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The sternocleidomastoid can be used as a pedicled flap in head and neck reconstruction. It has previously been associated with high complication rates, likely due in part to the variable nature of its blood supply.
To provide clinicians with an up-to-date review of clinical outcomes of sternocleidomastoid flap surgery in head and neck reconstruction, integrated with a review of vascular anatomical studies of the sternocleidomastoid.
A literature search of the Medline and Web of Science databases was conducted. Complications were analysed for each study. The trend in success rates was analysed by date of the study.
Reported complication rates have improved over time. The preservation of two vascular pedicles rather than one may have contributed to improved outcomes.
The sternocleidomastoid flap is a versatile option for patients where prolonged free flap surgery is inappropriate. Modern vascular imaging techniques could optimise pre-operative planning.
Autoinflation devices are commonly used for otitis media with effusion and Eustachian tube dysfunction. Generally, these are very safe devices, with few or no complications.
This paper presents a case study of pneumocephalus and orbital emphysema, associated with the use of an autoinflation device, in a 73-year-old woman with Eustachian tube dysfunction and otitis media with effusion, and a history of extensive endoscopic sinus surgery 13 years previously.
A literature review showed autoinflation-related pneumocephalus in patients with skull base defects relating to cranial surgery or tumours; however, this has not been described previously with the Otovent system or its use in relation to functional endoscopic sinus surgery. Given the theoretical risk of undetected bony abnormalities in post-operative functional endoscopic sinus surgery patients, it is suggested that autoinflation devices are used cautiously in patients with a history of sinus surgery.
Parapharyngeal abscess and mediastinitis are rare but very severe post-operative complications following an elective tonsillectomy. Parapharyngeal abscess as a complication to tonsilectomy is very seldom described in the literature and no cases in the paediatric population have been described.
This paper presents, to our knowledge, the first case of life-threatening parapharyngeal abscess and mediastinitis following elective adenotonsillectomy in an otherwise healthy, fully vaccinated 10-year-old girl.
Diagnosing parapharyngeal abscess and mediastinitis can be challenging, but should be suspected and ruled out in cases of post-operative odynophagia, fever, and/or neck swelling and thoracic pain. Diagnosis is made based on magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography findings. Prompt broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotic treatment and surgical drainage should be initiated. Other severe complications such as meningitis should also be considered.
Submucosal diathermy to the inferior turbinate is a widely practised procedure to improve the nasal airway when nasal obstruction is due to hypertrophy of the inferior turbinate. This paper reports a case of an unusual nasolacrimal complication following submucosal diathermy to the inferior turbinate, and reviews the relevant literature.
A 33-year-old male patient developed a patulous nasolacrimal duct opening following submucosal diathermy of the inferior turbinate. This resulted in spontaneous reflux of air and nasal mucus on to the ocular surface.
This newly recognised complication of submucosal diathermy to the inferior turbinate indicates the need to be aware of the potential risk to the nasolacrimal system with this technique.
Dislocation of the cochlear implant magnet is an uncommon but recognised complication of magnetic resonance imaging in a patient with a cochlear implant.
This paper reports a case of cochlear implant magnet dislocation despite head bandaging. The patient subsequently underwent endoscopic repositioning of the magnet under general anaesthesia. The cochlear implant system was tested intra-operatively and confirmed to be functioning. The patient was well at follow up and the small wound healed well with no complications.
This report presents the endoscopic technique as a viable minimally invasive surgical approach to address cochlear implant magnet dislocation.
Totally endoscopic ear surgery and endoscope-assisted microsurgery are still new concepts, with relatively few centres in the UK performing them. Advantages include better visualisation of difficult to reach areas, such as the sinus tympani, and limited external incisions. This paper reports our short-term outcomes for endoscopic middle-ear surgery.
A prospective review was conducted of the first 103 consecutive patients undergoing totally endoscopic ear surgery or endoscope-assisted microsurgery in 1 centre performed by 1 operator. The outcomes assessed were: tympanic membrane healing, audiological data and complications.
Twenty-five patients underwent endoscope-assisted microsurgery, while 78 had totally endoscopic ear surgery. There were no reported cases of dead ear or permanent facial nerve palsy. The average air–bone gap following stapedectomy was 7.38 dB. The tympanic membrane healing rate was 89 per cent.
Our results confirm that endoscopic middle-ear surgery is safe, and the short-term outcomes are comparable with conventional surgery.
To observe the effects of magnetic resonance imaging scans in Vibrant Soundbridge 503 implantees at 1.5T in vivo.
In a prospective case study of five Vibrant Soundbridge 503 implantees, 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging scans were performed with and without a headband. The degree of pain was evaluated using a visual analogue scale. Scan-related pure tone audiogram and audio processor fitting changes were assessed.
In all patients, magnetic resonance imaging scans were performed without any degree of pain or change in pure tone audiogram or audio processor fitting, even without a headband.
In this series, 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging scans were performed with the Vibrant Soundbridge 503 without complications. Limitations persist in terms of magnetic artefacts.
