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Cynical hostility (CH), a specific dimension of hostility that consists of a mistrust of others, has been suggested as a high-risk trait for dementia. However, the influence of CH on the incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains poorly understood. This study investigated whether late-life CH is associated with AD risk and structural neuroimaging markers of AD.
In community-dwelling older adults from the French ESPRIT cohort (n = 1388), incident dementia rate according to CH level was monitored during an 8-year follow-up and analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regression models. Brain magnetic resonance imaging volumes were measured at baseline (n = 508). Using automated segmentation procedures (Freesurfer 6.0), the authors assessed brain grey and white volumes on all magnetic resonance imaging scans. They also measured white matter hyperintensities volumes using semi-automated procedures. Mean volumes according to the level of CH were compared using ANOVA.
Eighty-four participants developed dementia (32 with AD). After controlling for potential confounders, high CH was predictive of AD (HR 2.74; 95% CI 1.10–6.85; p = 0.030) and all dementia types are taken together (HR 2.30; 95% CI 1.10–4.80; p = 0.027). High CH was associated with white matter alterations, particularly smaller anterior corpus callosum volume (p < 0.01) after False Discovery Rate correction, but not with grey matter volumes.
High CH in late life is associated with cerebral white matter alterations, designated as early markers of dementia, and higher AD risk. Identifying lifestyle and biological determinants related to CH could provide clues on AD physiopathology and avenues for prevention strategies.
This chapter begins by arguing that the common tendency to write off Rorty’s views on morality on the grounds that they are vulnerable to straightforward charges of relativism is mistaken if only because it ignores the fact that those views are conceived independently of his epistemological behaviorism. It then moves on to examine the relationship between Rorty’s notion of selfhood and his distinction between public and private morality. In exploring that relationship, a number of problematic issues are identified concerning: Rorty’s dependence on a Freudian multi-personality account of the self, his excessive optimism regarding the demands of self-creation in modern societies, and whether the very idea of morality as a private concern can carry the weight he places upon it. Some of the literary critic Lionel Trilling’s views on the burdens of self-making are introduced to temper Rorty’s utopian expectations.
This chapter outlines a number of issues which are important in grammatical description (though they are often taken for granted) and which can affect readers’ understanding: the depth and refinement of the description, how to distinguish between different uses, and how to recognise and verbalise the concepts of formality and acceptability. Following this there is a consideration of three other important issues based on a research project (METALANG) using a corpus of grammatical description:
personality – e.g. whether to use personal pronouns (we, you) to address the reader, or a passive, and the pros and cons of each;
modality – the use of e.g. modal auxiliaries such as can and adverbs such as generally to indicate some form of hedging on statements, which is very common;
sub-technical vocabulary – e.g. the use of words such as ‘state’, ‘action’, ‘event’ to describe the meaning of verbs.
Then there is a lengthy discussion of different approaches to exemplification, in particular the relative merits of contrived and ‘authentic’ examples. The chapter ends with a comparative analysis of two passages, one scientific and one pedagogic, on the same grammatical area using these criteria.
This paper examines the role of core self-evaluations (CSEs) in the relationships among emotional demands, emotional dissonance, and depersonalization. Data were collected from a non-random sample of 423 teachers who worked in primary, secondary, and higher education institutions. Results from structural equation modeling analysis showed that CSEs displayed both direct and indirect effects on depersonalization through employees' perceptions and reactions to emotional labor. Specifically, those individuals with more positive CSEs tended to perceive the emotional aspects of their job as less demanding, thus being less likely to experience emotional dissonance and, in turn, depersonalization. This research demonstrated that CSEs play a vital role in explaining employees' reactions to emotional labor and, therefore, their effects should be properly accounted for in future studies. Implications for practice and future lines of research are discussed in this paper.
There have been similarities and differences in results of psycholexical research across cultures, and it is difficult to understand whether these are due to real cross-cultural differences and similarities, or to methodological influences. Two approaches have been typically used: a global approach that follows a variation of the original lexical paradigm, and a local approach that is indigenous in methods and assumptions. We provide examples of how a combination of sources, a GloCal approach, is more likely to yield a comprehensive picture of personality in any language by combining global and local approaches, informed by a thorough understanding of the language and culture studied. The GloCal approach allows the researcher to a) identify shared and unique components of the personality conceptions and structure across methods in a culture, b) ensure that the lexicon used is relevant to the culture, and comprehensive, and c) increase the ecological validity of stimulus materials in personality inventories.
