, PED clinicians prospectively used HEARTSMAP and we assessed the impact of the tool’s implementation on patient-related outcomes and Emergency department (ED) flow measures.
We found substantial agreement (κ=0.7) for cases requiring emergent psychiatric consultation and moderate agreement for cases requiring community urgent and non-urgent follow-up (κ=0.4 each). The sensitivity was 76% (95%CI: 63%, 90%) and specificity was 65% (95%CI: 55%, 71%) using retrospective cases. During pilot implementation, 62 patients received HEARTSMAP assessments: 46 (74%) of HEARTSMAP assessments triggered a recommendation for ED psychiatry assessment, 39 (63%) were evaluated by psychiatry and 13 (21%) were admitted. At follow-up, all patients with HEARTSMAP’s triggered recommendations had accessed community resources. For those hospitalized for further psychiatric care at their index or return visit within 30 days, 100% were initially identified by HEARTSMAP at the index visit as requiring ED psychiatric consultation.
HEARTSMAP has strong reliability, and when applied prospectively is a safe and effective management tool.
Modern work life is characterized by constant change, reorganizations, and requirements of efficiency, which make the distribution of resources and obligations, as well as justice in decisionmaking, highly important. In the work life context, it is a question not only of distributing resources and obligations, but also of the procedures and rules that guide the decisionmaking in the organization. Studies of these rules and procedures have provided the basis for a new line of research that evaluates leadership and social relationships in working communities; that is, distributive, procedural, and relational justice. This review follows the development of research on organizational justice from its origins in early social and motivational psychological theories to its establishment as a major line of research in modern work and organizational psychology. The adverse consequences of injustice include poor team climate, reduced productivity and well-being, and work-related illnesses.
Recent political changes in Myanmar provide opportunities to expand mental health (MH) services. Given Myanmar's unique situation, we felt a need to assemble and interpret available local information on MH in Myanmar to inform service design, rather than simply drawing lessons from other countries. We reviewed academic and gray literature on the experience of MH problems in Myanmar and the suitability, availability, and effectiveness of MH and psychosocial programming.
We searched: (1) Google Scholar; (2) PubMed; (3) PsychInfo; (4) English-language Myanmar journals and databases; (5) the Mental Health and Psychosocial Support (MHPSS) Network resources website; (6) websites and (7) local contacts of organizations identified during 2010 and 2013 mapping exercise of MHPSS providers; (8) the Myanmar Information Management Unit (MIMU) website; (9) University libraries in Yangon and Mandalay; and (10) identified local MH professionals.
Qualitative data suggest that MH conditions resulting from stress are similar to those experienced elsewhere. Fourteen intervention evaluations were identified: three on community-level interventions, three on adult religion-based practice (meditation), four adult psychotherapeutic interventions, and four child-focused interventions. Support for the acceptability and effectiveness of interventions is mostly anecdotal. With the exception of two rigorous, randomized control trials, most evaluations had serious methodologic limitations.
Few evaluations of psychotherapeutic or psychosocial programs for people from Myanmar have been published in the black or gray literature. Incorporating rigorous evaluations into existing and future programs is imperative for expanding the evidence base for psychotherapeutic and psychosocial programs in this context.
The experience of paediatric asthma is associated with increased stress and emotional difficulties for both the child and family. The current study aimed to qualitatively explore parents’ views of their child's asthma experience, from initial diagnosis onwards, to enhance our understanding of how families emotionally adjust and adapt to the diagnosis and management of asthma. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 17 parents of children (<18 years) with physician-diagnosed asthma. Questionnaires were used to capture demographic information and anxiety symptom status of parents (State Trait Anxiety Inventory — Form Y [STAI-Y1/Y2]) and children (Spence Children's Anxiety Scale — Parent reported [SCAS-P]). Grounded theory was used to analyse the results. Analysis saw three themes emerge as important in understanding the impact of asthma on the family: (1) the experience of obtaining an asthma diagnosis, (2) parents’ belief in their competence to manage asthma, and (3) parents’ behaviour in response to the asthma. A model was developed that posits adaptive parental adjustment to asthma is determined in part by the circumstances around the time of diagnosis, the level of knowledge and skills, and the controllability of the asthma. This model can guide medical and allied health professionals to specific areas where intervention may reduce stress and emotional difficulties associated with asthma and its management for affected families.
