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Resilience can be a protective trait to promote mental health when implemented in the early years. This study explored the use of storytelling to foster children’s learning of resilience. A pedagogically appropriate storybook was used to facilitate and embed the skills of resilience in children at primary school. Teachers (n = 2) and community-based sports officers (n = 2) read the storybook to children enrolled in Kindergarten (first formal year of schooling) (n = 20), Year 1 (n = 20) and Year 2 (n = 20). The total number in the participant group was 60, aged 4–8 years old. Following the initial reading, teachers continued to deliver the storybook to children over a 4-week intervention period. All participants were interviewed about their perceptions of the storybook, and their responses were coded into key themes mapped by the Grotberg Resilience Framework. Results indicated that storytelling as a tool provided children with positive resilience-based behavioural intervention opportunities.
Numerous developmental scholars have been influenced by the research, policies, and thinking of the late Edward Zigler, who was instrumental in founding Head Start and Early Head Start. In line with the research and advocacy work of Zigler, we discuss two models that support the development of the whole child. We begin by reviewing how adverse and protective experiences “get under the skin” and affect developmental trajectories and risk and resilience processes. We then present research and examples of how experiences affect the whole child, the heart and the head (social, emotional, cognitive, and physical development), and consider development within context and across domains. We discuss examples of interventions that strengthen nurturing relationships as the mechanism of change. We offer a public health perspective on promoting optimal development through nurturing relationships and access to resources during early childhood. We end with a discussion of the myth that our current society is child-focused and argue for radical, essential change to make promoting optimal development for all children the cornerstone of our society.
Exposure to childhood adversity is a powerful risk factor for psychopathology. Despite extensive efforts, we have not yet identified effective or scalable interventions that prevent the emergence of mental health problems in children who have experienced adversity. In this modified Delphi study, we identified intervention strategies for effectively targeting both the neurodevelopmental mechanisms linking childhood adversity and psychopathology – including heightened emotional reactivity, difficulties with emotion regulation, blunted reward processing, and social information processing biases, as well as a range of psychopathology symptoms. We iteratively synthesized information from experts in the field and relevant meta-analyses through three surveys, first with experts in intervention development, prevention, and childhood adversity (n = 32), and then within our study team (n = 8). The results produced increasing stability and good consensus on intervention strategy recommendations for specific neurodevelopmental mechanisms and symptom presentations and on strength of evidence ratings of intervention strategies targeting youth and parents. More broadly, our findings highlight how intervention decision making can be informed by meta-analyses, enhanced by aggregate group feedback, saturated before consensus, and persistently subjective or even contradictory. Ultimately, the results converged on several promising intervention strategies for prevention programming with adversity-exposed youth, which will be tested in an upcoming clinical trial.
There is growing evidence of an escalation of depression in young people. In light of this, schools are increasingly being confronted with the challenge of how to best manage students with depressive disorders. Such management includes consideration of the academic, behavioural, social and emotional implications of the disorder. This article provides school practitioners and management with a review of what constitutes ‘best practice’ in school management of students with depressive disorders. It adopts the mental health intervention framework of the Institute of Medicine, considering how school-based intervention occurs across the four domains of mental health promotion, prevention, case identification and treatment, as well as maintenance of students with or at-risk of depression. It provides a checklist for practitioners at each stage of the Institute of Medicine intervention spectrum. Moreover, it takes the view that best practice in psychology is always evidence-based practice, although discerning a clear path through the available research is not always obvious.
The problem of occupational stress in healthcare workers is hardly new, but effective interventions in this area are lacking despite being sorely needed – especially in the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. The results of a Cochrane review suggest that cognitive–behavioural therapy and mental and physical relaxation reduce stress more than no intervention but not more than alternative interventions, and that changing work schedules may lead to a reduction of stress. Other organisational interventions showed no effect on stress levels. However, the evidence is of low quality owing to risk of bias and lack of precision. This commentary critically appraises the review and attempts to put its findings into the current real-world context.
