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Food literacy (FL) is a crucial need encompassing basic literacy and fundamental movement skills. The present study aimed to investigate the FL level in pre-schoolers and to evaluate the effect of potential predictors and the associations with gross motor and emergent literacy skills.
Cross-sectional study conducted within the Training-to-Health Project.
Kindergartens (n 21) in the Palermo City Council, Italy.
Pre-school children aged 3–6 years (n 921) followed education sessions on nutritional topics, practical activities and compiled prearranged sheets. FL was assessed by the five-domain toolkit ‘preschool-FLAT’; gross motor and emergent literacy skills were assessed by the Italian version of the gross motor development test and the PRCR-2/2009, respectively. Correlation and regression analyses were performed to assess relationships between FL scores and gender, age, weight, height, BMI, gross motor and emergent literacy skills.
Independent predictors (β, se) of higher FL were female gender (1·06, 0·315, P < 0·01), older age (0·08, 0·019, P < 0·001) and greater height (0·13, 0·03, P < 0·001). The adjusted coefficients were significant for quotient of gross motor development and in particular for the locomotor component (0·03, 0·01, P < 0·01 and 0·16, 0·046, P < 0·001, respectively). Almost all associations with the emergent literacy skills were significant (β = −0·02 to 0·47).
The study suggests that children raised in an environment where both cognitive and motor skills are enhanced can have better chances of increasing FL and success at school. Thus, the need for monitoring FL and its predictors since early age is highlighted.
Introduction: The Canadian population is aging and an increasing proportion of emergency department (ED) patients are seniors. ED visits among seniors are frequently instigated by a fall at home. Some of these patients develop intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) because of falling. There has been little research on the frequency of ICH in elderly patients who fall, and on which clinical factors are associated with ICH in these patients. The aim of this study was to identify the incidence of ICH, and the clinical features which are associated with ICH, in seniors who present to the ED having fallen. Methods: This was a prospective cohort study conducted in three EDs. Patients were included if they were age >65 years, and presented to the ED within 48 hours of a fall on level ground, off a bed/chair/toilet or down one step. Patients were excluded if they fell from a height, were knocked over by a vehicle or were assaulted. ED physicians recorded predefined clinical findings (yes/no) before any head imaging was done. Head imaging was done at the ED physician's discretion. All patients were followed for 6 weeks (both by telephone call and chart review at 6 weeks) for evidence of ICH. Associations between baseline clinical findings and the presence of ICH were assessed with multivariable logistic regression. Results: In total, 1753 patients were enrolled. The prevalence of ICH was 5.0% (88 patients), of whom 74 patients had ICH on the ED CT scan and 14 had ICH diagnosed during follow-up. 61% were female and the median age was 82 (interquartile range 75-88). History included hypertension in 76%, diabetes in 29%, dementia in 27%, stroke/TIA in 19%, major bleeding in 11% and chronic kidney disease in 11%. 35% were on antiplatelet therapy and 25% were on an anticoagulant. Only 4 clinical variables were independently associated with ICH: bruise/laceration on the head (odds ratio (OR): 4.3; 95% CI 2.7-7.0), new abnormalities on neurological examination (OR: 4.4; 2.4-8.1), chronic kidney disease (OR: 2.4; 1.3-4.6) and reduced GCS from baseline (OR: 1.9; 1.0-3.4). Neither anticoagulation (OR: 0.9; 0.5-1.6) nor antiplatelet use (OR: 1.1; 0.6-1.8) appeared to be associated with ICH. Conclusion: This prospective study found a prevalence of ICH of 5.0% in seniors after a fall, and that bruising on the head, abnormal neurological examination, abnormal GCS and chronic kidney disease were predictive of ICH.
To investigate serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (S-25(OH)D) concentration in a multi-ethnic population of northern Norway and determine predictors of S-25(OH)D, including Sami ethnicity.
Cross-sectional data from the second survey of the Population-based Study on Health and Living Conditions in Regions with Sami and Norwegian Populations (the SAMINOR 2 Clinical Survey, 2012–2014). S-25(OH)D was measured by the IDS-iSYS 25-Hydroxy Vitamin Dˢ assay. Daily dietary intake was assessed using an FFQ. BMI was calculated using weight and height measurements.
