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Body weight control is thought to be improved when physical activity and energy intake are both high (high energy turnover). The aim of this study was to investigate the short-term impact of energy turnover (ET) on fat balance during zero energy balance, caloric restriction and overfeeding. In a randomized crossover study, 9 healthy men (BMI: 23.0 ±2.1 kg/m2, 26.6 ±3.5 y) passed 3x3 days in a metabolic chamber: 3 levels of ET (low, medium and high; physical activity level = 1.3-1.4, 1.5-1.6 and 1.7-1.8) were performed at zero energy balance (EB), caloric restriction (CR), and overfeeding (OF) (100%, 75%, 125% of individual energy requirement). Different levels of ET were obtained by walking (4 km/h) on a treadmill (0, 165, 330 min). 24-h macronutrient oxidation and relative macronutrient balance (oxidation relative to intake) were calculated and free fatty acids, 24-h insulin and catecholamine secretion were analyzed as determinants of fat oxidation. During EB and OF, 24-h fat oxidation increased with higher ET. This resulted in a higher relative fat balance at medium ET (EB: +17%, OF: +14%) and high ET (EB: +23%, OF: +17%) compared to low ET (all p<0.05). In contrast, CR led to a stimulation of 24-h fat oxidation irrespective of ET (no differences in relative fat balance between ET levels, p>0.05). In conclusion, under highly controlled conditions a higher energy turnover improved relative fat balance in young healthy men during overfeeding and energy balance compared to a sedentary state.
To: (i) understand facilitators and barriers to healthy eating practices and physical activity in younger and older urban adolescent South African boys and girls; and (ii) understand how the views of caregivers interact with, and influence, adolescent behaviours.
Semi-structured focus group discussions (FGD) were conducted in July 2018. Data were analysed using thematic analysis.
Soweto, Johannesburg, South Africa.
Seventy-five participants were stratified into eight FGD as follows: two for young boys and girls (10–12 years); two for older boys and girls (15–17 years); two for caregivers of young adolescents (boys and girls); and two for caregivers of older adolescents (boys and girls).
Unlike their caregivers, adolescents were not motivated to eat healthily and failed to appreciate the need to develop consistent patterns of both healthy eating and physical activity for their long-term health. Although adolescents gained independence with age, they commonly attributed unhealthy food choices to a lack of autonomy and, thereby, to the influence of their caregivers. Adolescents and caregivers perceived their engagement in physical activity according to distinct siloes of recreational and routine activity, respectively. Both similarities and differences in the drivers of healthy eating and physical activity exist in adolescents and caregivers, and should be targeted in future interventions.
Our study identified a complex paradigm of eating practices and physical activity in South African adolescents and their caregivers. We also highlighted the need for a new narrative in addressing the multifaceted and interrelated determinants of adolescent health within urban poor settings.
A healthful diet and sufficient physical activity (PA) are related to several health outcomes. However, there is a paucity of data on the association between PA and dietary pattern with life satisfaction (LS) in the older adults aged ≥65. This study investigated the independent and combined association of PA and Baltic Sea diet (BSD) score with LS in older Finnish women. Subjects were 554 women aged 65-72 years from the OSTPRE-Fracture Prevention Study. Women reported the hours and type of PA and lifestyle factors via questionnaires, and dietary intake using three-day food record. Adequate PA was considered according to World Health Organization (WHO) recommendation: PA=0, 0<PA<2·5 and ≥2·5 hours/week. BSD score was categorized based on <13 or ≥13 as median score. LS was self-reported using LS scale with four-items on current ‘interest’, ‘happiness in life’, ‘ease of living’ and ‘feelings of loneliness’ (range: 4-20, lower score representing higher satisfaction). After adjusting for the confounders, PA was statistically significantly associated with lower LS score (coefficient β=-0·207, P=0·001), where women with PA=2·5 h/week had the lowest LS score followed by women with 0<PA<2·5 and PA=0 (P for trend=0·020). Association between BSD and LS was not significant. Only among women with BSD score=13, but not BSD<13, PA=2·5 h/week was statistically significantly associated with lower LS score (mean=9·3), followed by 0<PA<2·5 (mean=9·9) and PA=0 groups (mean=11·8) (P for trend= 0·033). In conclusion, adequate PA according to WHO recommendation independently and in combination with higher BSD score maybe associated with higher LS in older women.
