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The conclusion briefly summarizes the results, including a table that lists each state covered and assesses the relative importance of politics/policy versus professionalism in each. There has been a temporal change in the central motivation for change efforts: a shift around 2000 from primary emphasis professionalism to politics/policy. Two other important patterns are also discussed, First, the preference for a more political/policy-driven approach to judicial selection used to be associated with the political left but is increasingly coming from the right side of the political spectrum; two possible explanations for this change are discussed. The second pattern the greater willingness of citizens to surrender their role in contested judicial elections for appellate courts than for local trial courts. To explore this latter point, a short survey was conducted asking respondents to rate the importance of characteristics to be considered in selecting judges. Legal professionalism characteristics tended to be rated as more important than political characteristics, and this was particularly true for state supreme court justices as compared to local trial judges.
Social discounting conventions vary widely. Some differences reflect institutional constraints, but many reflect differing assumptions about how a social discount rate should be derived and applied. The divide between advocates of social opportunity cost and social time preference (STP) frameworks seems unbridgeable. There is no consensus among STP advocates on whether the social cost of funding $1 of public spending is barely more than $1 of consumption or perhaps more than $2; or on whether the covariance of public service benefits with income merits a discount rate premium that is trivial or a few percentage points. The practicalities of government fund raising are sometimes overlooked. The issues are here reviewed in the light of the literature and of experience with developing and applying social discounting regimes and extended debates within government.
An important component in the analysis of policy instruments is the modelling of human behaviour. In the previous chapters, humans are (usually) considered as rational and perfectly informed profit-maximisers. This assumption is gradually relaxed in the present chapter. The first section addresses the issues of decreasing marginal utility, multiple objectives and time preference. The following section adds the problem of risk and uncertainty and presents a standard economic model for decision making under risk. The assumption of selfish profit maximisation is relaxed subsequently by introducing a model of fairness and inequity aversion. The following sections present approaches for modelling situations of imperfect information and limited cognitive abilities, as well as learning and behavioural change. The concluding section discusses and provides some linkages to Chapter 7 on individual-based models and provides some references from the literature on agent-based modelling.
This study examines the association between psychosocial adjustment and future expectations in early adolescence. This research tries to fill some gaps in the literature on how current adjustment might be an antecedent of early adolescents’ future expectations. Participants were 781 students (mean age = 12.37 years). Data were collected in 11 schools. The results revealed statistically significant correlations between self-esteem, life satisfaction, self-efficacy, emotional and behavioural problems, educational and social adjustment, and future expectations. The structural equation model confirmed a positive relation between psychosocial adjustment and these adolescents’ future expectations. The main contribution of this research is to further our comprehension of the development of adolescents’ future expectations and the way in which psychosocial adjustment has an impact on such development. Future expectations are an important protective factor for healthy development in adolescence, as thinking about the future motivates everyday behaviour and influences choices, decisions and future activities.
Item nonresponse rates across regime assessment questions and nonsensitive items are used to create a self-censorship index, which can be compared across countries, over time and across population subgroups. For many authoritarian systems, citizens do not display higher rates of item nonresponse on regime assessment questions than their counterparts in democracies. This result suggests such questions may not be that sensitive in many places, which in turn raises doubts that authoritarian citizens are widely feigning positive attitudes towards regimes they secretly despise. Higher levels of self-censorship are found under regimes without electoral competition for the executive.
Encounter rates of carnivores with prey are dependent on spatial and temporal overlap, and are often highest with their preferred prey. The Critically Endangered Sumatran tiger Panthera tigris sumatrae is dependent on prey populations, but little is known about its prey preferences. We collected camera-trap data for 7 years (2010–2016) in Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park, Sumatra, to investigate spatial and temporal overlap of tigers with potential prey species. We also developed a novel method to predict predator–prey encounter rates and potential prey preferences from camera-trap data. We documented at least 10 individual tigers, with an overall detection rate of 0.24 detections/100 trap nights. Tigers exhibited a diurnal activity pattern and had highest temporal overlap with wild boar Sus scrofa and pig-tailed macaques Macaca nemestrina, but highest spatial overlap with wild boar and sambar deer Rusa unicolor. We created a spatial and temporal composite score and three additional composite scores with adjustments for the spatial overlap and preferred prey mass. Wild boars ranked highest for all composite scores, followed by sambar deer, and both are known as preferred tiger prey in other areas. Spatial and temporal overlaps are often considered as separate indices, but a composite score may facilitate better predictions of encounter rates and potential prey preferences. Our findings suggest that prey management efforts in this area should focus on wild boar and sambar deer, to ensure a robust prey base for this Critically Endangered tiger population.