Ten municipalities of northern Norway (latitude 68°–70°N).
Males (n 2041) and females (n 2424) aged 40–69 years.
Mean S-25(OH)D in the study sample was 64·0 nmol/l and median vitamin D intake was 10·3 µg/d. The prevalence of S-25(OH)D<30 nmol/l was 1·9 % and <50 nmol/l was 24·7 %. In sex-specific multivariable linear regression models, older age, blood sample collection in September–October, solarium use, sunbathing holiday, higher alcohol intake (in females), use of cod-liver oil/fish oil supplements, use of vitamin/mineral supplements and higher intakes of vitamin D were significantly associated with higher S-25(OH)D, whereas being a current smoker and obesity were associated with lower S-25(OH)D. These factors explained 21–23 % of the variation in S-25(OH)D.
There were many modifiable risk factors related to S-25(OH)D, however no clear ethnic differences were found. Even in winter, the low prevalence of vitamin D deficiency found among participants with non-Sami, multi-ethnic Sami and Sami self-perceived ethnicity was likely due to adequate vitamin D intake.
Although relapse in psychosis is common, a small proportion of patients will not relapse in the long term. We examined the proportion and predictors of patients who never relapsed in the 10 years following complete resolution of positive symptoms from their first psychotic episode.
Patients who previously enrolled in a 12-month randomized controlled trial on medication discontinuation and relapse following first-episode psychosis (FEP) were followed up after 10 years. Relapse of positive symptoms was operationalized as a change from a Clinical Global Impression scale positive score of <3 for at least 3 consecutive months to a score of ⩾3 (mild or more severe). Baseline predictors included basic demographics, premorbid functioning, symptoms, functioning, and neurocognitive functioning.
Out of 178 first-episode patients, 37 (21%) never relapsed during the 10-year period. Univariate predictors (p ⩽ 0.1) of patients who never relapsed included a duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) ⩽30 days, diagnosed with non-schizophrenia spectrum disorders, having less severe negative symptoms, and performing better in logical memory immediate recall and verbal fluency tests. A multivariate logistic regression analysis further suggested that the absence of any relapsing episodes was significantly related to better short-term verbal memory, shorter DUP, and non-schizophrenia spectrum disorders.
Treatment delay and neurocognitive function are potentially modifiable predictors of good long-term prognosis in FEP. These predictors are informative as they can be incorporated into an optimum risk prediction model in the future, which would help with clinical decision making regarding maintenance treatment in FEP.
Background: Identifying depressed patients unlikely to reach remission and those likely to relapse after reaching remission is of great importance, but there are few pre-treatment factors that can help clinicians predict prognosis and together these explain relatively little variance in treatment outcomes. Attentional control has shown promise in studies to date, but has not been investigated prospectively in routine clinical settings with depressed patients. Aims: This study aimed to pilot the use of a brief self-report measure of attentional control in routine care and investigate the associations between attentional control, psychological treatment response and relapse to depression up to 1 year post-treatment. Method: Depressed patients were recruited from two primary care psychological treatment (IAPT) services and completed the Attentional Control Scale (ACS) alongside routine symptom measures at every therapy session. Participants were tracked and followed up for 1 year post-treatment. Results: Baseline ACS scores were associated with remission and residual depressive symptoms post-treatment, and relapse within 12 months of ending treatment, all independent of pre-treatment depressive symptom severity, and the latter also independent of residual symptoms. Conclusion: A self-report measure of attentional control can potentially be used to predict levels of depressive symptoms post-treatment and can contribute to predicting risk of relapse to depression in IAPT services, without affecting rates of therapy completion/drop-out or data completion of standard IAPT measures. However, this pilot study had a small overall sample size and a very small number of observed relapses, so replication in a larger study is needed before firm conclusions can be made.
