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This study assessed the diagnosis, treatment and referral service provided by untrained providers for sick infants.
In rural India, lack of trained providers causes inopportune treatment of sick infants and results in increase in child morbidity and mortality. The untrained providers deliver a significant proportion of health care for rural infants; however, there is a paucity of information on their treatment practice.
A cross-sectional study was conducted in three rural blocks of Odisha. A total of 337 prescriptions recommended for sick infants were collected from the 15 untrained providers using pre-designed prescription form – designed as per the Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illness (IMNCI) guideline. The forms were collected through the periodic visit and regular follow-up to the providers.
A total of 68% of infants were diagnosed with the possible serious bacterial infection, 56% fever, 10% feeding problems, 9% dysentery and 9% local bacterial infection. A total of 61% of sick infants prescribed antibiotics – cephalosporin was commonly prescribed (56%). Among severe persistent diarrhea-diagnosed infants, 76% prescribed oral rehydration salt (ORS), 48% zinc and 62% of them received various antibiotics. The untrained providers referred 23% of sick infants to trained providers/facilities. In rural settings, most of the sick infants sought care from untrained providers; however, none of them followed any standard treatment protocol. This study suggests there is a need for training on common disease algorithm and treatment using a standard guideline for untrained providers to reduce inopportuneness in the treatment of sick infants, promoting early diagnosis and referral services to public health systems.
In this article, James Harper of LexisNexis UK outlines the company's bi-centenary, and its contribution to the ‘rule of law’. The article will describe the fascinating development of UK law during this period, focusing on key milestones in arguably the largest and most exponential increase in the quantity of English language law the world has seen. It will also outline the range of legal industry innovations which LexisNexis and its companies have spearheaded over the years.
The purpose of this study was to validate the Vocational Rehabilitation-Service-Related Stress Scale (VRSS) with a sample of 429 vocational rehabilitation (VR) service personnel in Japan. Exploratory factor analysis was employed to determine the structure of the VRSS, and confirmatory factor analysis showed that the four-factor model had a good model fit. The internal consistency reliability of the VRSS, as measured by Cronbach's alpha, was .90. Results indicated that the VRSS is a valid and reliable measure that can be used to examine occupational stress in VR personnel. Work-related stress and quality assurance issues that pertain to the delivery of VR services are discussed.
In this article, Barry Vickery explains the history of InfoTrack during his tenure as General Manager of Corporate Services, and outlines the reasons for their success. Barry will discuss the world of technology and how, by understanding the blend of law firms’ needs, customer insight and technology, InfoTrack are disrupting the legal market.
This research was commissioned by the (then) Department of Environment and Conservation (DEC) to provide recommendations on how to best support Western Australian (WA) secondary schools to engage in education for sustainability (EfS). The research aims were to identify barriers and benefits to being involved in EfS, the support systems required for schools to participate in EfS at secondary school level, and the difficulties that secondary schools experience when implementing EfS programs. A variety of research methods were utilised: semi-structured interviews with non-teaching stakeholders; online questionnaires for teachers, school administrators and students; focus groups and semi-structured interviews with teachers and school administrators; and an expert panel workshop to discuss data and recommendations prior to completion of a final report. Data were collected from 29 schools, 45 teachers and school administrators, 186 students, and various EfS external providers and stakeholders across metropolitan and regional WA. This article focuses on three issues identified in the data that we consider important and under-represented in discourses of EfS in Australia: lack of understanding about what EfS means among educators; lack of meaningful student involvement in EfS in secondary schools; and differing quality in EfS programs offered by external providers. We conclude this article by offering ways to improve EfS in WA secondary schools.
