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In 2011–2012, severe El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) conditions (La Niña) led to massive flooding and temporarily displacement in the Peruvian Amazon. Our aims were to examine the impact of this ENSO exposure on child diets, in particular: (1) frequency of food consumption patterns, (2) the amount of food consumed (g/d), (3) dietary diversity (DD), (4) consumption of donated foods, among children aged 9–36 months living in the outskirts of City of Iquitos in the Amazonian Peru.
This was a longitudinal study that used quantitative 24-h recall dietary data collection from children aged 9–36 months from 2010 to 2014 as part of the MAL-ED birth cohort study.
Iquitos, Loreto, Peru.
Two hundred and fifty-two mother–child dyads.
The frequency of grains, rice, dairy and sugar in meals reduced by 5–7 %, while the frequency of plantain in meals increased by 24 % after adjusting for covariates. ENSO exposure reduced girl’s intake of plantains and sugar. Despite seasonal fluctuations in the availability of fruits, vegetables and fish, DD remained constant across seasons and as children aged. However, DD was significantly reduced under moderate La Niña conditions by 0·32 (P < 0·05) food groups. Adaptive social strategies such as consumption of donated foods were significantly higher among households with girls.
This is the first empirical study to show differential effect of the ENSO on the dietary patterns of children, highlighting differences by gender. Public health nutrition programmes should be climate- and gender-sensitive in their efforts to safeguard the diets of vulnerable populations.
Peru became one of the fastest growing economies in Latin America following its adoption of promarket reforms. However, trade openness and market liberalization created new pressures. Entrance of foreign competitors to Peruvian markets triggered upgrades to core competences by local companies. This chapter presents the way successful firms from different sectors faced institutional turmoil by upgrading specific capabilities and developing strategic responses to obtain a competitive edge. Our analysis covers companies from different sectors: Deltron (low-tech domestic firm), Cantol (low-tech exporter), Resemin (high-tech multinational), Alicorp (low-tech multinational), Alicorp (low-tech multinational), and Lolimsa (service multinational).
While the upgrading of strategic capabilities in these firms focused on improving product, service, and operational capabilities and on controlling retail operations, their strategic responses focused either on exploiting new windows of opportunity or on defending against the entrance of foreign competitors.
To determine the optimal anthropometric cut-off points for predicting the likelihood ratios of hypertension and diabetes in the Peruvian population.
A cross-sectional study was performed to establish cut-off values for body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference [WC], waist-height ratio [WHtR], and Conicity index [C-index]) associated with increased risk of hypertension and diabetes. Youden’s index (YIndex), area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity and specificity were considered.
Peruvian population over the age of 18 years.
31,553 subjects were included; 57% being women. Among the women, 53.06% belonged to the 25 to 44-year-old age group [mean age: 41.66 in men and 40.02 in women]. The mean BMI, WHtR and C-index values were higher in women 27.49, 0.61, 1.30 respectively; while the mean WC value was higher in men 92.12 cm (SD±11.28). The best predictors of hypertension in men were the WHtR (AUC=0.64) and the C-index (AUC=0.64) with an optimal cut-off point of 0.57 (YIndex=0.284) and 1.301 (YIndex=0.284), respectively. Women showed an AUC of 0.63 and 0.61 in the WHtR and C-index, respectively, with an optimal cut-off of 0.61 (YIndex=0.236) and 1.323 (YIndex=0.225). The best predictor for diabetes was the C-index: with an AUC=0.67 and an optimal cut-off of 1.337 (YIndex=0.346) for men, and an AUC=0.66 and optimal cut-off of 1.313 (YIndex=0.319) for women.
Our findings show that in Peruvian adults, the WHtR and the C-index have the strongest association with hypertension in both sexes. Likewise, the C-index had the strongest association with diabetes.