We conducted a prospective study about sexually transmitted infections (STIs) knowledge in different populations attending Lyon's University Hospitals in order to estimate awareness on STIs. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP)-users (PrEP group), persons living with HIV (PLWH group) and persons undergoing free STI screening (screening group) filled an anonymous questionnaire evaluating STI knowledge. A composite STI knowledge score was calculated and was correlated with patients’ characteristics. A total of 756 patients were enrolled in three groups: screening (n = 509), PrEP (n = 103) and PLWH (n = 144). STI transmission knowledge was better for HIV than for other STIs. The median STI knowledge score was significantly higher in PrEP-users than in the screening and PLWH groups. PrEP use and a previous STI diagnosis were independently associated with a higher score. PrEP-users have better STI knowledge than PLWH and persons undergoing free STI screening. Sexual health promotion interventions routinely reserved to PrEP-users in France seem to be effective in raising the awareness of this group for STIs. Continuous efforts are justified for PLWH and the younger layers of the population.
To quantify food/beverage advertising on television in Montreal (Quebec), to estimate and characterize children’s exposure, and to examine trends over time.
Television food advertising data were licensed for 19 food categories and 18 stations for May 2011, 2016 and 2019. The frequency of advertisements and the average number viewed per child aged 2-11 years overall, by food category and by station type (i.e. youth-appealing (n=3) and generalist (n=15) stations) was determined. The percent change in advertising and exposure between May 2011 and 2019 was calculated.
Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
This study used media data and did not directly involve human participants.
The total number of television advertisements increased by 11% between May 2011 (n=41,084) and May 2019 (n=45,406) however exposure to food/beverage advertisements decreased by 53%, going from 226 ads/child in May 2011 to 107 ads/child in May 2019. Overall, the most advertised food categories in both May 2011 and 2019 were fast food (29.8% and 39.2%, respectively) followed by chocolate (14.2%) in 2011 and savory snacks (9.7%) in 2019. In May 2019, children were predominantly exposed to unhealthy food categories such as fast food (41.3% of exposure), savory snacks (7.5%), chocolate (5.0%) and regular soft drinks (4.5%), and most (89.3%) of their total exposure occurred on generalist television stations.
Despite Quebec’s restrictions on commercial advertising directed to children under 13 years, Quebecois children are still frequently exposed to unhealthy food advertising on television. Government should tighten restrictions to protect children from this exposure.
To describe the strategies implemented in seventeen Latin American countries for obesity prevention and to provide an overview of their impact.
A thorough search of strategies and their impact was done through an Internet search, governmental webpages, reports and research articles in English, Spanish and Portuguese.
Latin America (not including the Caribbean countries).
The Ministry of Health is the main oversight for obesity prevention, with six countries having a specific structure for this. Regular obesity monitoring occurs in a few countries, and thirteen countries have a national obesity prevention plan. The main regulations being implemented/designed are front-of-package labelling (sixteen countries), school environment (fifteen countries), school nutrition education (nine countries), promotion of physical activity level (nine countries) and sugar-sweetened beverage tax (eight countries). All countries have dietary guidelines. The main community-based programmes being implemented are school meals (seventeen countries), complementary nutrition (eleven countries), nutrition education (fourteen countries), promotion of physical activity (nine countries) and healthy environments (nine countries). Most of these strategies have not been evaluated. The few with positive results have used a coordinated, multi-disciplinary and multi-sector approach, with legislation and executive-level support.
Important obesity prevention strategies are being implemented in the seventeen Latin American countries included in the present review. However, few have been evaluated to assess their impact on preventing obesity. This information can help assess that actions can be generalised to other countries within the region and can help inform how to prevent obesity in different settings.
The present paper aims to provide a comprehensive yet critical overview of current Brazilian legislation on money-laundering prevention and control. Given that stripping criminals of their illegal profits has for a long time been considered one of the most important measures in the fight against international and organized crime, a part of this paper explores the legal mechanisms that allow for this to take place as a consequence of crime and, especially, in connection with money laundering in the context of the Brazilian criminal justice system.
This systematic review aims to identify published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated the use of anticonvulsants for the prevention and/or treatment of delirium among older adults.
A comprehensive search of databases: MEDLINE ALL (Ovid), Embase (Ovid), PsycINFO (Ovid), Web of Science Core Collection and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled was conducted.