International research has generated strong evidence that healthcare providers (HCPs) play a key role in the return to work (RTW) process. However, pressure on consultation time, administrative challenges and limited knowledge about a patient's workplace can thwart meaningful engagement. Aim: Our study sought to understand how HCPs interact with workers compensation boards (WCBs), manage the treatment of workers compensation patients and navigate the RTW process. Method: The study involved in-depth interviews with 97 HCPs in British Columbia, Manitoba, Ontario and Newfoundland and Labrador and interviews with 34 case managers (CMs). An inductive, constant comparative analysis was employed to develop key themes. Findings: Most HCPs did not encounter significant problems with the workers compensation system or the RTW process when they treated patients who had visible, acute, physical injuries, but faced challenges when they encountered patients with multiple injuries, gradual-onset or complex illnesses, chronic pain and mental health conditions. In these circumstances, many experienced the workers compensation system as opaque and confusing. A number of systemic, process and administrative hurdles, disagreements about medical decisions and lack of role clarity impeded the meaningful engagement of HCPs in RTW. In turn, this has resulted in challenges for injured workers (IWs), as well as inefficiencies in the workers compensation system. Conclusion: This study raises questions about the appropriate role of HCPs in the RTW process. We offer suggestions about practices and policies that can clarify the role of HCPs and make workers compensation systems easier to navigate for all stakeholders.
In this article, Masoud Gerami, Managing Director, and Aidan Hawes, Head of Commercial Development, offer an exploration of the history of Justis, and the influence the company has had on the delivery of legal information over its 30-year history. They describe the development of technology over this time, from the rise of optical media through to the features offered by today's online legal research technology, focusing on Justis’ key milestones over this period. They discuss the range of innovations Justis has been responsible for, the changes in the legal research industry, and offer an insight into the future aspirations of the company.
Ultimately, a country’s capacity for a large-scale major emergency response will be directly related to the competence of its health care provider (HCP) workforce and communication between emergency responders and hospitals. The purpose of this study was to assess HCP preparedness and service readiness for a major emergency involving mass casualties (mass casualty event or MCE) in Ireland.
A cross-sectional study using a 53-item survey was administered to a purposive sample of emergency responders and HCPs in the Republic of Ireland. Data collection was achieved using the Qualtrics® Research Suite. Descriptive statistics and appropriate tests of comparison between professional disciplines were conducted using Stata 13.
A total of 385 respondents, registered nurses (43.4%), paramedics (37.9%), medical doctors (10.1%), and administrators/managers (8.6%), participated in the study. In general, a level of knowledge of MCEs and knowledge of clinical response activities and self-assessed clinical competence varied drastically across many aspects of the survey. Knowledge and confidence also varied across professional disciplines (P<0.05) with nurses, in general, reporting the least knowledge and/or confidence.
The results demonstrate that serious deficits exist in HCP knowledge, skills, and self-perceived abilities to participate in a large-scale MCE. Results also suggest a poor knowledge base of existing major emergency response plans. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2019;13:243–255)
This study seeks to determine the capacity of community primary care practices to meet the needs of patients during public health emergencies and to identify the barriers and resources necessary to participate in a coordinated response with public safety agencies.
The self-administered web-based survey was distributed in January 2014 via e-mail to primary care providers in Pennsylvania using the listservs of several professional societies.
A total of 179 primary care providers participated in the survey. In total, 38% had practice continuity of operations plan in place and 26% reported that they had a plan for patient surge in the outpatient setting. Thirty percent reported that they were registered on the state Health Alert Network and 41% said they were able to communicate with patients during disasters. Only 8% of providers reported that they believed that their patients with special health care needs were prepared for a disaster, although over two-thirds of responding practices felt they could assist these patients with disaster preparedness. Providers indicated that more information regarding government agency plans and community resources, patient education materials, and more time to devote to counseling during patient encounters would improve their ability to prepare their patients with special health care needs for disasters. Providers also reported that they would benefit from partnerships to help the practice during emergencies and communications technology to reach large numbers of patients quickly.
Community-based primary care practices can be useful partners during public health emergencies. Efforts to promote continuity of operations planning, improved coordination with government and community partners, as well as preparedness for patients with special health care needs, would augment their capabilities and contribute to community resilience. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2019;13:128–132).
To measure the knowledge, perceptions, and practices of Jordanian primary healthcare practitioners (PHCPs) (physicians, nurses, midwives, and nurse aids) employed in Jordanian Ministry of Health (MoH) primary health clinics with respect to counseling on cancer (cancer screening, the signs and symptoms of cancer, and referral for specialized care).