Evidence on whether nutritional supplementation affects physical activity (PA) during early childhood is limited. We examined the long-term effects of lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) on total PA, moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and sedentary behaviour (SB) of children at 4–6 years using an accelerometer for 1 week. Their mothers were enrolled in the International Lipid-based Nutrient Supplement-DYAD randomised controlled trial in Ghana, assigned to daily LNS or multiple micronutrients (MMN) during pregnancy through 6 months postpartum or Fe and folic acid (IFA) during pregnancy and placebo for 6 months postpartum. From 6 to 18 months, children in the LNS group received LNS; the other two groups received no supplements. Analysis was done with intention to treat comparing two groups: LNS v. non-LNS (MMN+ IFA). Of the sub-sample of 375 children fitted with accelerometers, 353 provided sufficient data. Median vector magnitude (VM) count was 1374 (interquartile range (IQR) 309), and percentages of time in MVPA and SB were 4·8 (IQR 2) and 31 (IQR 8) %, respectively. The LNS group (n 129) had lower VM (difference in mean −73 (95 % CI −20, −126), P = 0·007) and spent more time in SB (LNS v. non-LNS: 32·3 v. 30·5 %, P = 0·020) than the non-LNS group (n 224) but did not differ in MVPA (4·4 v. 4·7 %, P = 0·198). Contrary to expectations, provision of LNS in early life slightly reduced the total PA and increased the time in SB but did not affect time in MVPA. Given reduced social-emotional difficulties in the LNS group previously reported, including hyperactivity, one possible explanation is less restless movement in the LNS group.
Group-based physical activity (PA) in community-based settings represents a promising avenue for promoting healthy ageing, however, lower levels of adherence have been found to be associated with aspects of social disadvantage. Providers are in a key position to provide important insights about strategies to improve adherence, however, few studies have examined their perspectives. In this study, 30 community service providers were interviewed, and 42 older people participated in focus groups to identify actions perceived as effective for promoting adherence to organised PA, with a focus on factors relevant to older people experiencing socio-economic disadvantage, social isolation, living with a disability or from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds. Data were analysed thematically. Adherence barriers included deteriorating health, lack of belonging and loss of motivation. Helpful strategies for addressing deteriorating health included maintaining programme flexibility, facilitating access to health and other services, and supporting participants to adapt to acquired limitations. Belonging can be fostered by creating positive and inclusive experiences, ensuring safe and stigma-free environments, providing opportunities to forge personal connections and demonstrating care. Motivation may be enhanced by ensuring activities are of interest and functional benefit, programme settings are suitable and appealing, and enjoyment is prioritised. In conclusion, a range of strategies is likely to be necessary to mitigate risks to adherence and support continued participation in organised PA among socially disadvantaged older people.
Older adults with serious mental illness (SMI) often have poor physical health in addition to serious mental health issues. Sustained engagement in a group physical activity program may provide necessary physical and mental health benefits. The purpose of this report is to describe participants’ feedback about a video game-based group physical activity program using the Kinect for Xbox 360 game system (Microsoft, Redmond, WA). In particular, we wanted to understand what worked about the program, what was not ideal, and how it impacted their lives.
Semi-structured interviews were collected and analyzed with grounded theory methodology.
Mental health facility.
Sixteen older adults with SMI.
Participants played an active video game for 50-minute sessions, three times a week for 10 weeks. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 16 participants upon completion of the program.
Participants expressed enthusiasm for the physical activity program, indicating it was an activity that they looked forward to doing. The results of the study provide insight into how the program may be implemented into practice at mental health facilities. Three implementation to practice categories were identified: (1) programmatic considerations, such as when to hold the groups and where; (2) the critical importance of staff involvement; and (3) harnessing patients’ interest in the program.