Evidence supports the role of vitamin D in various conditions of development and ageing. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) is the best indicator for current vitamin D status. However, the cost of its measurement can be prohibitive in epidemiological research. We developed and validated multivariable regression models that quantified the relationships between vitamin D determinants, measured through an in-person interview, and serum 25(OH)D concentrations. A total of 200 controls participating in a population-based case–control study in Montreal, Canada, provided a blood specimen and completed an in-person interview on socio-demographic, reproductive, medical and lifestyle characteristics and personal attributes. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were quantified by liquid chromatography–tandem MS. Multivariable least squares regression was used to build models that predict 25(OH)D concentrations from interview responses. We assessed high-order effects, performed sensitivity analysis using the lasso method and conducted cross-validation of the prediction models. Prediction models were built for users and non-users of vitamin D supplements separately. Among users, alcohol intake, outdoor time, sun protection, dose of supplement use, menopausal status and recent vacation were predictive of 25(OH)D concentrations. Among non-users, BMI, sun sensitivity, season and recent vacation were predictive of 25(OH)D concentrations. In cross-validation, 46–47 % of the variation in 25(OH)D concentrations were explained by these predictors. In the absence of 25(OH)D measures, our study supports that predicted 25(OH)D scores may be used to assign exposure in epidemiological studies that examine vitamin D exposure.
Despite consistently high discontinuation rates due to withdrawal of consent (WOC) and insufficient therapeutic effect (ITE) in schizophrenia trials, insight into the underlying factors contributing to poor satisfaction with treatment and dropout is limited. A better understanding of these factors could help to improve trial design and completion rates.
Using data from 1,136 trial participants with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, we explored associations between predictor variables with (1) dropout due to WOC and ITE and (2) satisfaction with treatment among patients and investigators by means of hierarchic multiple regression analyses.
ITE was associated with poor clinical improvement, poor investigator satisfaction with treatment, and poor patient insight into their own disease, whereas WOC only showed a meaningful association with poor patient satisfaction with treatment. Investigator satisfaction with treatment appeared most strongly associated with Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) positive factor endpoint scores, whereas patient satisfaction with treatment was best predicted by the endpoint score on the PANSS emotional distress factor. The occurrence of severe side effects showed no meaningful association to satisfaction with treatment among investigators and patients, and neither did a patient’s experienced psychopathology, nor their self-rating of functional impairment.
Whereas trial discontinuation due to ITE is associated with poor treatment effectiveness, a patient’s decision to withdraw from an antipsychotic trial remains unpredictable and may occur even when the investigator observes a global clinical improvement and is satisfied with the treatment.
Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) and insufficiency (VDI) are increasing at a global level, and they are associated with increased risk of various diseases. However, little information is available on the prevalence and predictors of VDD and VDI in a representative population of US adults. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) measurements were collected from 26 010 adults aged ≥18 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001–2010. Using thresholds recommended by the Endocrine Society, VDD was defined as 25(OH)D<50 nmol/l and VDI as 50≤25(OH)D<75 nmol/l. Weighted multinomial log-binomial regression was conducted to estimate prevalence ratios of VDD and VDI. The prevalences of VDD and VDI in 2001–2010 were 28·9 and 41·4 %, respectively. Adults who were black, less educated, poor, obese, current smokers, physically inactive and infrequent milk consumers had a higher prevalence of VDD. After adjustment for other potential predictors, obese adults showed 3·09 times higher prevalence of VDD and 1·80 times higher prevalence of VDI than non-obese adults. Physically inactive adults had 2·00 and 1·36 times higher prevalence of VDD and VDI than active peers. Compared with frequent consumers, rare consumers of milk had 2·44 and 1·25 times higher prevalence of VDD and VDI, respectively. Current alcohol drinkers had 38 % lower prevalence of VDD than non-drinkers. Awareness of the high prevalence of VDD and VDI among US adults and related predictors could inform behavioural and dietary strategies for preventing VDD and monitoring VDI, especially in old, black, obese and inactive individuals who report rare consumption of milk.
Previous research has suggested that there is a degree of variability among older adults’ response to memory training, such that some individuals benefit more than others. The aim of the present study was to identify the profile of older adults who were likely to benefit most from a strategic memory training program that has previously proved to be effective in improving memory in healthy older adults.
In total, 44 older adults (60–83 years) participated in a strategic memory training. We examined memory training benefits by measuring changes in memory practiced (word list learning) and non-practiced tasks (grocery list and associative learning). In addition, a battery of cognitive measures was administered in order to assess crystallized and fluid abilities, short-term memory, working memory, and processing speed.