Integration of oncology services within primary care is a means of enhancing cancer early detection, and requires involvement of skilled. In the Middle East, little is known about PHCPs’ potential to be providers of such services.
A questionnaire measuring PHCP perceptions and practices related to counseling on cancer screening and diagnosis was distributed to PHCPs across MoH clinics covering the main regions of Jordan.
A total of 322 practitioners responded (75.1% response). Across most activities involving cancer detection, no more than 30% reported performing activities. Roughly half of PHCPs expressed discomfort at providing cancer-related counseling and at least 43% of non-physicians expressed limited confidence in cancer-related counseling. Confidence was a consistent predictor of provision of counseling and confidence in turn was associated with having greater knowledge, having positive a valuation of counseling, and being a physician. Results reveal points where educational efforts can strengthen PHCPs’ provision of cancer control-related services.
The UK Conservative government has committed to increasing funding for domestic violence and abuse (DVA) services in England but this has not been extended to Wales. Wales has however made clear commitments to developing these services, through the Violence against Women, Domestic Abuse and Sexual Violence (Wales) Act 2015. This article draws on focus groups and interviews with fifty-three service users and thirty-one purposively selected service providers to explore their perspectives on Violence Against Women (VAW) service provision in Wales. There are clear shared priorities and some tensions between service user and provider perspectives on appropriate services. Drawing on the long history of intermediate co-production in VAW services, the article argues that co-production at the strategic level is now needed. This would provide an arena for resolving tensions, setting standards and developing funding criteria to enable co-produced VAW policy and build resistance to funding cuts.
While a wide array of service providers and academic scholars apply the use of “care” in their work, the concept of “care” itself remains largely undefined. This has widespread implications for applied work with children and young people (CYP), particularly since institutions such as schools and non-governmental organisations are increasingly being expected to care for or about children. In this paper, we use thematic analysis to report on interviews with representatives from four service providers and organisations responsible for the care of children. In our analysis, we explore both how care is defined by these organisations, and the implications for practice when working with CYP.
Family caregivers of people with motor neurone disease (MND) experience adverse health outcomes as a result of their caregiving experience. This may be alleviated if their support needs are identified and addressed in a systematic and timely manner. The objective of the present study was to assess the feasibility and relevance of the Carer Support Needs Assessment Tool (CSNAT) in home-based care during the period of caregiving from the perspectives of the family caregivers of people with MND and their service providers.
The study was conducted during 2014 in Western Australia. Some 30 family caregivers and 4 care advisors participated in trialing the CSNAT intervention, which involved two visits from care advisors (6–8 weeks apart) to identify and address support needs. The feedback from family caregivers was obtained via telephone interviews and that of care advisors via a self-administered questionnaire.
A total of 24 caregivers completed the study (80% completion rate) and identified the highest support priorities as “knowing what to expect in the future,” “knowing who to contact if concerned,” and “equipment to help care.” The majority found that this assessment process adequately addressed their needs and gave them a sense of validation, reassurance, and empowerment. Care advisors advocated the CSNAT approach as an improvement over standard practice, allowing them to more clearly assess needs, to offer a more structured follow-up, and to focus on the caregiver and family.
Significance of Results:
The CSNAT approach for identifying and addressing family caregivers' support needs was found to be relevant and feasible by MND family caregivers and care advisors. The tool provided a formal structure to facilitate discussions with family caregivers and thus enable needs to be addressed. Such discussions can also inform an evidence base for the ongoing development of services, ensuring that new and improved services are designed to meet the explicit needs of the family caregivers of people with a motor neurone disease.