Chapter 3 “Consolidation (1979–1989)” explores how RJ further safeguarded its existence and promoted its expansion by demobilizing its opponents and those of the IRP, including shah loyalists and royalists, communists and Marxists, Sunni and ethnic separatists, traditional elites and other counterrevolutionaries, and Iraqi forces and their collaborators. By monitoring these adversaries and embellishing the threat that they posed to the IRI, RJ created a self-fulfilling prophesy by radicalizing and pushing Khomeini and the IRP into further confrontation with them. The Cultural Revolution (1980–83) and the Iran-Iraq War (1980–89) facilitated and accelerated the mobilization and expansion of RJ and allowed it to help the IRI in its efforts to Islamize the provinces and villages, and repel invading Iraqi forces and their allies along the western border. RJ further marginalized its opponents and those of the IRI by physically and ideationally penetrating the provinces and villages through infrastructure, healthcare, education, culture, and religion.
Tribolium castaneum is one of the most economically important insects that damages stored products. The effects of several infested or uninfested raw feed materials (wheat bran, coarse wheat meal, corn feed flour), feed products (compound feed for pigs and for laying hens) and flour mixed with brewer's yeast on the food-searching behaviour of T. castaneum adults were studied in a total of 48 combinations. Preference and olfactometer tests revealed that all the tested uninfested and intraspecific infested substrates were significantly more attractive to T. castaneum than the control (represented by part of an arena or olfactometer arm without substrate). We determined that all infested substrates were 2–9 times more attractive than uninfested in the preference test, while in the olfactometer test, they were 3–8 times more attractive. In comparing the attractiveness of the infested and uninfested substrates, in both tests wheat bran was found to be the most attractive substrate to T. castaneum adults and coarse wheat meal the least. The results of the present study contribute to our knowledge of how raw feed materials and products influence the behaviour of T. castaneum and their susceptibility to infestation, and indicate the possible utilization of wheat bran in monitoring processes of T. castaneum in pest management programmes.
Why do voters in single-party regimes express support for the ruling party in such large numbers? Scholars offer three sets of explanations: 1) Support is manipulated by regime leaders or falsified by frightened voters; 2) Support is due to genuine popularity or “performance legitimacy”; 3) The incumbent party holds an extreme incumbency advantage due to voters’ certainty about their candidates’ policy positions or access to state resources. Despite the impressive theoretical development in this literature, these arguments have not been subjected to a research design capable of examining the relative importance of each of these factors. We use a unique survey experiment on nearly 42,000 Vietnamese citizens over three years that reduces the threat of preference falsification and allows us to isolate voter's true preferences as much as possible. While we find some evidence for all three explanations, we find substantial support for incumbency bias. An important subset of Vietnamese voters—those inclined to vote for non-party candidates—sincerely favor the party under conditions of uncertainty about the candidates’ policy stances or experience in the legislature.
In young rabbit, digestive disorders are frequently observed around weaning. Stimulating the onset of feed intake in the suckling rabbit might be a way to promote gut health. The aim of this study was to determine the rabbit’s acceptability for different feed presentations and its preferences for flavours at an early stage of life. Two trials were conducted to evaluate the effects of physical form and flavouring on creep feed attractiveness. All the diets tested were provided in the nest from 3 to 17 days, and the daily intake per litter was recorded as of 8 days of age. In the first trial, five feed presentations were tested separately (n = 60 litters). Three dry presentations were chosen: commercial pellet (P), crumb from commercial pellet (cP) and crumb from beet pulp pellet (cBP). Hydrated feeds were also provided with either raw fodder beetroot (B) or a semi-solid feed in agar gel form produced with fodder beetroot juice and pulp (gB). In the second trial, double-choice tests were performed on four feed gels (n = 72 litters), leading to six comparison treatments. These agar gels were made of pellet mash without or with a sensory additive: one non-odorised control gel and three gels with 0.20% banana flavour, 0.06% red berry flavour and 0.10% vanilla flavour, respectively. In the first trial, kits ate more gB in fresh matter than other feed presentations (P < 0.001), with a total intake of 7.0 ± 1.8 g/rabbit from 8 to 17 days. In DM, the total consumption of pellets P (1.6 ± 0.4 g of DM/rabbit) was the highest together with the gB form (1.4 ± 0.4 g of DM/rabbit), whereas cBP was barely consumed (0.3 ± 0.1 g of DM/rabbit). Gel feed supplemented with vanilla was slightly more consumed than other flavoured and non-odorised gels (relative consumption of 57% when compared to control gel; P = 0.001). The gel feed intake was independent of the milk intake but was correlated with the litter weight at 3 days (r = 0.40, P < 0.001). In both trials, rabbit growth before and after weaning was not affected by the type of creep feed provided. Our results confirmed that providing creep feed promotes the solid intake of rabbits at early stages. Gel feed form motivated rabbits to eat and vanilla flavour supplementation increased the feed palatability. Those creep feed characteristics should be explored further for seeking effective stimulation of the onset of the feed intake in suckling rabbit.