This chapter examines sociodemographic, economic, and human realities of Peru’s current health and mental health situation focused on Peru’s child and adolescent population segments. After making clear that the facts about the country can be also seen as reflecting the status of Latin America as a continent, the text describes six social contexts (family life, community and neighborhood, education and learning opportunities, healthcare and protection services, societal involvements, and safety and security issues) as scenarios in which social justice-related events tend to occur. Threats and barriers of a diverse nature (poverty, corruption, violence, life in the streets, internal migrations, social interactions, and public health deficiencies) make the contexts evolve into a variety of disruptions and anomalies that almost inevitably compromise the physical, emotional, and social stability of the younger, vulnerable subpopulations under study. Such disruptions are rightly conceptualized as social justice violations that, throughout history, have been the subject of general and specific interventions in various terrains: education, healthcare, ethics, social problems, etc. The cultural nature at the root of all interventions is systematically assessed, and their changing features of success or failure and options for future improvements are described. Special subsections are devoted to programs in Peru and other Latin American countries that have specific social justice-oriented management targets.
Multi-stakeholder mechanisms have been touted as a more democratic and equitable alternative to forest and land use decision-making. It has been argued that these processes do not address power relations and thus maintain the status quo. In this chapter, we examine eight Multi-stakeholder fora in the Peruvian Amazon, half of which have been set up in the Madre de Dios region, and the other half in the San Martin region, both in the Peruvian Amazon. These regions represent two different poles of development paradigms in Peru. While the chapter does not provide a definitive answer around whether multi-stakeholder processes can address power inequalities, three preliminary ideal types are used to analyze these mechanisms, drawn from a realist synthesis review of the literature: decision-making, management and influence. This chapter illuminates how multi-stakeholder fora are affected by their contexts, as well as their process and outcomes.
The objective of this article is to explain the territorial variation in indigenous political representation at the subnational level in Peru. The Peruvian state introduced a weak indigenous electoral quota, and its effects have varied across provinces. This article presents a typology that combines descriptive and substantive dimensions of political representation. Using a subnational comparative method, the four cases studied illustrate distinct dynamics. The article argues that these differing dynamics are explained by a combination of sociostructural variables (i.e., political articulation and cohesion of indigenous organizations as a result of a conflict) and individual variables (i.e., candidates’ political capital). This article demonstrates how, even in an institutionally adverse environment that does not feature ethnic parties, both descriptive and substantive indigenous political representation can be achieved, and that these two dimensions are not necessarily related. The article is based on fieldwork and interviews with key provincial political actors.
From 1900 the potato began to regain its lustre as a political instrument. Developments within nutritional science led dieticians to reverse their earlier condemnations. This reversal coincided with an increase in the capacity of modern states to influence everyday eating habits. The First and Second World Wars were particularly important in developing the technologies and institutions that made this possible. Concerned to provide for the wartime needs of their populations, European governments actively encouraged potato consumption. Nonetheless, the economic development models that emerged in the post-war years paid little attention to potatoes. Only recently has smallholder agriculture been incorporated into international models of food security. Just as the peasant know-how that spread potato cultivation across early modern Europe remained largely invisible, so the smallholder expertise that allowed the potato to preserve its genetic diversity has only begun to be appreciated by international development organisations. Potatoes have also become a source of gastronomic pride; many countries have registered specific varieties as part of their national patrimony. The contemporary history of the potato recapitulates both the eighteenth-century conviction that potatoes could play a role in national security, and also the reality that small farmers, as well as agronomists, possess expertise relevant to building a viable food system.