Because of the enormous advances in the medical treatment of CHD, the long-term survival of patients suffering from this disease has increased significantly. Currently, about 90% of patients reach adulthood, which entails many new challenges both for patients and their families and for healthcare professionals. The main objective of family-centred psychosocial care is to strengthen the emotional resilience of chronically ill patients and their families by adopting a holistic approach. During the biannual meeting of the psychosocial working group in 2012, participants expressed the need for general European guidelines. The present recommendations were written to support medical staff and psychosocial healthcare professionals to provide the best care for children and adolescents with CHD as well as for their families. This article describes in detail how the integrated family-centred psychological care modules work, involving different healthcare specialists, including a paediatric/congenital cardiologist or a general paediatrician. The different clinical implications and specific needs have been taken into account and recommendations have been provided on the following: structured follow-up screening; identification of stressful periods related to cardiac surgery or invasive medical procedures; evidence-based, disease-specific, and family-oriented psychosocial interventions; and interactive media links to medical and psychosocial information.
Background: Speech pathologists work to optimise communication and reduce the emotional and social impact of communication disability in patients with aphasia but need evidence-based interventions to effectively do so.
Objective: This phase 1 study aims to evaluate an Australian speech-pathology-led intervention called the Aphasia Action, Success, and Knowledge (Aphasia ASK) programme for patients with aphasia early post stroke.
Methods: A convergent parallel mixed-methods design was utilised. The intervention included up to six individual face-to-face sessions with seven participants with aphasia and their nominated family member(s). Quantitative outcomes assessing mood, quality of life, and communication confidence were conducted for the participants with aphasia. Follow-up interviews were conducted with both participants with aphasia and family members to determine their perceptions of the programme.
Results: Significant improvements were found in communication confidence and mood after treatment and the gains were maintained at 3-month follow-up. Participants with aphasia and their family members reported a good level of satisfaction with the programme.
Conclusions: Findings suggest the Aphasia ASK programme is a suitable intervention with positive initial outcomes for people with aphasia. A larger scale evaluation with a greater variety of participants is now required. An Australian cluster randomised control trial is planned.
In a previous paper, we presented results from a 12-week study of a Psychomotor DANCe Therapy INtervention (DANCIN) based on Danzón Latin Ballroom that involves motor, emotional-affective, and cognitive domains, using a multiple-baseline single-case design in three care homes. This paper reports the results of a complementary process evaluation to elicit the attitudes and beliefs of home care staff, participating residents, and family members with the aim of refining the content of DANCIN in dementia care.
An external researcher collected bespoke questionnaires from ten participating residents, 32 care home staff, and three participants’ family members who provided impromptu feedback in one of the care homes. The Behavior Change Technique Taxonomy v1 (BCTTv1) provided a methodological tool for identifying active components of the DANCIN approach warranting further exploration, development, and implementation.
Ten residents found DANCIN beneficial in terms of mood and socialization in the care home. Overall, 78% of the staff thought DANCIN led to improvements in residents’ mood; 75% agreed that there were improvements in behavior; 56% reported increased job satisfaction; 78% of staff were enthusiastic about receiving further training. Based on participants’ responses, four BCTTv1 labels–Social support (emotional), Focus on past success and verbal persuasion to boost self-efficacy, Restructuring the social environment and Habit formation–were identified to describe the intervention. Residents and staff recommended including additional musical genres and extending the session length. Discussions of implementing a supervision system to sustain DANCIN regularly regardless of management or staff turnover were suggested.
Care home residents with mild to moderate dementia wanted to continue DANCIN as part of their routine care and staff and family members were largely supportive of this approach. This study argues in favor of further dissemination of DANCIN in care homes. We provide recommendations for the future development of DANCIN based on the views of key stakeholder groups.
A Psychomotor DANCe Therapy INtervention (DANCIN) using Latin Ballroom (Danzón) in care homes has previously been shown to enhance well-being for both residents with dementia and staff. The aim of this study was to understand the effect of this approach on the mood and behavior of individual people living with mild to moderate dementia.
A multiple-baseline single-case study across two care homes and one nursing home with 3–6 weeks baseline, 12-weeks DANCIN (30 minutes/twice-weekly sessions), and 12-weeks follow-up was conducted. Seventeen items from the Dementia Mood Assessment Scale (DMAS) outcome measure were adapted with input from senior staff to match participants’ behavior and mood symptoms. Daily monitoring diaries were collected from trained staff on reporting individualized items for ten residents. Data were analyzed, using a non-parametric statistical method known as Percentage of All Non-Overlapping Data (PAND) which provides Phi effect size (ES). Medication use, falls, and life events were registered.
