Introduction and history of cashew cultivation. The location of Côte d’Ivoire promotes the cultivation of cashew (Anacardium occidentale) in the northern half of the country. Indeed, introduced in 1960 to fight against erosion and halt the advancing desert, this crop has become a perennial source of income for more than 150,000 farmers gathered in twenty cooperatives and allows more than 1.5 M people to earn a living. The Ivorian cashew production increased from 6,000 t·year-1 in 1990 to 330,000 t·year-1 in 2008, with a forecast of 350,000 t·year-1 in 2009. Organization of the cashew sector. However, the sector is facing enormous problems including the disorganization of operators and the non-processing of cashews. The disorganization of the sector’s operators does not promote collaborative resolution of issues of common interest. This results in all sorts of speculation by intermediaries. The existing structures do not work synergistically, so that the price of cashew per kg paid to producers varies in the same country, from one region to the other, and even according to the buyers. Strategic and institutional environment. The problems of processing cashew nuts are due on the one hand to the investment code that does not favor the installation of medium-sized processing units (2,500 t·year-1) and, on the other hand, to private banks which require too many guarantees to fund investors. Conclusion. The cashew industry has a future in Côte d’Ivoire provided that the operators are organized, and that the Ivorian state establishes a regulatory and institutional framework to facilitate the installation of investors.