The search identified four RCTs that evaluated the use of anticonvulsants among older adults with delirium. One RCT evaluated the perioperative use of gabapentin among individuals undergoing spinal surgery and the development of postoperative delirium. One RCT evaluated the relationship between the use of perioperative gabapentin and the development of postoperative delirium among individuals undergoing spinal surgery and hip and knee arthroplasty. Two post-hoc analyses of RCTs evaluated the use of gabapentin and pregabalin among individuals undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and total hip arthroplasty (THA). The perioperative use of gabapentin reduced the incidence of postoperative delirium among older adults undergoing spinal surgery. The perioperative use of gabapentin did not reduce the rates, severity or duration of postoperative delirium among older adults who were undergoing spine and hip and knee arthroplasty. The perioperative use of gabapentin did not reduce the incidence or duration of postoperative delirium among older adults undergoing elective TKA. The perioperative use of pregabalin did not reduce the incidence of postoperative delirium among older adults undergoing elective THA. Gabapentin and pregabalin were well tolerated among the individuals enrolled in these trials. There were no RCTs identified that evaluated the use of other anticonvulsants for the prevention and/or treatment of delirium among older adults.
Based on current evidence, the routine use of anticonvulsants for the prevention and/or treatment of delirium among older adults cannot be recommended.
The world responded in many different ways to the coronavirus epidemic. Why is that? Three obvious solutions present themselves: different understandings of the nature of the disease and how to tackle it, the nature of the political system in each nation, the history of how pandemics had been dealt with in the past in each country. Upon inspection, none of these explanations seems to work. The scientific understanding of the disease and its means of spreading were broadly similar in all nations. Only at the margins did unorthodox theories hold sway. Most nations claimed to be following expert advice, but what the experts advised differed. Politicians could pick and choose among the counsels they received. Both democracies and autocracies tried each of the three possible approaches to the pandemic, targeted quarantine, broad lockdown, or a hands-off approach. And nations did not obviously follow the tactics they had used in previous epidemics. The heavy hand of past public health interventions, with the state compelling citizens to follow behavioral prescriptions, was harder to implement today.
Democracies and autocracies could be found pursuing many different strategies, and left and right did not line up consistently behind any particular approach. But that does not mean that politics were not important in deciding how to tackle the pandemic. Because the only available tactics interfered in people’s lives, prevention was inherently political. Some were inconvenienced by quarantines, isolation, and lockdowns so that others might be spared. How many and for how long depended on the nature of the precise strategies chosen. All nations had the legal powers to impose as strict measures as they wanted, but only some considered themselves able to make radical demands of their citizens. Most well-off nations of the West decided that they could afford the economic and social costs of shutdown. But some politicians feared that hardships imposed on the poorest would be less tolerable even than the ravages of a pandemic. Sweden was an outlier here. It took a very hands-off approach, making few demands of its citizens, whom it considered able to take the necessary precautions on their own, without being commanded or forced.
Despite Covid-19 posing largely the same problem everywhere, nations reacted quite differently. Three main approaches were taken: some clamped down on the infected, imposing targeted quarantines, others shut down across the board, still others did much less, sometimes little at all. The science of how Covid spread was uniform the world over, so that did not explain such divergence. Nor did the political nature of the countries under attack, since both democracies and autocracies could be found implementing the same strategies. Nor did how nations had approached pandemics in the past. The introduction lays out the general themes of the book.
Triple P is a parenting programme used in the youth healthcare practice of many Dutch municipalities to support parents in raising their children. According to international research, this Australian intervention is effective for parents with children up to the age of 12. It shows positive effects on parenting skills and on the reduction of both parents' child-rearing stress and their children's behavioural and emotional problems. Our study examined the effectiveness of Teen Triple P level 4: a training programme for parents of teenagers aged 10–16. The programme included five group sessions of 1.5–2 h each, as well as three individual (phone) consultations. Through a matching procedure, 103 parents who participated in Teen Triple P were compared in a quasi-experimental study with 397 parents in a control group. Compared with the control group, parents who received the Teen Triple P training reported a significant improvement in their parental practice. Now, they are more involved with their child, more responsive to the needs of the children, and they report fewer parent–child conflicts. Some positive differences in behavioural problems among adolescents, as reported by their parents, could be found among the experimental group. These findings remained the same at the follow-up.
This Element examines an increasingly important community crime prevention strategy - focused deterrence. This strategy seeks to change offender behavior by understanding underlying crime-producing dynamics and conditions that sustain recurring crime problems, and implementing a blended set of law enforcement, community mobilization, and social service actions. The approach builds on recent theorizing on optimizing deterrence, mobilizing informal social control, enhancing police legitimacy, and reducing crime opportunities through situational crime prevention. There are three main types of focused deterrence strategies: group violence intervention programs, drug market intervention programs, and individual offender programs. A growing number of rigorous program evaluations find focused deterrence to be an effective crime prevention strategy. However, a number of steps need to be taken to ensure focused deterrence strategies are implemented properly. These steps include creating a network of capacity through partnering agencies, conducting upfront and ongoing problem analysis, and developing accountability structures and sustainability plans.
