Genetic exchange is now known to occur during the life-cycle of many parasitic protozoa, including malaria parasites, coccidia and trypanosomes. The process is studied by making deliberate crosses between cloned organisms differing in clearly defined markers. In malaria parasites, crosses have been made between parasites differing in characters such as isoenzymes, antigens and other proteins, drug sensitivity, and chromosome and other DNA polymorphisms. Crosses are made by transmitting a mixture of gametes of each clone through mosquitoes to allow cross-fertilization to take place, and examining the resulting progeny by cloning for organisms exhibiting non-parental combinations of characters. The inheritance of many characters, such as antigen and protein variants, is in accordance with Mendelian expectations for a haploid organism. Recombination occurs at a higher than expected frequency. Studies on chromosomes have show that crossing-over events commonly occur following meiosis of hybrid zygotes. Repetitive DNA and subtelomeric regions of chromosomes appear to be particularly susceptible to such recombination events. In trypanosomes, crosses between clones of Trypanosoma brucei have shown that hybrids are formed during tsetse fly transmission. The organism appears to be mainly diploid, but some characters including certain chromosomes seem to be inherited in a non-Mendelian manner.