Introduction: The Ottawa Ankle Rules (OAR) are a clinical decision tool used to minimize unnecessary radiographs in ankle and foot injuries. The OAR has been shown to be a reliable rule to exclude fractures in children over 5 years of age. However, there is limited data to support its use by other health care workers in children. Our objective was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the OAR, to detect clinically significant fractures, when applied by allied health providers (AHPs). Methods: Children aged 5 to 17 years presenting with an acute ankle or foot injury were enrolled. Patients assessed by a physician prior to an AHP, presenting for reassessment or >24 hours after the injury, having open, penetrating or neurovascular injury, or multiple injuries were excluded. Patients with metabolic bone disease, a previous x-ray, or the inability to communicate or ambulate before the injury were also excluded. Baseline data on x-ray use was collected in a convenience sample of 100 patients. AHPs then completed an OAR learning module. Then in phase 2, AHPs applied the OAR to a convenience sample of 186 patients. Both AHPs and physicians performed inter-observer assessments. Results: When AHP’s applied the ankle portion of the OAR, the sensitivity was 88% (95% CI 46.7-99.3) and the specificity was 32.5% (95% CI 24.5-41.6) for clinically significant fractures. When AHP’s applied the foot portion of the OAR, the sensitivity was 87.5% (95% CI 46.7-99.3) and the specificity was 15.6% (95% CI 7.0-30.1) for clinically significant fractures. In total, 2 clinically significant fractures (1 foot fracture and 1 ankle fracture) were missed by AHP’s. Inter-observer agreement was κ=0.24 for the ankle rule and κ=0.32 for the foot rule. The missed ankle fracture had a positive OAR when performed by a physician as an inter-observer assessment. The missed foot fracture was a distal metatarsal fracture that was outside of the “foot zone” as defined by the OAR. Conclusion: The sensitivity of the OAR when applied by AHP’s was very good. Both clinically significant fractures that were missed by AHP’s would likely have been picked up by a physician assessment. More training and practice using the OAR would likely improve AHP’s inter-observer reliability. Our data suggest the OAR may be a useful tool for AHP’s to apply as a screening tool prior to physician assessment.
The purpose of this study was to conduct an exploratory examination of the current state of non-malignant acute and chronic back and neck pain assessment and management among primary care providers in a multi-site, practice-based research network.
Acute and chronic pain are distinct conditions that often require different assessment and management approaches, however, little research has examined assessment and management of acute and chronic pain as separate conditions. The large majority of patients with acute and chronic back and neck pain are managed in primary care settings. Given the differences between acute and chronic pain, it is necessary to identify differences in patient characteristics, practitioner evaluation, treatment and management in primary care settings.
Over a two-week period, 24 practitioners in a multi-site practice-based research network completed 196 data cards about 39 patients experiencing acute back and neck pain and 157 patients suffering from chronic back and neck pain.
There were significant differences between the patients experiencing acute and chronic pain in regards to practitioner evaluation, current medication management and current treatment for depression. In addition, diagnostics differed between patients experiencing acute versus chronic back and neck pain. Further, primary care providers’ review of online drug monitoring program reports during the current visit was associated with current medication management using short term opioids, long-term opioids or tramadol. Most research examining acute and chronic pain focuses on the low back. Additional research needs to be conducted to explore and compare acute and chronic pain across the whole spine.
Homelessness is a complex problem affecting Australian Indigenous women disproportionately compared to the rest of the Australian population. Homelessness service providers in Cairns and Mount Isa, Australia, provided their perceptions as to why Indigenous women were presenting to homeless services. The key reasons cited by service providers were: domestic violence; alcohol and other drugs; and financial hardship. Other reasons included racist real estate agents; avoiding alcohol and family; overcrowding; literacy and numeracy skills; difficulty returning home and; not enough public housing. Potential solutions to help break this cycle of homelessness are explored. This research suggests that an important overall goal in reducing homelessness is to ensure that Indigenous women are safe at home in their own communities.
There are no studies that have identified the ability to recognize and manage delirium among Italian health providers caring for patients at risk. Therefore, the Italian Association of Psychogeriatrics (AIP) conducted a multicenter survey among doctors, nurses, psychologists and physiotherapists to assess their competence regarding the theme of delirium and its management in the everyday clinical practice.
The survey period was 1st June 2013 to 30th November 2013. The invitation to participate was sent via email, with publication on the AIP website. The survey included 14 questions and two case vignettes.
A total of 648/1,500 responses were collected. Most responders were doctors (n = 322/800), followed by nurses (n = 225/500), psychologists (n = 51/100), and physiotherapists (n = 30/100). Generally, doctors and psychologists correctly defined delirium, while nurses and physiotherapists did not. The most frequently used diagnostic tools were the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV. Delirium intensity was rarely assessed. Hypoactive delirium was generally managed with non-pharmacological approaches, while hyperactive delirium with a combination of non-pharmacological and pharmacological approaches. However, possible causes of delirium were under-assessed by half of doctors and by the majority of other professionals. Nurses, psychologists and physiotherapists did not answer the case vignettes, while doctors identified the correct answer in most cases.