Translating research findings into practice requires understanding how to meet communication and dissemination needs and preferences of intended audiences including past research participants (PSPs) who want, but seldom receive, information on research findings during or after participating in research studies. Most researchers want to let others, including PSP, know about their findings but lack knowledge about how to effectively communicate findings to a lay audience.
We designed a two-phase, mixed methods pilot study to understand experiences, expectations, concerns, preferences, and capacities of researchers and PSP in two age groups (adolescents/young adults (AYA) or older adults) and to test communication prototypes for sharing, receiving, and using information on research study findings.
PSP and researchers agreed that sharing study findings should happen and that doing so could improve participant recruitment and enrollment, use of research findings to improve health and health-care delivery, and build community support for research. Some differences and similarities in communication preferences and message format were identified between PSP groups, reinforcing the best practice of customizing communication channel and messaging. Researchers wanted specific training and/or time and resources to help them prepare messages in formats to meet PSP needs and preferences but were unaware of resources to help them do so.
Our findings offer insight into how to engage both PSP and researchers in the design and use of strategies to share research findings and highlight the need to develop services and support for researchers as they aim to bridge this translational barrier.
This chapter addresses the compelling questions of whether infants are intelligent and whether infant intelligence predicts future mental development. The chapter first tackles the perennially intransigent challenges of defining infancy and intelligence. The chapter next reviews the history of infancy study from the point of view of what we thought we knew about infant intelligence. The chapter then draws the reader into an intuitive perspective on what might be everyday intelligent behaviors on the part of infants; that perspective is buttressed with scientific investigations. That laboratory work is subsequently elaborated on with reference to new paradigms followed by a focus on two prominent interrelated methods and measures of studying cognition in infants: habituation and novelty preference. Their interpretation as measures of cognition in infancy is supported with evidence from studies of concurrent and predictive validity. The chapter concludes with comments and thoughts about the future promise of a new view on infant intelligence.
The description of the movements and habitat preference of marine fishes is essential to understand their biology and in the evaluation of commercially exploited species and the conservation of endangered ones. In this regard, little is known about the movements of the totoaba (Totoaba macdonaldi), despite its being listed as critically endangered and having been a relevant fishery resource in the past century in Mexico. Totoaba is a fish species endemic to the Gulf of California characterized by late maturation, prolonged life and annual reproduction. Totoaba has maintained its known historical distribution range, although its movements and habitat occupancy in the water column have remained poorly understood. The present study describes, for the first time and at a daily fine scale, the vertical movements and habitat preferences of the totoaba in the Upper Gulf of California. Pop-up satellite archival tags (PSATs) were used to record depth and temperature at 4-minute intervals. Ten individuals were caught and tagged in May 2016 in the Upper Gulf of California and Colorado River Delta Biosphere Reserve. All PSATs were either prematurely released or lost. Data derived from two recovered tags that saved data for 43 and 75 tracking days, respectively, were analysed. The results showed that tagged fishes moved southward to the vicinity of Angel de la Guarda Island; these are consistent with spatial displacement patterns reported in the literature, with a linear displacement of 223 km from deployment to pop-up sites. Fish spent 47% of the time within a depth range of 25–35 m. Depth increased to 70 m for one fish in early summer (late June). The preferred temperature of fishes ranged between 21–23°C. A generalized linear model revealed that vertical movement was influenced by temperature. The vertical displacement of the totoaba shows a diurnal variation that may be associated with the distribution of its prey. Further work is needed to test this hypothesis with a larger number of organisms.
Behavioral paternalists accept the neoclassical standard of rationality for normative purposes, even while questioning its descriptive accuracy. However, these standards do not have a strong normative justification. There are many perfectly reasonable ways the neoclassical norms can be violated without hurting the interests of individuals. Redescribing preferences or actions to fit the well-behaved mold is essentially arbitrary and without, in itself, any normative significance. Even demonstrating that individuals have inconsistent preferences does not tell us which preferences are better or represent “true preferences.” Behavioral paternalists commit a non sequitur when they use inconsistency to justify privileging some preferences over others.
The evidence for preference biases is very often flawed, incomplete, or misinterpreted. For example, inconsistent rates of time discount are largely eliminated when considered relative to the individual’s perception of time. Preference reversals in real time from patient to impatient behavior occur only in a minority of cases. Time inconsistency, when it occurs, need not be associated with actual harms to decision-makers. Evidence for the existence of endowment effects is problematic. Gaps between willingness to pay and willingness to accept have no normative significance. The evidence for impact bias is confused and weak, and to the extent that it occurs, its function has eluded most analysts. In addition to these concerns, we find that the preferences typically treated as normatively superior by behavioral paternalists are often implicated by biases as well.