Our results suggest that engagement in an intense video game-based group physical activity program has a positive impact on participants’ overall health. The group atmosphere, staff involvement, availability of the program at a mental health facility, and health benefits were critical.
The older Finnish Twin Cohort (FTC) was established in 1974. The baseline survey was in 1975, with two follow-up health surveys in 1981 and 1990. The fourth wave of assessments was done in three parts, with a questionnaire study of twins born during 1945–1957 in 2011–2012, while older twins were interviewed and screened for dementia in two time periods, between 1999 and 2007 for twins born before 1938 and between 2013 and 2017 for twins born in 1938–1944. The content of these wave 4 assessments is described and some initial results are described. In addition, we have invited twin-pairs, based on response to the cohortwide surveys, to participate in detailed in-person studies; these are described briefly together with key results. We also review other projects based on the older FTC and provide information on the biobanking of biosamples and related phenotypes.
We aimed to identify factors (child diet, physical activity; maternal BMI) associated with body composition of Ghanaian pre-school children.
Longitudinal analysis of the International Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplements (iLiNS)-DYAD-Ghana randomized trial, which enrolled 1320 pregnant women at ≤20 weeks’ gestation and followed them and their infants until 6 and 18 months postpartum, respectively. At follow-up, child age 4–6 years, we collected data on body composition (by 2H dilution), physical activity and diet, extracted dietary patterns using factor analysis, and examined the association of children’s percentage body fat with maternal and child factors by regression analysis.
Eastern Region, Ghana.
Children 4–6 years of age.
The analysis included 889 children with percentage body fat and dietary data at follow-up. We identified two major dietary patterns, a snacking and a cooked foods pattern. Percentage body fat was positively associated (standardized β (se)) with maternal BMI at follow-up (0·10 (0·03); P = 0·003) and negatively associated with physical activity (−0·15 (0·05); P = 0·003, unadjusted for child gender), but not associated with the snacking (0·06 (0·03); P = 0·103) or cooked foods (−0·05 (0·07); P = 0·474) pattern. Boys were more active than girls (1470 v. 1314 mean vector magnitude counts/min; P < 0·0001) and had lower percentage body fat (13·8 v. 16·9 %; P < 0·0001).
In this population, maternal overweight and child physical activity, especially among girls, may be key factors for addressing child overweight/obesity. We did not demonstrate a relationship between the dietary patterns and body fatness, which may be related to limitations of the dietary data available.
Physical activity is widely considered to be a significant contributing factor to how “successfully” one ages. There are, however, certain groups whose voices have not been widely heard in discussions around physical activity and aging, particularly those from diverse cultural backgrounds. In this research, we explored how Alaska Native Elders perceive the role of physical activity as they age and its contribution to successful aging. Based on semi-structured interviews with 41 Elders, the results show that engaging in physical activity was not just seen as a personal responsibility to maintain health and age successfully, but also as a way to resist Western society’s dominant view of older adults as deteriorating and declining by being physically active regardless of age; to improve or maintain their physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual health; and/or to enable them to continue participating in subsistence activities that are rooted in their culture and traditional roles as Elders.
Despite the well-documented health benefits of physical activity in older adults, participation levels remain low. With rapid global population ageing, intensive efforts are needed to encourage higher levels of participation to ameliorate the negative effects of physical inactivity for older individuals and society as a whole. The aim of this qualitative study was to inform future physical activity promotion interventions by examining factors contributing to low activity levels among older people undertaking less than half the recommended level of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 102 (65% female) community-dwelling Western Australians aged 60+ years (mean = 71.52, standard deviation = 6.26) who engaged in ⩽75 minutes of MVPA per week as measured by accelerometers. Several modifiable and unmodifiable barriers were identified, of which poor health featured most prominently. Lifetime physical inactivity, caring duties, low motivation, misperceptions of physical activity and ageing, and a lack of affordable and attractive options were the other barriers identified. The results suggest that strategies are needed to raise awareness of current physical activity guidelines, normalise engagement in MVPA throughout the lifespan, develop initiatives to motivate participation, improve the availability of affordable physical activity programmes that are attractive to this population segment, and facilitate participation among those with intensive caring responsibilities.