Re-stenosis and a consequent need for revision surgery are the most common problems in the follow-up period following endoscopic modification of the Lothrop procedure.
This paper reports a new technique for reconstructing and resurfacing of the posterior frontal recess bone for prevention of re-stenosis.
A 46-year-old man presented with a frontal sinus osteoma, and treatment featured an endoscopic modification of the Lothrop procedure. A vascularised, posteriorly based, septal mucosal flap was used in reconstruction. There have been no reported issues over 24 months of follow up.
The use of a nasoseptal flap seems feasible to reduce scarring and recurrence of (common) frontal recess stenosis after a Draf III operation.
The safety of day-case tonsillectomy is widely documented in the literature; however, there are no evidence-based guidelines recommending patient characteristics that are incompatible with day-case tonsillectomy. This study aimed to identify which patients should be considered unsafe for day-case tonsillectomy based on the likelihood of needing critical intervention.
Retrospective review of 2863 tonsillectomy procedures performed at University Hospital Geelong from 1998 to 2014.
Of the patients, 7.81 per cent suffered a post-tonsillectomy complication and 4.15 per cent required intervention. The most serious complications, haemorrhage requiring a return to the operating theatre and airway compromise, occurred in 0.56 per cent and 0.11 per cent of patients respectively. The following patient characteristics were significantly associated with poorer outcomes: age of two years or less (p < 0.01), tonsillectomy indicated for neoplasm (p < 0.01) and quinsy (p < 0.05).
The authors believe that all elective tonsillectomy patients should be considered for day-case surgery, with the following criteria necessitating overnight observation: age of two years or less; an indication for tonsillectomy of neoplasm or quinsy; and an American Society of Anesthesia score of more than 2.
This study aimed to evaluate migration of the receiver–stimulator after cochlear implantation using the subperiosteal pocket technique.
A prospective clinical study was performed of 32 paediatric patients (aged between 12 months and 8 years; mean ± standard deviation, 28 ± 19 months) who underwent cochlear implantation in tertiary referral centres. The degree of migration was evaluated using measurements between the receiver–stimulator and selected reference points: the lateral canthus, tragus and mastoid tip. All distances were measured during and six months after surgery.
No receiver–stimulator migration was observed when using the subperiosteal pocket technique.
Concerns about implant migration in the subperiosteal pocket technique are unwarranted: this is a safe technique to use for cochlear implantation.
To determine the pre- and post-operative prevalence of dizziness, tinnitus and taste disturbances in adult cochlear implant recipients.
A questionnaire regarding pre- and post-operative dizziness, tinnitus and taste disturbances was sent to 170 cochlear implant recipients implanted between January 2003 and March 2009. Seventy-seven patients (41 per cent) responded.
Pre-operatively, 20 per cent of the participants experienced dizziness, 52 per cent experienced tinnitus and 3 per cent experienced taste disturbances. Post-operative dizziness developed in 46 per cent of patients and resolved in the majority of these; however, 15 per cent reported dizziness more than six months after implantation. Tinnitus worsened in 25 per cent of patients, whereas 73 per cent reported attenuation or termination of tinnitus. Post-operatively, tinnitus developed in 12 per cent and taste disturbances developed in 17 per cent of the patients.
The high prevalence of dizziness, tinnitus and taste disturbances reported by cochlear implant recipients necessitates that assessment of symptoms related to inner ear and chorda tympani damage are included when evaluating operative results.
To evaluate the efficacy and safety of celecoxib for pain management in post-tonsillectomy adult patients.
A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 clinical trial was conducted in an adult population (aged 18–55 years), with a parallel group design using an allocation ratio of 1:1.
Eighty patients underwent elective tonsillectomy or adenotonsillectomy, operated on by one surgeon. They were discharged home with randomly assigned celecoxib or placebo, together with regular post-tonsillectomy medications (paracetamol and Endone). Pain scores were measured from post-operative days 1 to 10. All patients were assessed on post-operative days 5, 12 and 28.
There were no statistically significant differences in the daily or overall pain scores, the total intake of Endone, or the time taken to achieve freedom from pain after tonsillectomy between the study arms (n = 40 each arm). The celecoxib-treated group experienced significantly more vomiting (celecoxib vs placebo p < 0.001 (Mann–Whitney test), confidence interval = 0.57 to 0.76).
Celecoxib usage was associated with significantly more vomiting and did not reduce narcotic analgesia requirement post-tonsillectomy.
To determine if there is evidence that post-tonsillectomy dietary advice affects post-operative morbidity.
A systematic review was conducted of Embase, Medline, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature and PsycInfo, to November 2014.
Seventeen articles were included; their heterogeneous nature prevented meta-analysis. Of these, all three small, randomised studies showed no statistical difference in morbidity between restricted and non-restricted diets.
Most post-tonsillectomy dietary advice is based on historical anecdotes and not rigorous scientific testing. The existing small-scale, randomised studies show no statistical difference in morbidity between non-restricted and restricted diets.
Auditory implantation into the inner ear is increasingly performed for a variety of indications. Infective complications are rare, but when they occur they can have devastating consequences.