The first part of the introduction describes the historical context in which the authors of the book were born (World War II) and educated (from the 1950s to the 1970s), as well as the context in which they made their most important scientific contributions (from the 1980s to 2020). The advantages of being at the forefront of the baby boom are highlighted. The second part of the introduction describes the history of research on the development of aggressive and violent behavior, starting with the philosophical contributions of Aristotle, Seneca, Saint Augustine, Erasmus, Hobbes, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau. The chapter goes on to describe the first scientific studies that were initiated in the early part of the 18th century by Adolphe Quetelet and Charles Darwin, as well as the early prevention efforts of Mary Carpenter. The history of the main longitudinal and experimental studies of the 20th century are then presented with a focus on the work of William Healy, Richard C. Cabot, Sheldon and Eleanore Glueck, Joan McCord, and D. J. West.
In most trials and systematic reviews that evaluate exercise-based interventions in reducing depressive symptoms, it is difficult to separate treatment from prevention.
To evaluate the effectiveness of exercise-based interventions in reducing depressive symptoms in people without clinical depression.
We searched PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, WOS, SPORTDiscus, CENTRAL, OpenGrey and other sources up to 25 May 2020. We selected randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared exclusively exercise-based interventions with control groups, enrolling participants without clinical depression, as measured using validated instruments, and whose outcome was reduction of depressive symptoms and/or incidence of new cases of people with depression. Pooled standardised mean differences (SMDs) were calculated using random-effect models (registration at PROSPERO: CRD42017055726).
A total of 14 RCTs (18 comparisons) evaluated 1737 adults without clinical depression from eight countries and four continents. The pooled SMD was −0.34 (95% CI −0.51 to −0.17; P < 0.001) and sensitivity analyses confirmed the robustness of this result. We found no statistical evidence of publication bias and heterogeneity was moderate (I2 = 54%; 95% CI 22–73%). Only two RCTs had an overall low risk of bias and three had long-term follow-up. Multivariate meta-regression found that a larger sample size, country (Asia) and selective prevention (i.e. people exposed to risk factors for depression) were associated with lower effectiveness, although only sample size remained significant when adjustment for multiple tests was considered. According to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation tool, the quality of evidence was low.
Exercise-based interventions have a small effect on the reduction of depressive symptoms in people without clinical depression. It could be an alternative to or complement psychological programmes, although further higher-quality trials with larger samples and long-term follow-up are needed.
This book describes the lives of 12 people born in Europe and North America during the Second World War. They became leading scholars on the development and prevention of violent human behavior. From the first to the last page, the book introduces contrasting life-stories and shows how their paths crossed to create a relatively unified body of knowledge on how human violence develops and possible prevention methods. The authors describe the similarities and differences in their family background, university training, theories, and collaborations. Not to mention how they differ in research methods, scientific conclusions, and their influence on the research published today. These comparisons celebrates the diversity of their experience and, in turn, their achievements. By knowing this, you can stand on the shoulders of these giants to look to the future of this subject and potentially contribute to its next steps.
Dietary intake modification is important for the treatment of chronic kidney disease (CKD); however, little is known about the association between dietary intake of antioxidant vitamins and kidney function based on gender difference. We examined the relationship of dietary intake of antioxidant vitamins with decreased kidney function according to gender in Japanese subjects. This population-based, cross-sectional study included 936 Japanese participants with the age of 40 years or older. A validated brief self-administered diet history questionnaire was used to measure dietary intakes of vitamin E and its four isoforms, vitamin A and vitamin C. Decreased kidney function was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 ml/min/1·73 m2. A total of 498 (53·2 %) of the study participants were women. Mean age was 62·4 ± 11·3 years. Overall, 157 subjects met the criteria of decreased kidney function. In the fully adjusted model, a high vitamin E intake is inversely associated with decreased kidney function in women (odds ratio, 0·886; 95 % confidence interval, 0·786–0·998), whereas vitamin E intake was not associated with decreased kidney function (odds ratio, 0·931; 95 % confidence interval, 0·811–1·069) in men. No significant association between dietary intake of vitamins A and C and decreased kidney function was observed in women and men. Higher dietary intake of vitamin E was inversely associated with decreased kidney function in middle-aged and older women, and the result may provide insight into the more tailored dietary approaches to prevent CKD.