Results confirmed the efficacy of the training in improving performance in both practiced and non-practiced memory tasks. For the practiced memory tasks, results showed that memory baseline performance and crystallized ability predicted training gains. For the non-practiced memory tasks, analyses showed that memory baseline performance was a significant predictor of gain in the grocery list learning task. For the associative learning task, the significant predictors were memory baseline performance, processing speed, and marginally the age.
Our results indicate that older adults with a higher baseline memory capacity and with more efficient cognitive resources were those who tended to benefit most from the training. The present study provides new avenues in designing personalized intervention according to the older adults’ cognitive profile.
To determine the patterns and predictors of treatment response trajectories for veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
Conditional latent growth mixture modelling was used to identify classes and predictors of class membership. In total, 2686 veterans treated for PTSD between 2002 and 2015 across 14 hospitals in Australia completed the PTSD Checklist at intake, discharge, and 3 and 9 months follow-up. Predictor variables included co-morbid mental health problems, relationship functioning, employment and compensation status.
Five distinct classes were found: those with the most severe PTSD at intake separated into a relatively large class (32.5%) with small change, and a small class (3%) with a large change. Those with slightly less severe PTSD separated into one class comprising 49.9% of the total sample with large change effects, and a second class comprising 7.9% with extremely large treatment effects. The final class (6.7%) with least severe PTSD at intake also showed a large treatment effect. Of the multiple predictor variables, depression and guilt were the only two found to predict differences in response trajectories.
These findings highlight the importance of assessing guilt and depression prior to treatment for PTSD, and for severe cases with co-morbid guilt and depression, considering an approach to trauma-focused therapy that specifically targets guilt and depression-related cognitions.
Objectives: The INTEGRATE-HTA project provided methodology to evaluate complex technologies. This study provides guidance on how to retrieve and critically appraise available evidence on moderators and predictors of treatment effects and on patient preferences for treatment outcomes as a source of complexity.
Methods: Search filters for PubMed were developed by hand-searching a large volume of articles reporting on relevant aspects. Search terms were retrieved from selected papers and algorithmically combined to find the optimal combination of search terms. For the development of the appraisal checklists literature was searched in PubMed and Google Scholar together with citation chasing. For the CHecklist for the Appraisal of Moderators and Predictors (CHAMP) a Delphi procedure was used to value a set of eligible appraisal criteria retrieved from the literature.
Results: Search filters were developed optimized for different accuracy measures. The final version of CHAMP consists of a seventeen questions covering the design, analysis, results and transferability of results of moderator and predictor analysis. The final checklist for appraisal of literature on patient preferences for treatment outcomes consist of six questions meant to help the user to identify relevant quality issues together with a guidance toward existing tools concerning the appraisal of specific preference elicitation methods.
Conclusions: Incorporating knowledge on subgroups for whom a specific treatment will produce more benefit holds the promise of better targeting and, ultimately, enhancing overall effectiveness and efficiency of healthcare technology. Finally, incorporating information on preferences for treatment outcomes will foster health technology assessment that addresses outcomes that are important to patients.
Cognitive performance is not easily predicted, since different variables play an important role in the manifestation of age-related declines. The objective of this study is to analyze the predictors of cognitive performance in a Spanish sample over 50 years from a multidimensional perspective, including socioeconomic, affective, and physical variables. Some of them are well-known predictors of cognition and others are emergent variables in the study of cognition.
The total sample, drawn from the “Longitudinal Study Aging in Spain (ELES)” project, consisted of 832 individuals without signs of cognitive impairment. Cognitive function was measured with tests evaluating episodic and working memory, visuomotor speed, fluency, and naming. Thirteen independent variables were selected as predictors belonging to socioeconomic, emotional, and physical execution areas. Multiple linear regressions, following the enter method, were calculated for each age group in order to study the influence of these variables in cognitive performance.
Education is the variable which best predicts cognitive performance in the 50–59, 60–69, and 70–79 years old groups. In the 80+ group, the best predictor is objective economic status and education does not enter in the model.