This paper reports two cases where vestibular sequestration of the bony labyrinth developed following implantation into the middle ear.
To the authors' knowledge, these are the first reported cases where vestibular sequestration has resulted from auditory implant surgery. This paper outlines the radiological changes characteristic of this pathology. It also describes the surgical and conservative treatment options for this condition, challenging the previously accepted belief that affected patients always require aggressive surgical intervention.
In recent years, the subperiosteal pocket technique has become popular for minimal access cochlear implantation. Many incision techniques have been described in cochlear implantation.
This study aimed to demonstrate the safety and reliability of a new periosteal incision, called tailed Palva incision, in cochlear implantation.
A total of 280 patients who underwent cochlear implantation with the subperiosteal pocket technique between June 2008 and January 2013 were included in the study.
The patients were followed up for between 11 and 74 months (mean ± standard deviation = 34 ± 19 months). No intracranial complications were seen during or after the operations. Additionally, there was no migration of the receiver-stimulator. Revision surgery was performed in eight patients (3 per cent), one of whom (0.4 per cent) had local flap failure and infection.
This study shows that the tailed Palva incision facilitates easy insertion of the implant and, by creating a one-way obscured pocket, this technique also enhances stabilisation of the receiver-stimulator, thereby avoiding anterior migration.
The bone-anchored hearing aid implantation technique is associated with post-operative skin reactions, which require conservative therapy and, in some cases, replacement of the abutment. Z-plasty is a technique that allows resection of the granulation tissue, thus ensuring that disease-free skin will be in contact with the abutment.
Use of the Z-plasty technique for resection of the peri-abutment granulation tissue is described. In the case presented herein, the episodes of skin reaction became very frequent and the patient was unable to use his bone-anchored hearing aid for 2 to 3 days a week. We opted for surgical treatment with Z-plasty for management of the skin complications.
Use of the Z-plasty technique is recommended for the management of skin reactions associated with bone-anchored hearing aid implantation.
Samter's triad is a well described condition manifesting as chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis, asthma and aspirin intolerance in a non-atopic individual. The underlying mechanism is still to be fully elucidated. However, aural disease has not been widely reported in these patients. In the few reported cases, most patients underwent major surgery with varying degrees of success.
We report two Samter's triad patients with aural involvement. Both were successfully managed by conservative treatment, thus avoiding the need for major surgery. It appears that more Samter's triad patients may have aural disease than previously thought.
We report good outcomes with conservative treatment, which is relevant because aural disease tends to reoccur in these patients.
To create a system for the uniform registration and classification of complications and failures in cochlear implant surgery, and apply it to all the patients who underwent implantation in our clinic.
The definition of a medical complication was established, and data for all cochlear implantations performed between 1987 and 2012 were entered into a custom-made database system.
One or more medical complications were registered in 19.0 per cent of 1003 cochlear implantations. The incidence of ‘hard failure’ was 2.3 per cent. Findings revealed a decrease in device failures over the years; the rate of medical complications remained constant.
Our database system, which is available free of charge, enables fast and accurate data entry. There were a relatively high number of (minor) complications in our series, but comparison with the relevant literature is difficult. This emphasises the need for a uniform definition of ‘complication’ as it relates to cochlear implant surgery, and an appropriate classification system for such complications.
This study compared the incidence of salivary fistula between groups with an early or late reintroduction of oral feeding, and identified the predictive factors for salivary fistula.
A randomised trial was performed using 89 patients with larynx or hypopharynx cancer, assigned to 2 groups (early or late). In the early group, oral feeding was started 24 hours after total laryngectomy or total pharyngolaryngectomy, and in the late group, it was started from post-operative day 7 onwards. The occurrence of salivary fistula was evaluated in relation to the following variables: early or late oral feeding, nutritional status, cancer stage, surgery performed, and type of neck dissection.
The incidence of salivary fistula was 27.3 per cent (n = 12) in the early group and 13.3 per cent (n = 6) in the late group (p = 0.10). The following variables were not statistically significant: nutritional status (p = 0.45); tumour location (p = 0.37); type of surgery (p = 0.91) and type of neck dissection (p = 0.62). A significant difference (p = 0.02) between the free margins and invasive carcinoma was observed.
The early reintroduction of oral feeding in total laryngectomised patients did not increase the incidence of salivary fistula.
To introduce pseudoaneurysm of the sphenopalatine artery as the possible aetiology of acute massive epistaxis in patients with a history of orthognathic surgery accompanied by Le Fort I osteotomy.
Case report and literature review.
This paper reports a case of acute life-threatening epistaxis following Le Fort I osteotomy. Computed tomography and angiography showed a pseudoaneurysm of the sphenopalatine artery, which was successfully treated by endovascular embolisation.
Although a pseudoaneurysm of the sphenopalatine artery following Le Fort I osteotomy is extremely rare, it should be considered as the possible aetiology of acute massive epistaxis in patients with a history of orthognathic surgery accompanied by Le Fort I osteotomy.