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to investigate the shifts and factors associated with different scenarios resulting from the prevalence of child stunting and overweight in Brazilian municipalities.
This is an ecological study using municipality-level panel data of stunting and overweight prevalence and socioeconomic characteristics from 2008 to 2014. The municipalities were classified according to the WHO-UNICEF prevalence thresholds for stunting and overweight, and were categorized into four nutritional scenarios: no burden (prevalence of stunting <20% and overweight <10%), stunting burden (prevalence of stunting ≥20% and overweight <10%), overweight burden (prevalence of stunting <20% and overweight ≥10%), and double burden (prevalence of stunting ≥20% and overweight ≥10%).
4,443 Brazilian municipalities.
Aggregated data of children under 5 years old enrolled in the Brazil’s conditional cash transfer program (Bolsa Família).
A mean reduction from 14.2% to 12.7% in the prevalence of stunting and an increase from 17.2% to 18.4% in the prevalence of overweight were observed. The predominant scenarios were overweight burden and double burden. The odds of both scenarios increased with higher GDP per capita and decreased with higher unemployment rates. Stunting and double burden decreased with higher expected years of schooling, and stunting burden increased with household crowding.
Our findings indicate an advanced nutrition transition stage in Brazil, associated mainly with municipal GDP per capita growth, which has contributed to increasing the burden of overweight alone or coexisting with stunting (double burden) among children in the most socioeconomically vulnerable strata of the population.
Critics have long been puzzled by aspects of William Wordsworth’s “The Discharged Soldier” (1798), such as the abrupt opening, the soldier’s disinterest in telling his story in a genre that requires it, and the speaker’s lack of effusive sympathy. Wordsworth’s theory of desert provides a new way to understand the poem, and a key to understanding the poem’s interplay between capacity and aesthetics. The chapter focuses on the military body and, in particular, the stories about the acquisition of impairments that fictional disabled soldiers are required to tell. Disabled soldiers’ stories often make persuasive cases for desert (in that soldiers are deemed worthy of charity or reward).
Enlightenment philosophy introduced the notion that social evolution and progress resulted from scientific inquiry and technological advancements. This view evolved out of the eighteenth-century Enlightenment idea that all societies progressed in a linear fashion toward modernity, the pinnacle of which was European civilization. In this construction “modern” or “progressive” societies were those that mimicked European cultural, social, economic, and political structures. Western missionaries’ efforts in the nineteenth century to bring “Christianity, commerce and civilization” set in motion a progressive ideology that led to modern development practice in Africa. These three words captured the Enlightenment ideology of social progress, the capitalism of the Industrial Revolution, and the mating of Christian doctrine with secular social Darwinian ideas. By defining poverty as a lack of access to capitalist systems “modern” societies defined any cultures not fully participating in capitalism as poor. These concepts are the bedrock of modern development theory. They presume that Western civilization is the highest form of social development, that all societies must progress in a linear fashion to attain this status, and that development will come through an economic transformation that will reshape social and cultural aspects of societies.
Chapter 8 takes a broader historical view of humanitarian aid in Africa by revealing how nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) are the “missionaries” of the twenty-first century. In the wake of the 1970s and 1980s Structural Adjustment Policies (SAPs) of the IMF and World Bank, NGOs stepped in to fill the gap in social services that the now bankrupt and inept African governments could not provide. Until recently the vast majority of these NGOs have been international NGOs (INGOs) established, run, and funded by Europeans or North Americans. Like the missionaries who came to end the slave trade and bring “civilization” to Africa a century earlier, INGOs function on a platform of humanitarianism, human rights, and development for the poor. Whether in the form of slave narratives collected by abolitionist missionaries or television commercials asking for donations to help feed starving African children, not-for-profit organizations have generated an industry of fundraising in order to “save” Africans. More recently African individuals and communities have launched local NGOs that target causes they deem most important, such as women’s economic inequality, environmental degradation, and cultural preservation.