Exercise modifies energy intake (EI) in adolescents with obesity, but whether this is mediated by the exercise-induced energy deficit remains unknown. The present study examined the effect of exercise with and without dietary replacement of the exercise energy expenditure on appetite, EI and food reward in adolescents with obesity. Fourteen 12–15-year-old adolescents with obesity (eight girls; Tanner 3–4; BMI 34·8 (sd 5·7) kg/m2; BMI z score 2·3 (sd 0·4)) randomly completed three experimental conditions: (i) rest control (CON); (ii) 30-min cycling (EX) and (iii) 30-min cycling with dietary energy replacement (EX + R). Ad libitum EI was assessed at lunch and dinner, and food reward (Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire) before and after lunch. Appetite was assessed at regular intervals. Lunch, evening and total EI (excluding the post-exercise snack in EX − R) were similar across conditions. Lunch and total EI including the post-exercise snack in EX + R were higher in EX − R than CON and EX; EX and CON were similar. Total relative EI was lower in EX (6284 (sd 2042) kJ) compared with CON (7167 (sd 2218) kJ; P < 0·05) and higher in EX + R (7736 (sd 2033) kJ) compared with CON (P < 0·001). Appetite and satiety quotients did not differ across conditions (P ≥ 0·10). Pre-meal explicit liking for fat was lower in EX compared with CON and EX + R (P = 0·05). There was time by condition interaction between EX and CON for explicit wanting and liking for fat (P = 0·01). Despite similar appetite and EI, adolescents with obesity do not adapt their post-exercise food intake to account for immediate dietary replacement of the exercise-induced energy deficit, favouring a short-term positive energy balance.
Chapter 6 analyzes word association responses, categorizes them into meaning-based and syntagmatic and compares to the patterns of corresponding usage corpora. It shows that words eliciting meaning-based responses tend to be independent in usage while words eliciting syntagmatic responses tend to participate in multi-word units, suggesting that word associations can indeed say something about the processes at work in language use. A deeper analysis of syntagmatic associations and their comparison to usage patterns suggest the psycholinguistic reality of the model of a unit of meaning and in particular of abstracted associations: those of colligation and semantic preference. The chapter also discusses the core meaning effect, the influence of directionality and contiguity on the strength of association, the relationship of syntagmatic association to the boundaries of a unit of meaning as well as the evidence of the processes of fixing and approximation observed in Chapter 5.
Chapter 5 compares the phraseology of usage to exposure. It shows that more than half of patterns extracted from a student’s usage corpus also occur in her exposure corpus. At the same time the figure drops significantly if these patterns are compared to a different student’s exposure corpus supporting the assumption of representativeness. The chapter then proceeds to compare usage patterns to exposure qualitatively focusing on the processes of variation and change. It finds support for the process of approximation through which a more or less fixed pattern loosens and becomes variable on the semantic or grammatical axis presumably due to frequency effects and the properties of human memory. The chapter also proposes a reverse process, fixing, through which the pattern extends and develops verbatim associations through repeated usage. Both processes are suggested to occur within meaning-shifts units and thus be characteristic of co-selection.
Chapter 2 provides an in-depth discussion of Sinclair’s conceptualization of lexis and meaning and its major concepts. It starts from the model of a unit of meaning and explains how it is capable of incorporating both syntagmatic and paradigmatic axes of meaning by including optional variable components of collocation, colligation and semantic preference. The chapter continues by offering a theoretical solution of removing the borderline between single- and multi-word units. Further it points out the difference between Firth’s and Sinclair’s conceptions of collocation and defines the relationships between the idiom principle, co-selection, syntagmatic association, core meaning, delexicalization and meaning-shift. A large part of the chapter is devoted to examining the controversy around the concept of semantic prosody. The chapter concludes by discussing Sinclair’s theory of meaning and his idea of the ultimate dictionary. The conceptualization presented in the chapter forms the theoretical backbone of the book.
Little attention has been paid to the effects of personality traits on the consumption of wine and beer. We used a survey to investigate the associations between personality traits and the differences in expected consumption frequencies of wine and beer for 3,482 Norwegian respondents. High scores on extraversion and openness to experiences increased the expected frequency of wine consumption, high score on agreeableness reduced the frequency of wine consumption, while scores on conscientiousness and neuroticism had no effects. For beer, there were no significant effects between personality traits and the frequency of consumption. (JEL Classification: D12, Q13).