The expansion of trade and colonial conquest in the early modern era propelled the potato around the world, but the processes that made it a global staple reflect not only these forces but also the varied circumstances that it encountered on its travels. European colonisers congratulated themselves on bringing the nutritious potato to the supposedly backward inhabitants of Bengal and Botany Bay, and viewed its adoption as an index of the overall level of civilisation attained by locals. For gardeners in Tehran, Māori entrepreneurs in New Zealand, and Bengali villagers, potatoes served other purposes. The transformation of eating habits that followed the global dissemination of American foodstuffs after 1492 reveals the complex interactions between local environments, patterns of agriculture and landholding, commercial structures and existing foodways. The potato’s changing status in China demonstrates this well. For centuries the potato provided an important resource for villagers in peripheral regions, yet was almost invisible to the state. Now it is part of a state strategy to increase food security. This transformation in the potato’s political role coincides with the Chinese state’s embrace of the market economy; vigorous state promotion of potatoes has accordingly emphasised individual choice and personal benefit. In China, as in Europe, capitalism, individualism and personal eating practices are closely intertwined with modern forms of statecraft.
Chapter 12 discusses the severity of smallpox in the New World and the use of smallpox inoculation to control smallpox in the West Indies and suppress epidemics in Spanish America. Early attempts to introduce cowpox in Jamaica and elsewhere led to disappointment, but local initiatives began to bear fruit prior to the arrival of the Spanish Royal and Philanthropic Vaccine Expedition in 1804. This well documented expedition, in which children under vaccination were escorted to go arm-to-arm with others along the way, naturally commands centre stage. Projecting an image of professional expertise and imperial benevolence, Dr Balmis and his assistants brought vaccination to Venezuela and helped to set the practice on a firmer organisational footing in Cuba, Guatemala and Mexico. In the meantime, Salvany, his deputy, headed south through Colombia and Peru, vaccinating on an epic scale. Although Lima was already supplied with vaccine from Brazil by way of Buenos Aires, Salvany continued his work in the remote districts of Peru until his death in 1810. His assistant, Grajales, remained in harness in Chile until 1812.
This chapter begins with an overview of international festivals in the region before moving into a detailed examination of the often-competing dynamics and complexities operating within today’s Latin American theatre festival. The chapter centres on two of the region’s major festivals – Chile’s annual Santiago a Mil Festival and Argentina’s biannual Festival Internacional de Buenos Aires – in order to illustrate fundamental differences that range from origins to institutional and funding structures to programming decisions and even to individual festivals’ varied relationships to the international cultural marketplace. Albeit easily dismissed as ‘encuentros vitrina’ (display- or show-case encounters), and despite having cemented a professional and commercial inter-festival relationship in recent years, the two festivals converge and diverge significantly, thus offering insights into the challenges and opportunities found in contemporary Latin American theatre festivals when positioned within the international festival circuits.
Sarah Barrow’s chapter explores several examples from contemporary Latin American cinema as case studies to address some of the terms and issues that are raised by the notion of transnational cinematographic (dis)connections, and to capitalize on the productive intersection of ideas and debates that have begun to emerge in this area. Analyses of important films from Chile, Mexico and Peru that have crossed borders from many logistical and conceptual perspectives, are deployed to highlight some of the many ways that we might better understand the way that film culture explores, highlights, disrupts and interrogates notions of intercultural communication.
This article recounts the story of the Seventh-day Adventists’ success in Puno, Peru, between 1900 and 1925, from a grassroots perspective. Retracing the footsteps of prominent indigenous converts, the article presents the discovery that most of the church's native leaders were army veterans. These men had spent years away from their communities and, upon their return, discovered the numerous challenges of reintegration into rural society. In almost every aspect of communal life, veterans encountered obstacles to their reintegration: their lands had been usurped, they lacked the necessary social and political outreach, and they were ridiculed and marginalized because of the cultural—apparently mestizo—habits and practices they had adopted while away. In their quest for alternatives, these veterans left the Catholic Church and converted to Seventh-day Adventism. Conversion, I argue, offered an answer to the difficulties of their reintegration. It provided new opportunities for social and economic mobility and possibilities for veterans to reinterpret their Indian racial identity in a way that would include the seemingly mestizo traits they had adopted while in the barracks and on the coast. Thus, this paper sheds light on how religious conversion served to ameliorate some of the difficulties that veterans faced as they attempted to re-enter rural life.