Chapter 6 takes a close look at the watershed moment of World War II to show how Africans’ demands for better working conditions, greater political participation, and more social services pressured European nations to reform the development episteme. Economic hardship during the war intensified African vulnerability to poverty, malnutrition, and disease. Britain passed the new Colonial Development and Welfare Act (CDWA) in 1940, and France followed suit with the establishment of the Fonds d’Investissement pour le Développement Economique et Social (the Investment Fund for Economic and Social Development) (FIDES) in 1946. Unlike pre–World War II colonial development policies that demanded self-sufficiency, these initiatives provided significant metropolitan funding for economic and social programs in Africa without the stipulation that they result in a direct return on investment. European colonial development in Africa was no longer simply investment in colonial industries; now it claimed to promote the welfare of African people. Imperial powers envisioned postwar development as a solution to growing dissent in Africa and budding anticolonial movements across the globe at the end of the war. The new colonial development policies signaled a desperate attempt to keep colonialism alive at a time when it seemed perilously out of date.
Hazards and disasters do not occur in a vacuum: they are guided by different preconditions and pressures, which can in turn shape responses in the immediate aftermath and over the long term. These pre-existing conditions and pressures may be basic environmental features of a region, well-established structural features of social organization or culture, or simply short-term processes occurring just before a hazard such as social revolt or migration. Chapter 4 makes an explicit distinction between pre-existing pressures connected to climate, environment, technology, and the economy and those connected to society such as institutions, poverty and inequality, and cultural values. Overall, we suggest that the diversity in pre-existing conditions and pressures seen across time and space played a significant role not only in the likelihood of hazards occurring throughout history, but also in the differing likelihood of hazards turning into disasters.
This chapter attempts a dialogue between developmental psychology and sociology to explore the potential contribution a joint approach can make to understanding children’s human rights, with a focus on addressing childhood poverty. We reflect upon the relevance of our respective disciplines for thinking about children’s human rights and explore some of the tensions as well as complementarities between psychology and sociology. Beginning with a brief history of children’s rights, we explain the basics of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child and introduce the theoretical framework of “living rights, social justice and translations.” Second, we address what our differing disciplines offer to the study and advancement of children’s rights, starting with psychology before outlining a sociological approach and how perspectives from both disciplines enrich an understanding of living rights. Our third section takes childhood poverty as an example to explore rights questions – defining child poverty as multidimensional and drawing on research from our respective fields. Fourth, we link children’s rights and poverty by focusing on a topic of vital importance to children’s well-being, that of violence. We conclude by summarizing the contributions that developmental psychology and sociology can make to understanding and translating children’s rights.
Chapter 2 draws heavily on surviving letters between inmates and their loved ones, listed addresses in prisoners’ files and visitor records in order to explore the impact of separation and ways families attempted to sustain bonds across lengthy prison sentences. Through four distinct sections, it offers a fascinating insight into family relationships, domestic arrangements, expected responsibilities and obligations. The first section examines the ways imprisoned women sought to maintain contact with their loved ones and vice versa through letter writing. The second section focuses on visitors received by inmates, revealing desires and obligations within the family unit. The third section examines convict mothers’ relationships with their children, some of whom were born in prison and others of whom accompanied their mothers to penal servitude. Changes to legislation and practices across the century restricted convict mothers’ time with their offspring and, towards the end of the century, meant that women with children had to find alternative means to fulfil mothering roles. The final section considers the influence relatives and friends could have on a convict’s release. While it is apparent that family relationships could be maintained, this chapter also shows evidence of strained relationships between incarcerated women and their families and friends.
We examine epidemiological evidence for the central role of inequalities (principally economic) in driving the onset of mental disorders, physical ill health and premature mortality. We locate the search for solutions in current UK contexts, and include known and likely effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. Prevention of mental disorders and adverse outcomes such as premature mortality must begin with efforts to mitigate rising poverty-inequality.