This is the first Italian survey among health providers caring for patients at risk of delirium. This is also the first survey including doctors, nurses, psychologists and physiotherapists. The results emphasize the importance of training to improve knowledge of this relevant unmet medical need.
Evaluation of the headache patient begins with the historical exam. Physical findings of concern associated with the headache include: unequal weakness; generalized malaise and inability to ambulate; fevers; neck stiffness; and unequal pupils. Primary causes for the headache include tension headache, migraine, cluster and caffeine withdrawal, and the secondary causes include infection, subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), eye complaints, and tumors. Secondary headache is tending to improve as underlying cause of the headache is treated. This chapter presents a review of the common treatment options for the management of headache in the EMS environment. These include inhaled oxygen, anti-emetics, opioids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS), and analgesics. EMS providers must have a heightened level of concern for the causes of headache requiring emergent treatment. The area of headache evaluation and management in the EMS environment needs further study.
Introduction: Digital smoking cessation aids may benefit pregnant smokers who do not wish to receive face-to-face behavioural support. Healthcare providers (HCPs) who interact with pregnant smokers may have valuable insights into their development and use.
Aims: To explore HCPs’ views of using digital smoking cessation interventions with pregnant women in order to inform the design and delivery of digital smoking cessation interventions.
Methods: Two structured focus groups were conducted with HCPs (n = 16) who provided smoking cessation support for pregnant women in England. Discussions covered participants’ general views about digital smoking cessation interventions, the potential of such interventions for smoking cessation support for pregnant smokers, and recommendations for future intervention development. Transcripts were analysed thematically.
Results: HCPs identified a variety of ways in which digital interventions could benefit pregnant smokers, such as by providing anonymity, offering consistent quality of advice, and being available on demand. The identified limitations of digital smoking cessation interventions included lack of access among those most economically disadvantaged, the need for high levels of self-motivation, and lack of human contact. Addressing pregnant smokers’ negative perceptions of smoking cessation support, providing rewarding experiences, and tailoring the intervention to smokers’ level of confidence were among HCPs’ recommendations.
Conclusions: HCPs indicated that digital interventions offer a range of potential benefits that could make them useful for pregnant smokers. Nonetheless, important limitations and recommendations regarding their design and delivery were identified and these need to be addressed in intervention development.
Overweight and obesity are growing problems for primary care. Although effective weight management programs exist, these programs experience significant attrition, which limits effectiveness.
This study examined provider and staff perceptions of attrition from the Veterans Health Administration MOVE!® Weight Management Program as an initial step toward understanding attrition from primary care-based programs.
MOVE!® clinicians, primary care providers, and other staff members who interacted with patients about participating in MOVE!® (n=754) from Department of Veterans Affairs medical centers throughout the United States. Respondents were predominantly female (80.8%), Caucasian (79.2%), and trained as nurses (L.P.N., R.N., or N.P.; 50%).
Participants completed a web-mediated survey; items assessed agreement with personal and programmatic reasons for dropout, and allowed respondents to indicate the number one reason for dropout in an open-ended format. This survey was adapted from an existing tool designed to capture patient perceptions.
Respondents indicated that veterans experienced practical barriers to attendance (eg, transportation and scheduling difficulties) and desire for additions to the program (eg, a live exercise component). Low motivation was the primary factor identified by respondents as associated with dropout, particularly as noted by MOVE!® clinicians (versus other providers/staff; P<0.01).
These findings suggest that programmatic changes, such as adding additional meeting times or in-session exercise time, may be of benefit to MOVE!®. In addition, increasing the use of techniques such as Motivational Interviewing among providers who refer patients to MOVE!® may improve participant engagement in MOVE!® and other primary care-based weight management programs. Further research is needed to effectively identify those likely to withdraw from weight management programs before achieving their goals, and the reasons for withdrawal.