Seven residents participated throughout DANCIN whilst three became observers owing to health deterioration. One participant showed adverse effects in three DMAS items. Nine participants, dancers and observers, showed a small to medium magnitude of change (PAND) in 21 DMAS items, indicating a decrease in the frequency of behavior and mood indices which were regarded as problematic; eight items showed no change.
Despite methodological challenges, the DANCIN model has the potential to facilitate and sustain behavior change and improve mood (e.g. decrease irritability, increase self-esteem) of the residents living with dementia. The study was conducted in two care homes and one nursing home, strengthening the interventions’ validity. Findings suggest DANCIN is appropriate for a larger controlled feasibility study.
The aim of this study was to investigate the psychosocial needs of both parents of children with CHD (aged 0–18 years) and patients themselves (aged 8–18 years) in the week before cardiac surgery or a catheter intervention.
Eligible participants included all consecutive patients (0–18 years) scheduled to undergo cardiac surgery or a catheter intervention in our hospital between March, 2012 and July, 2013. Psychosocial needs were assessed using a disease-specific questionnaire designed for this study, consisting of a 83-item parent version and a 59-item child version (for children ⩾8 years), each covering five domains: physical/medical, emotional, social, educational/occupational, and health behaviour; two items assessed from whom and in what format psychosocial care was preferred. Quality of life was also assessed.
If parents/patients reported a need for psychosocial care, referral to adequate mental health-care professionals was arranged.
More than 40% of participating parents and >50% of participating children reported a need for psychosocial care on each of the five domains. Needs for psychosocial care for parents themselves were highest for those with children aged 0–12 years. Parents and patients report clear preferences when asked from whom and in what format they would like to receive psychosocial care. Quality of life was relatively high for both parents and patients. Psychosocial care interventions in our hospital increased significantly after the implementation of this study.
Results show that psychosocial care is rated as (very) important by both parents and children during an extremely stressful period of their life.
There is limited information on long-term outcomes of adolescent depression. This study examines the associations between severity of depression in adolescence and a broad array of adult functional outcomes.
Data were gathered as part of the Christchurch Health and Development Study, a 35-year longitudinal study of a birth cohort of 1265 children born in Christchurch, New Zealand in 1977. Severity of depression at age 14–16 years was classified into three levels according to DSM symptom criteria for major depression (no depression/sub-threshold symptoms/major depression). This classification was related to adult functional outcomes assessed at ages 30 and 35 years using a generalized estimating equation modeling approach. Outcome measures spanned domains of mental disorder, education/economic circumstances, family circumstances and partner relationships.
There were modest but statistically significant bivariate associations between adolescent depression severity and most outcomes. After covariate adjustment there remained weak but significant (p < 0.05) associations with rates of major depression, anxiety disorder, illicit substance abuse/dependence, any mental health problem and intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization. Estimates of attributable risk for these outcomes ranged from 3.8% to 7.8%. For two outcomes there were significant (p < 0.006) gender interactions such that depression severity was significantly related to increased rates of unplanned pregnancy and IPV victimization for females but not for males.
The findings reinforce the importance of the individual/family context in which adolescent depression occurs. When contextual factors and probable maturational effects are taken into account the direct effects of adolescent depression on functioning in mature adulthood appear to be very modest.
Psychosocial interventions are part of the complex understanding and treatment of violent behavior in our state mental health hospitals. A comprehensive assessment of violence and aggression includes attention to all 3 domains of prevention and assessment (primary-institutional, secondary-structural, and tertiary-direct). Trauma experiences and their consequences may include behavioral violence and aggression. The authors’ premise is that trauma is a universal component in the individual assessment of violent behavior. Therapeutic interventions must include a trauma-informed formulation to be effective. Organizational commitment to trauma-informed, person-centered, recovery-oriented (TPR) care is crucial to the efficacy of any of the interventions discussed. Thus, the dynamic nature of the individual, interpersonal, environmental, and cultural factors associated with the daily operations of the inpatient unit need to be assessed through the lens of primary and secondary violence prevention, building on the recognition that the majority of persons served and staff have significant trauma histories. Once a compassionate, respectful, empathic, and empowering approach is embraced by leadership and staff, the work with individuals can proceed more effectively. Interventions used include a variety of cognitive-behavioral, interpersonal, and somatosensory therapies. These interventions, when effectively applied, result in more self-esteem, self-mastery, self-control for the person served, and diminished behavioral violence.