To explore the experiences of older adults participating in strength and balance exercise programmes and understand participants’ rationale for programme uptake and completion.
Regular physical activity, specifically strength and balance exercises, has been shown to improve health and well-being and reduce the risk of falling in older adults. With the number of people living into older age increasing, understanding older people’s experiences of strength and balance programmes and what encourages their take-up and completion is extremely important. This paper reports on the qualitative experiences of older adults that previously participated in ProAct65+, a randomised controlled trial of Falls Management Exercise (FaME) programme and Otago Exercise Programme (OEP) versus usual care.
Ten general practices in Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire, England, who participated in the ProAct65+ trial were approached to take part. Using maximum variation sampling (age, gender, falls history, fear of falling and trial arm) we recruited, via the practices, 30 people that had participated in the FaME (n = 15) or OEP (n = 15) trial arms. Participants were interviewed in their own homes. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and thematically analysed.
We identified five themes: choice of exercise programme; commitment, discipline and motivation; benchmarking, feedback and monitoring; benefits of the exercise programmes and reactions to the end of the programmes. There were four sub-themes within the benefits theme: pleasure and boredom, social interaction and isolation, physical benefits, and knowledge and understanding.
This study has outlined the experiences and identified specific barriers and facilitators to uptake and completion of falls-prevention exercises by older adults. The perspective and experiences of these participants is important if programmes are to be designed to meet the needs of the target population. Insights from this study will enable commissioners to develop and provide appropriate falls-prevention exercise programmes that encourage high uptake and programme completion.
High overall nutritional quality (NQ) is an important component of ideal cardiovascular health, a concept introduced in 2010 by the American Heart Association. However, data on the independent contribution of overall NQ to the variation in the cardiometabolic risk (CMR) profile are limited. This observational study aimed to investigate the association between overall NQ and the CMR profile in 4785 participants (65⋅4 % of men, age 43⋅3 (sd 10⋅8) years) who underwent a cardiometabolic health evaluation, including lifestyle habits, anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, lipid profile and HbA1c concentrations. In addition, a submaximal exercise test was conducted to assess cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). Using a standardised NQ questionnaire (twenty-five items food-based questionnaire), participants were classified into three subgroups: (1) low, (2) moderate or (3) high NQ and variance and multiple linear regression analyses were performed. Results showed that less than 15 % of participants presented a high NQ. A high NQ was associated with a healthier lifestyle habits and a more favourable CMR profile (lower values of waist circumference and cholesterol:HDL-cholesterol ratio, lower concentrations of non-HDL-cholesterol, TAG and HbA1c). Some of these associations were independent of age, physical activity level (PAL) and CRF. A better NQ was also associated with a lower proportion of participants presenting the hypertriacylglycerolaemic waist phenotype independently of both PAL and CRF. The present study suggests that overall NQ can be assessed with a short food-based questionnaire and should be considered in clinical practice as a new ‘vital sign’ associated with other health behaviours and cardiometabolic health.
To study physical activity and sleep in Fontan patients and healthy controls before and after an endurance training program, and after 1 year.
Fontan patients (n = 30) and healthy controls (n = 25) wore accelerometers for seven consecutive days and nights during a school week before and after a 12-week endurance training program and after 1 year.
Patients had similar sleep duration and sleep efficiency as healthy controls. Latency to sleep onset in minutes was longer for patients than controls (22.4 (4.3–55.3) minutes versus 14.8 (8.6–29.4) minutes, p < 0.01). More time in moderate-to-vigorous activity daytime was correlated with increased sleep time (p < 0.05; r2 = 0.20), improved sleep efficiency (p < 0.01; r2 = 0.24) and less time as wake after sleep onset (p < 0.05; r2 = 0.21) for patients but not controls. Sleep variables did not change after the exercise intervention for patients or controls. After 1 year, patients had decreased total sleep time, decreased sleep efficiency, increased accelerometer counts during sleep and more time as wake after sleep onset during sleep time, but not controls.