This chapter focuses on eight historical developments identified as contexts for legitimised violence in Spanish America. These include the wars of conquest, which Spaniards legitimised through ‘factual’ arguments, such as combating barbarity and bringing civility to indigenous peoples; the Spiritual Conquest of indigenous peoples and the associated activities of the Spanish Inquisition, both of which sometimes featured violence as a means to suppress what Spaniard categorised as heresy and idolatry; hemispheric slavery and its dehumanising nature, which left African and African-descended peoples vulnerable to violence; violence towards all women, but particularly towards indigenous and African women; and finally, state-sanctioned violence used as a tool to suppress ‘revolts’, which were often the product of European anxieties regarding colonial subjects. It is argued that the twin threads of violence that strung these developments together were the promise of wealth and status combined with an ideology of justification for committing violence. Acts of violence that historians might view as being homicidal, personal, arbitrary or contrary to Spanish law could, in fact, be justified, legitimised and committed with impunity in the name of ‘civilising’, with particularly horrific consequences for indigenous peoples throughout Spanish America.
This chapter explores the implementation of regulation in Lima in the early twentieth century. It considers the increasingly public debate over prostitution, in which several groups intervened including freemasons, anarchists, anticlerical journalists, and feminists, and the arguments put forward by the medico-legal community in support of regulation in this period. The chapter also examines how the authorities used the powers to police prostitution created by regulation in order to shape its geography and character.
This chapter considers the context in which Lima’s barrio rojo or red-light district was established in 1928. The decision by Lima’s prefect to establish a red-light district in La Victoria, a peripheral part of Lima (geographically and socially), was a response to growing pressure from Lima’s citizens who, particularly in the 1920s, complained of the danger that the proximity and visibility of prostitutes, both clandestine and registered, represented to decency and morality. Such complaints reveal a growing anxiety over the moral contagion that could result from the proximity of prostitutes, an anxiety that reflected broader fears about transgressive female behavior.
The conclusion serves three purposes. First, it provides a discussion of the book’s contributions to the different fields of scholarship with which it is in dialogue: the history of gender and sexuality, the history of medicine and public health, and the history of the state in Peru. Second, it considers in what ways this history can help us to reflect on current debates over prostitution in Peru. Finally, it considers that ways in which the history of prostitution in Peru can inform current debates over patriarchy and male sexual privilege.
This chapter examines the process that led to the closure of the barrio rojo in 1956. In a first section, it considers how the establishment of the barrio rojo coincided with an increasingly widely held negative view of regulation, which reflected the growing influence of abolitionism in the medical community and the public sphere, but it was also fed by the perception that the barrio rojo was a place of criminality and epidemiological threat. The chapter then examines the history of abolitionism in Peru, focusing on the establishment of the Comité Abolicionista Peruano and the activities that its members, a mix of medical doctors, lawyers, and feminists, promoted. In a third section, the chapter examines the campaigns led by publications such as ¡Ya! and Ultima Hora, in the late 1940s and early 1950s, to close down the red-light district. These campaigns, as a final section, drew on abolitionist arguments and contributed to the closure of the barrio rojo in 1956.
This chapter examines the role played by doctors in the regulation of prostitution and in containing the spread of venereal disease. At a time when, around the world, concern about, as well as research into, venereal disease were on the rise, doctors in Peru were drawn to its study. As they began to diagnose venereal disease more accurately, and came to recognize how it affected the Peruvian population, doctors grew increasingly anxious about the institutional capacities to properly treat venereal disease and what a high incidence of venereal disease signified for the nation. The creation in the 1910s of the Asistencia Pública, the institution charged with the medical inspection of prostitutes, and, in the 1920s, of the sifilicomio (syphilis clinic) did little to reduce the spread of venereal disease.
This chapter serves as an introduction to the book. It presents the main arguments of the book and well as the historical context and discusses the scholarship with which it is in dialogue. It also briefly introduces each chapter.