In this paper, the ecological relationships and the resource partitioning patterns in a two-species system of sympatric aquatic snakes (Grayia smythii and Afronatrix anoscopus) from a riverine forest area in southern Nigeria, West Africa, were tested. The monthly availability of their food resources in the field, and the monthly variation in the feeding relationships between these snakes and their preys, were also studied. Food items of 1245 snakes, i.e. 554 Grayia smythii, and 691 Afronatrix anoscopus, were examined. The mean body length of Grayia smythii was significantly larger than that of Afronatrix anoscopus in any interspecific comparison, i.e. males versus males, females versus females, and females versus males; however, in both species the females attained significantly larger body sizes than the males. 676 prey items were obtained from the stomachs of Afronatrix anoscopus, and 390 from those of Grayia smythii. Both species of snake exhibited an increased activity in the open during the wet months, and this increased activity was positively correlated to the higher abundance of prey during the wet season. In both species the diet consisted of a great variety of different amphibian and fish species. Direct interference competition was not observed. The month-by-month dietary patterns exhibited by the two snake species were similar. Mean prey size was significantly larger in the larger species, and the difference in prey size between the two snake species increased during the dry season, i.e. during the period of reduced prey availability. The monthly availability of the three main food types for these snakes varied, and were significantly more abundant during the wet season (April–September). A positive relationship between prey availability and prey use by snakes strongly suggests that the two snake species are predatory generalists, utilizing prey in relation to their abundance in the field.