Fontan patients have prolonged latency to sleep onset compared with controls. More time in physical activities was correlated with better sleep quality for the patients. Also, subjects with low sleep efficiency and long latency to sleep onset may benefit most from physical exercise. These patients should be encouraged to engage in individually designed physical exercise as this could improve sleep quality.
Overweight and obesity may increase risk of disease progression in men with prostate cancer, but there have been few studies of weight loss interventions in this patient group. In this study overweight or obese men treated for prostate cancer were randomised to a self-help diet and activity intervention with telephone-based dietitian support or a wait-list mini-intervention group. The intervention group had an initial group meeting, a supporting letter from their urological consultant, three telephone dietitian consultations at 4-week intervals, a pedometer and access to web-based diet and physical activity resources. At 12 weeks, men in both groups were given digital scales for providing follow-up weight measurements, and the wait-list group received a mini-intervention of the supporting letter, a pedometer and access to the web-based resources. Sixty-two men were randomised; fifty-four completed baseline and 12-week measurements, and fifty-one and twenty-seven provided measurements at 6 and 12 months, respectively. In a repeated-measures model, mean difference in weight change between groups (wait-list mini-intervention minus intervention) at 12 weeks was −2·13 (95 % CI −3·44, −0·82) kg (P = 0·002). At 12 months the corresponding value was −2·43 (95 % CI −4·50, −0·37) kg (P = 0·022). Mean difference in global quality of life score change between groups at 12 weeks was 12·3 (95 % CI 4·93, 19·7) (P = 0·002); at 12 months there were no significant differences between groups. Results suggest the potential of self-help diet and physical activity intervention with trained support for modest but sustained weight loss in this patient group.
To assess weight status and eating habits of undergraduate university students in relation to gender and examine the relationships between weight status, physical activity and eating habits.
Cross-sectional study conducted between October 2016 and May 2017.
Young adults in Midwest Brazil.
Undergraduate university students (n 2163) majoring in health care.
Among 2163 students, 69·3 % were female, 65·4 % were aged 20–29 years, 66·8% consumed alcohol and 44·2% did not achieve more than 150 min of physical activity per week. We found significant differences in the consumption of beans (P < 0·04) and full-fat milk (P < 0·01) between women and men. Women also had more sedentary lifestyles (P < 0·01) and showed higher prevalence of overweight (33·8 %) and obesity (5·0 %) than men. Students who did not engage in physical activity were more overweight (P = 0·03), consumed more soft drinks (P < 0·01) and meat with excess fat (P = 0·01). There was a positive association between weight status and fruit (P = 0·02), salad (P < 0·01), greens/vegetables (P < 0·01) and beans (P < 0·01) intake.
The low level of physical activity and unhealthy eating patterns reported by the study participants were inconsistent with the national recommendations for a healthy active lifestyle for adults and may contribute to the increasing rate of overweight and obesity in this population. A joint effort between universities and all relevant government agencies is needed to develop and promote school- and community-based interventions.
Patients with advanced cancer can experience debilitating physical symptoms, making participation in exercise programs difficult. This systematic review investigated the recruitment, adherence, and attrition rates of patients with advanced cancer participating in exercise interventions and examined components of exercise programs that may affect these rates.
Relevant studies were identified in a systematic search of CINAHL, PubMed, PsycINFO, and EMBASE to December 2017. Two quality assessment tools were used, and levels of evidence were assigned according to the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine (CEBM) guidelines.
The search identified 18 studies published between 2004 and 2017. Recruitment, adherence, and attrition rates varied widely among the studies reviewed. The mean recruitment rate was 49% (standard deviation [SD] = 17; range 15–74%). Patient-reported barriers to recruitment included time constraints and difficulties in traveling to exercise centers. Levels of adherence ranged from 44% to 95%; however, the definition of adherence varied substantially among trials. The average attrition rate was 24% (SD = 8; range 10–42%), with progression of disease status reported as the main cause for dropout during exercise interventions.
