We formulate a localization property of wavelet coefficients for processes with stationary increments, in the estimation problem associated with the processes. A general setting for the estimation is adopted and examples that fit this setting are given. An evaluation of wavelet coefficient decay with respect to shift k∈ℕ is explicitly derived (only the asymptotic behavior, for large k, was previously known). It is this evaluation that makes it possible to establish the localization property of the wavelet coefficients. In doing so, it turns out that the theory of positive-definite functions plays an important role. As applications, we show that, in the wavelet coefficient domain, estimators that use a simple moment method are nearly as good as maximum likelihood estimators. Moreover, even though the underlying process is long-range dependent and process domain estimates imply the validity of a noncentral limit theorem, for the wavelet coefficient domain estimates we always obtain a central limit theorem with a small prescribed error.