Inequality is a significant and reversible risk factor for mental disorders which demonstrates the essentially political nature of psychiatry. The BJPsych Bulletin is pleased to make space for those at the frontline of this inequality. Two experts by experience explain how financial concerns exacerbated their distress and the benefit of social interventions.
How do Latin America’s poorest citizens participate in politics? This article explores the role that community organizations play in mobilizing individuals into three common modes of political participation: voting, protesting, and contacting government. It argues that community organizations help mobilize poor individuals both through the resources they provide for mobilization and because they serve as sites where political parties target individuals for mobilization. It analyzes survey data from LAPOP surveys for 18 Latin American countries and finds that overall, poor people are just as politically active as more affluent individuals; that involvement in community organizations is a very strong predictor of all types of political participation; and that membership in organizations has an especially strong effect on voting and protesting for poor people. By equalizing levels of political participation across income groups, organizations help erase class-based inequalities in participation that have plagued democracies in the region.
This paper throws a spotlight on the systemic disadvantage experienced by parents who have their children removed from their care. With data drawn from the annual reports of the Legal Aid of Western Australia, the child protection agency in Western Australia, and the Productivity Commission, the authors illustrate the disconnection between the agency’s policy to reunify children once removed from their birth parents; the resources made available to support families to overcome their difficulties; and how the gap is further widened when parents without financial means and who are disempowered face legal proceedings on their own. We profile the increasing numbers of infants who are removed, the decreasing numbers of these infants who are discharged from care, and the shortfall of grants of legal aid that are provided to parents when they go to court. For this group of parents, permanent loss of their children is a reality. The aim of the paper is to capture the extent to which there is a fundamental blemish on the principles of due process and fairness, and once statutory processes are triggered, the best interests of the child and the support of parents are contingent, with poverty being the key mediating factor.
Observable implications of three existing theories of the Islamic advantage -- grievances, faith, information -- are tested using a variety of data sources. Contrary to the expectations of grievance theory, individuals in the Muslim world appear to be more dissatisfied and less apathetic. Moreover, participation rates are lowest among the most aggrieved, much as they are elsewhere in the world. In contrast to what the faith-based theory expects, participation rates are significantly lower among individuals with the strongest religious beliefs. Further, the popularity of Islamic-based political and economic movements does not appear to follow trends in religiosity in the aggregate, neither across space nor across time. Instead, support for these movements appears to come from both the religious and the secular, in Turkey and across the Muslim world. Finally, there is little evidence that voters in Muslim countries are uninformed, generally, or better informed about Islamic-based parties, in particular. The lack of support for the all three existing theories reopens the puzzle of Islamic-based movements yet again.
This commentary aims to start a debate about various dimensions of social disadvantage and the relationship to child abuse and neglect (CAN). These dimensions include poverty, educational attainment, employment status, sub-standard housing, disadvantaged neighbourhoods and social isolation from family. Other aspects such as mental health issues, domestic violence and substance misuse are compounding factors that are critical influences on the relationship between disadvantage and CAN. New South Wales is used as the exemplar Australian state.
Smoking rates among people with common mental health conditions remain around 50% higher than those in the wider population; this is a significant cause of the 10–20-year reduced life expectancy of people with mental health conditions. However, the effects of smoking go far beyond physical health. Research estimates that smokers with mental health conditions could be spending as much as £2200 a year on tobacco, pushing an estimated 130 000 people with a common mental disorder into poverty. The Government has set a target for England to be smokefree by 2030; however, without a dramatic increase in support, smokers with mental health conditions risk being left behind. Action on Smoking and Health provides the secretariat for the Mental Health & Smoking Partnership. The Partnership aims to reduce the inequality in smoking rates between people with mental health conditions and the wider population. It brings together Royal Colleges, third-sector organisations, trade unions and academia to review progress and highlight areas for further action.