Significance of results
Concentrated efforts are needed to increase the numbers of patients with advanced disease recruited to exercise programs. Broadening the eligibility criteria for exercise interventions may improve accrual numbers of patients with advanced cancer to exercise trials and ensure patients recruited are representative of clinical practice.
Objectives: A growing body of research suggests that regular participation in long-term exercise is associated with enhanced cognitive function. However, less is known about the beneficial effects of acute exercise on semantic memory. This study investigated brain activation during a semantic memory task after a single session of exercise in healthy older adults using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Methods: Using a within-subjects counterbalanced design, 26 participants (ages, 55–85 years) underwent two experimental visits on separate days. During each visit, participants engaged in 30 min of rest or stationary cycling exercise immediately before performing a Famous and Non-Famous name discrimination task during fMRI scanning. Results: Acute exercise was associated with significantly greater semantic memory activation (Famous>Non-Famous) in the middle frontal, inferior temporal, middle temporal, and fusiform gyri. A planned comparison additionally showed significantly greater activation in the bilateral hippocampus after exercise compared to rest. These effects were confined to correct trials, and as expected, there were no differences between conditions in response time or accuracy. Conclusions: Greater brain activation following a single session of exercise suggests that exercise may increase neural processes underlying semantic memory activation in healthy older adults. These effects were localized to the known semantic memory network, and thus do not appear to reflect a general or widespread increase in brain blood flow. Coupled with our prior exercise training effects on semantic memory-related activation, these data suggest the acute increase in neural activation after exercise may provide a stimulus for adaptation over repeated exercise sessions. (JINS, 2019, 25, 557–568)
Our pilot study evaluated the feasibility, effectiveness, and implementation of a group-based lifestyle-integrated functional exercise (Mi-LiFE) program for older adults in an interprofessional primary care practice. A physical therapist taught participants how to integrate strength and balance activities into daily routines during one individual and four group sessions, and two follow-up phone calls. Feasibility outcomes were recruitment, adherence, and retention over 6 months. Physical activity (PA) (accelerometer, International Physical Activity Questionnaire [IPAQ]), Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), and health-related quality of life (EuroQol Five-Dimensional Questionnaire with 3 Levels [EQ5D-3L]) were evaluated at baseline and 6 months. Of the 123 eligible individuals, 39 per cent participated and 61 per cent were not interested or unreachable. Forty-eight participants (mean ± standard deviation [SD] age = 81 ± 5 years; body mass index [BMI] = 28 ± 5 kg/m2; 60% women; moderate-to-vigorous PA = 49 ± 87 minutes/week) enrolled. Four participants withdrew prior to intervention. Thirty-two participants (67%) were retained at follow-up. Daily diary-documented adherence was 50 per cent at 6 months, and 77 per cent attended more than four sessions. No statistically significant changes in moderate-to-vigorous PA and SPPB outcomes were observed; yet self-reported strength and balance PA and quality of life significantly improved at follow-up. The Mi-LiFE program is feasible with acceptable recruitment and attendance rates alongside modifications to address retention and adherence challenges. These findings inform the feasibility of future pragmatic exercise programs in primary care for older adults.
Most older Canadians do not engage in sufficient physical activity. There is an urgent need for outside-the-box strategies that encourage and sustain active lifestyles. Video is a promising knowledge translation (KT) tool to engage diverse audiences in discussion and action around health promoting behaviours. We adopted a KT framework to inform a structured process of video development we have named systematic approach to evidence-informed video (SAEV). This guided the creation and dissemination of a 19-minute documentary video: I’d Rather Stay (https://vimeo.com/80503957). Following screenings, we collected focus group and questionnaire data from 48 participants aged 60 years and older at baseline and 6-month follow-up. The video educated, encouraged, and activated older people around issues such as independence, physical activity and social connectedness. We encourage researchers to adopt KT strategies – and to use evidence-informed video – that older adults can relate to and critically engage with on an accessible, emotional, and intellectual level.