Age-related decline can be modified by the influence of educational and socioeconomic variables. In this context, it is relevant to take into account how easy is to modify certain variables, compared to others which depend on each person's life course.
Severe mood dysregulation is common in childhood and can be highly impairing. The Dysregulation Profile (DP) can be considered as a broader phenotype of emotional dysregulation, including affect, cognition and behaviour. Since mood dysregulation may persist, but differently in boys and girls, the gender associated course needs to be considered longitudinally to gain a better insight in order to support the children more adequately. This study is focusing on gender associated subgroup trajectories of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire-Dysregulation Profile (SDQ-DP) in middle childhood (9–13 years of age) and includes the potential impact of clinical and psychosocial characteristics.
The data set was available from the BELLA study on mental health and well-being in children and adolescents, which is the mental health module of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS). A representative epidemiological sample of 564 children living in Germany was examined at three assessment points over 2 years (data collection 2003–2006). The SDQ-DP of children aged 9–13 years was evaluated using Latent Class Growth Analysis (LCGA).
For both genders three trajectories with low (girls 67.0% and boys 59.5%), moderate (girls 28.0% and boys 31.7%) and high SDQ-DP (girls 5.0% and boys 8.8%) scores were detected. The courses of low and moderate subgroups were stable, while in the high SDQ-DP subgroup boys showed a decreasing and girls an increasing trend in symptom severity on a descriptive level. The results of the multinomial logistic regression analyses revealed a significant influence of mainly externalising but also internalising problems both increasing the risk of moderate and high SDQ-DP in both genders. Good quality of life was a protective factor for the SDQ-DP course in all subgroups.
In addition to the known clinical and scientific value of the SDQ-DP, three distinguishable trajectories of SDQ-DP in boys and girls could be found. High externalising problems at the beginning of the trajectory were associated with an undesirable course of SDQ-DP. These findings might be helpful for better psychoeducation, counselling and monitoring in clinical cases and public health.
In many regions of the world domestic dogs are free roaming and live in close relationship with humans. These free-roaming domestic dogs (FRDD) can cause public health problems such as dog bites and transmission of infectious diseases. To effectively control diseases transmitted by FRDD, knowledge on the dogs’ behaviour is required. To identify predictors of home range (HR) size, we collected global positioning system data from 135 FRDD living in eight Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities in Northern Australia. The core HR size ranged from 0·17 to 2·33 ha and the extended HR size from 0·86 to 40·46 ha. Using a linear mixed effect model with a Restricted Maximum Likelihood approach, the dog's sex and reproductive status were identified as predictors of roaming. Non-castrated males had the largest HRs, followed by neutered females. Also, FRDDs were found to roam further during the pre- than the post-wet season. These findings have implications for infectious disease spread. Identification of risk groups for disease spread within a population allows for more targeted disease response and surveillance. Further investigation of predictors of roaming in other FRDD populations worldwide would increase the external validity of such studies.
Background: Cognitive-behavioural models of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) suggest that personality factors such as perfectionism and high moral standards may contribute to the development of CFS. Aims: To investigate cognitive, behavioural and emotional processing risk factors for CFS. Method: CFS patients (n = 67) at a UK specialist clinic completed questionnaires about psychological characteristics both currently and retrospectively (6 months pre-CFS onset). Responses were compared with those of healthy individuals (n = 73) who rated their current characteristics. Forty-four relatives retrospectively rated the pre-morbid psychological characteristics of the CFS participants. Results: CFS patients showed similar levels of current perfectionism to controls, though higher pre-morbid perfectionism. CFS patients showed greater self-sacrificial beliefs and more unhelpful beliefs about experiencing and expressing negative emotions, both currently but more markedly prior to onset. In the 6 months pre-illness onset, CFS patients showed more disruption to their primary goal and greater general stress than controls. Ratings of pre-morbid psychological characteristics by relatives were consistent with patients’ self-reports. The extent of overinvestment in one goal was significantly associated with fatigue. Conclusions: Perfectionism, self-sacrificial tendencies, unhelpful beliefs about emotions, and perceived stress may be present to a greater extent pre-morbidly in CFS patients compared with healthy individuals.