Sensitive cotton varieties planted into soil treated with 2,4-D or dicamba utilized in burndowns can result in stunting and stand loss if use rate is too high and the plant-back interval is too short. The objective of this study was to evaluate cotton stunting and yield responses resulting from 2,4-D or dicamba residues in soil after preplant burndown applications at three locations in 2016 and 2017. Treatments with 2,4-D included 532 and 1,063 g ae ha−1 applied 3 wk before planting (WBP) and 53, 160, 266, 532, 1,063 g ae ha−1 applied at planting. Dicamba treatments included 560 and 1,120 g ae h−1 applied 3 WBP and 56, 168, 280, 560, 1,120 g ae ha−1 applied at planting. Dicamba or 2,4-D treatments applied 3 WBP resulted in no adverse effects on cotton stand, plant height, or yield. Dicamba 560 g ae h−1 applied at planting reduced cotton stand by 36% at 21 to 24 d after planting (DAP) over all locations in 2016. In 2017, stands were reduced by dicamba at 168, 280, 560, and 1,120 g ae ha−1 by 17% to 25% at 20 to 23 DAP. Moreover, cotton stands were not affected by 2,4-D in 2016, and only 266, 532, and 1,063 g ae ha−1 of 2,4-D caused stand reductions of 26% to 36% at 20 to 23 DAP over all locations in 2017. Dicamba at 560 g ae ha−1 at planting was the only treatment in this study that reduced plant height. Although stand losses were observed in both years, no yield loss occurred. The data suggest that stunting and stand reduction may occur if susceptible varieties are planted soon after burndown applications with 2,4-D or dicamba, but yield may not be affected after a full growing season. Dicamba showed greater potential to cause stunting and stand reduction than 2,4-D.