This chapter draws upon the firsthand perspectives of high-needs secondary school students in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia so as to highlight programmatic supports that enabled them to overcome barriers to finish secondary school and pursue higher education. Using a resilience lens, this chapter outlines a network of school-based supports and relationships that empowered students to achieve success despite challenging life circumstances. The spotlighting of these oft-unheard student voices as they reflect upon contextualized resilience processes represents a critical addition to the research literature, as well as an important stakeholder perspective to inform the crafting of school-based programs and policies in high-need countries and contexts.
This chapter defines poverty, differentiates between absolute and relative poverty, and analyzes the criticisms of these concepts. Furthermore, the chapter analyzes the effects of poverty on child development according to developmental systems theory, listing direct, moderated, mediated, transactional, and community effects. Statistics on poverty for industrialized and developing countries are provided. Subsequently, the chapter discusses the experiences of children living in poverty worldwide and focuses on the associations between bullying and poverty in industrialized countries and their implications. Finally, policies and a set of broad principles are suggested to address poverty among children and youth.
Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a serious scourge that affects all countries globally. While there are myriad factors contributing the prevalence of CSA in Zimbabwe, poverty is arguably one of the major underlying issues and root causes of most of these factors. Over the past two decades, Zimbabwe has gone through an unprecedented economic meltdown; fewer resources are being channelled towards child protection leading to the decline in standards of living for children. Consequently, children are left vulnerable to poverty which exposes them to the risk of CSA. This paper discusses a number of poverty-related factors that are contributing to CSA in Zimbabwe. A qualitative study approach was adopted, and data were collected from 38 participants and four key informants who were selected using theoretical and purposive sampling, respectively. In addition, 300 court files of CSA cases were also reviewed. Notwithstanding other circumstances leading to CSA, findings showed that poverty-related vulnerabilities, such as adverse living conditions, rurality, child labour and migration, exposed children to CSA. The paper ends by discussing the policy and social work practice implications and recommendations in view of the findings.
This article discusses the challenges affecting the achievement of financial inclusion for the poor and low-income earners in South Africa. The concept of financial inclusion could be defined as the provision of affordable financial products and services to all members of the society by the government and/or other relevant role-players such as financial services providers. This article identifies unemployment, poverty, financial illiteracy, over-indebtedness, high bank fees, mistrust of the banking system, lack of relevant national identity documentation and poor legislative framework for financial inclusion as some of the challenges affecting the full attainment of financial inclusion for the poor and low-income earners in South Africa. Given these flaws, the article highlights the need for the government, financial institutions and other relevant stakeholders to adopt legislative and other measures as an antidote to financial exclusion and poverty challenges affecting the poor and low-income earners in South Africa.
Social and environmental factors such as poverty or violence modulate the risk and course of schizophrenia. However, how they affect the brain in patients with psychosis remains unclear.
We studied how environmental factors are related to brain structure in patients with schizophrenia and controls in Latin America, where these factors are large and unequally distributed.
This is a multicentre study of magnetic resonance imaging in patients with schizophrenia and controls from six Latin American cities. Total and voxel-level grey matter volumes, and their relationship with neighbourhood characteristics such as average income and homicide rates, were analysed with a general linear model.
A total of 334 patients with schizophrenia and 262 controls were included. Income was differentially related to total grey matter volume in both groups (P = 0.006). Controls showed a positive correlation between total grey matter volume and income (R = 0.14, P = 0.02). Surprisingly, this relationship was not present in patients with schizophrenia (R = −0.076, P = 0.17). Voxel-level analysis confirmed that this interaction was widespread across the cortex. After adjusting for global brain changes, income was positively related to prefrontal cortex volumes only in controls. Conversely, the hippocampus in patients with schizophrenia, but not in controls, was relatively larger in affluent environments. There was no significant correlation between environmental violence and brain structure.
Our results highlight the interplay between environment, particularly poverty, and individual characteristics in psychosis. This is particularly important for harsh environments such as low- and middle-income countries, where potentially less brain vulnerability (less grey matter loss) is sufficient to become unwell in adverse (poor) environments.