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate cognitive performance including preclinical and clinical disease course in carriers and non-carriers of autosomal-dominant Alzheimer’s disease (adAD) in relation to multiple predictors, that is, linear and non-linear estimates of years to expected clinical onset of disease, years of education and age. Methods: Participants from five families with early-onset autosomal-dominant mutations (Swedish and Arctic APP, PSEN1 M146V, H163Y, and I143T) included 35 carriers (28 without dementia and 7 with) and 44 non-carriers. All participants underwent a comprehensive clinical evaluation, including neuropsychological assessment at the Memory Clinic, Karolinska University Hospital at Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden. The time span of disease course covered four decades of the preclinical and clinical stages of dementia. Neuropsychological tests were used to assess premorbid and current global cognition, verbal and visuospatial functions, short-term and episodic memory, attention, and executive function. Results: In carriers, the time-related curvilinear trajectory of cognitive function across disease stages was best fitted to a formulae with three predictors: years to expected clinical onset (linear and curvilinear components), and years of education. In non-carriers, the change was minimal and best predicted by two predictors: education and age. The trajectories for carriers and non-carriers began to diverge approximately 10 years before the expected clinical onset in episodic memory, executive function, and visuospatial function. Conclusions: The curvilinear trajectory of cognitive functions across disease stages was mimicked by three predictors in carriers. In episodic memory, executive and visuospatial functions, the point of diverging trajectories occurred approximately 10 years ahead of the clinical onset compared to non-carriers. (JINS, 2017, 23, 195–203)
Early activation and use of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) are associated with improved patient outcomes in EMS priority conditions in developed EMS systems. This study describes patterns of EMS use and identifies predictors of EMS utilization in EMS priority conditions in Lebanon
This was a cross-sectional study of a random sample of adult patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) of a tertiary care center in Beirut with the following EMS priority conditions: chest pain, major trauma, respiratory distress, cardiac arrest, respiratory arrest, and airway obstruction. Patient/proxy survey (20 questions) and chart review were completed. The responses to survey questions were “disagree,” “neutral,” or “agree” and were scored as one, two, or three with three corresponding to higher likelihood of EMS use. A total scale score ranging from 20 to 60 was created and transformed from 0% to 100%. Data were analyzed based on mode of presentation (EMS vs other).
Among the 481 patients enrolled, only 112 (23.3%) used EMS. Mean age for study population was 63.7 years (SD=18.8 years) with 56.5% males. Mean clinical severity score (Emergency Severity Index [ESI]) was 2.5 (SD=0.7) and mean pain score was 3.1 (SD=3.5) at ED presentation. Over one-half (58.8%) needed admission to hospital with 21.8% to an intensive care unit care level and with a mortality rate of 7.3%. Significant associations were found between EMS use and the following variables: severity of illness, degree of pain, familiarity with EMS activation, previous EMS use, perceived EMS benefit, availability of EMS services, trust in EMS response times and treatment, advice from family, and unavailability of immediate private mode of transport (P≤.05). Functional screening, or requiring full assistance (OR=4.77; 95% CI, 1.85-12.29); acute symptoms onset ≤ one hour (OR=2.14; 95% CI, 1.08-4.26); and higher scale scores (OR=2.99; 95% CI, 2.20-4.07) were significant predictors of EMS use. Patients with lower clinical severity (OR=0.53; 95% CI, 0.35-0.81) and those with chest pain (OR=0.05; 95% CI, 0.02-0.12) or respiratory distress (OR=0.15; 95% CI, 0.07-0.31) using cardiac arrest as a reference were less likely to use EMS.
Emergency Medical Services use in EMS priority conditions in Lebanon is low. Several predictors of EMS use were identified. Emergency Medical Services initiatives addressing underutilization should result from this proposed assessment of the perspective of the EMS system’s end user.
El SayedM, TamimH, Al-Hajj ChehadehA, KazziAA. Emergency Medical Services Utilization in EMS Priority Conditions in Beirut, Lebanon. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(6):621–627.
Objectives: A notable minority of children will experience persistent post-concussive symptoms (PCS) following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), likely maintained by a combination of injury and non-injury related factors. Adopting a prospective longitudinal design, this study aimed to investigate the relative influence of child, family, and injury factors on both acute and persistent PCS in young children. Methods: Participants were 101 children aged 2–12 who presented to an Emergency Department, with either mTBI or minor bodily trauma (control). PCS were assessed at time of injury, 1 week, and 1, 2, and 3 months post-injury. Predictors included injury and demographic variables, premorbid child behavior, sleep hygiene, and parental stress. Random effects ordinal logistic regression models were used to analyze the relative influence of these predictors on PCS at early (acute – 1 week) and late (1–3 month) post-injury phases. Results: Presence of mTBI was a stronger predictor of PCS in the early [odds ratio (OR)=18.2] compared with late (OR=7.3) post-injury phase. Older age at injury and pre-existing learning difficulties were significant predictors of PCS beyond 1 month post-injury. Family factors, including higher levels of parental stress, higher socio-economic status, and being of Anglo-Saxon descent, consistently predicted greater PCS. Conclusions: Injury characteristics were significantly associated with PCS for 3 months following mTBI but the association weakened over time. On the other hand, pre-existing child and family factors displayed an increasingly strong association with PCS over time. Follow-up for these “at-risk” children which also addresses family stress may minimize longer-term complications. (JINS, 2016, 22, 793–803)
Relapse is distressingly common after the first episode of psychosis, yet it is poorly understood and difficult to predict. Investigating changes in cognitive function preceding relapse may provide new insights into the underlying mechanism of relapse in psychosis. We hypothesized that relapse in fully remitted first-episode psychosis patients was preceded by working memory deterioration.
Visual memory and verbal working memory were monitored prospectively in a 1-year randomized controlled trial of remitted first-episode psychosis patients assigned to medication continuation (quetiapine 400 mg/day) or discontinuation (placebo). Relapse (recurrence of positive symptoms of psychosis), visual (Visual Patterns Test) and verbal (Letter–Number span test) working memory and stressful life events were assessed monthly.
Remitted first-episode patients (n = 102) participated in the study. Relapsers (n = 53) and non-relapsers (n = 49) had similar baseline demographic and clinical profiles. Logistic regression analyses indicated relapse was associated with visual working memory deterioration 2 months before relapse [odds ratio (OR) 3.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19–7.92, P = 0.02], more stressful life events 1 month before relapse (OR 2.11, 95% CI 1.20–3.72, P = 0.01) and medication discontinuation (OR 5.52, 95% CI 2.08–14.62, P = 0.001).
Visual working memory deterioration beginning 2 months before relapse in remitted first-episode psychosis patients (not baseline predictor) may reflect early brain dysfunction that heralds a psychotic relapse. The deterioration was found to be unrelated to a worsening of psychotic symptoms preceding relapse. Testable predictors offer insight into the brain processes underlying relapse in psychosis.
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) can be delivered efficaciously through various modalities, including telephone (T-CBT) and face-to-face (FtF-CBT). The purpose of this study was to explore predictors of outcome in T-CBT and FtF-CBT for depression.
A total of 325 depressed participants were randomized to receive eighteen 45-min sessions of T-CBT or FtF-CBT. Depression severity was measured using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Classification and regression tree (CART) analyses were conducted with baseline participant demographics and psychological characteristics predicting depression outcomes, HAMD and PHQ-9, at end of treatment (week 18).
The demographic and psychological characteristics accurately identified 85.3% and 85.0% of treatment responders and 85.7% and 85.0% of treatment non-responders on the HAMD and PHQ-9, respectively. The Coping self-efficacy (CSE) scale predicted outcome on both the HAMD and PHQ-9; those with moderate to high CSE were likely to respond with no other variable influencing that prediction. Among those with low CSE, depression severity influenced response. Social support, physical functioning, and employment emerged as predictors only for the HAMD, and sex predicted response on the PHQ-9. Treatment delivery method (i.e. telephone or face-to-face) did not impact the prediction of outcome.
Findings suggest that the predictors of improved depression are similar across treatment modalities. Most importantly, a moderate to high level of CSE significantly increases the chance of responding in both T-CBT and FtF-CBT. Among patients with low CSE, those with lower depressive symptom severity are more likely to do well in treatment.