Lea Pulkkinen, born in Finland in 1939, is Emerita Professor of Psychology at the University of Jyväskylä (Finland). She is best known for creating the ongoing Jyväskylä Longitudinal Study of Personality and Social Development (JLSPSD). The study was specifically intended to test the hypothesis that the human brain allows for more variation in behavior than the simple ‘fight or flight’ response observed in animal studies of aggression. She further hypothesized that humans’ capacity for cognitive control over emotional behavior was the key factor involved in controlling aggressive behavior. These hypotheses led her to devise an impulse control model to depict behavioral alternatives, which she tested with teacher and peer ratings of aggressive and nonaggressive behaviors. Forty years later, the JLSPSD revealed the long-term significance of self-regulation for socio-emotional behavior. Results from the study showed that aggressive behavior during childhood tends to be associated with other types of under-controlled behavior during adulthood. On the other hand, ‘constructive’ behavior in childhood tends to lead to positive social relations, mental health, and successful integration in the work force.
Gian Vittorio Caprara was born in Italy in 1944. He is Emeritus Professor in Psychology at the University of Rome and was also a fellow at the Netherlands Institute for Advanced Study and at the Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study. He founded the Interuniversity Center for the Study of Prosocial and Antisocial Motivation in Italy. He studied three major topics – personality, aggression, political preferences and participation – with an interactionist and social cognitive approach in which personality is considered a self-regulatory system while biological potential is mostly conditioned by culture. He initiated the Genzano Longitudinal Study, which followed 10-year-old children from elementary school through adolescence. The study focused on the development of aggression and prosocial behavior; stability and change in personality; the determinants of academic achievement and vocational choices; family and romantic relations; and civic and political behavior. The study investigated how different aspects of personality operate in concert. The aim was to clarify pathways that lead to maladjusted and risky behaviors. The findings led to the development of a theory that assigns to marginal deviations from normative behaviors a crucial role in the development of maladjusted behavior. The study also led to psychosocial interventions promoting and sustaining healthy development.
Recently developed quantitative models of psychopathology (i.e., Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology) identify an Antagonistic Externalizing spectrum that captures the psychological disposition toward criminal and antisocial behavior. The purpose of the present study was to examine relations between Antagonistic psychopathology (and associated Five-Factor model Antagonism/Agreeableness) and neural functioning related to social-cognitive Theory of Mind using a large sample (N = 973) collected as part of the Human Connectome Project (Van Essen et al., 2013a). No meaningful relations between Antagonism/Antagonistic Externalizing and Theory of Mind-related neural activity or synchrony were observed (p < .005). We conclude by outlining methodological considerations (e.g., validity of social cognition task and low test–retest reliability of functional biomarkers) that may account for these null results, and present recommendations for future research.
Older adults exhibit heightened vulnerability for alcohol-related health impairments. Increases in the proportion of older adults within the European Union’s total population and prevalence rates of alcohol use disorders in this age group are being observed. This large scale international study was conducted to identify those older adults with an increased risk to engage in hazardous drinking behaviour.
Socio-demographic, socio-economic, personality characteristics (Big Five Inventory, BFI-10), and alcohol consumption patterns of 13,351 individuals from 12 different European countries, collected by the Survey of Health, Aging, and Retirement in Europe, were analyzed using regression models.
Age, nationality, years of education, as well as personality traits, were significantly associated with alcohol intake. For males, extraversion predicted increased alcohol intake (RR = 1.11, CI = 1.07–1.16), whereas conscientiousness (RR = 0.93, CI = 0.89–0.97), and agreeableness (RR = 0.94, CI = 0.90–0.99), were associated with a reduction. For females, openness to new experiences (RR = 1.11, CI = 1.04–1.18) predicted increased alcohol intake. Concerning excessive drinking, personality traits, nationality, and age-predicted consumption patterns for both sexes: Extraversion was identified as a risk factor for excessive drinking (OR = 1.15; CI = 1.09–1.21), whereas conscientiousness was identified as a protective factor (OR = 0.87; CI = 0.823–0.93).
Hazardous alcohol consumption in the elderly was associated with specific personality characteristics. Preventative measures, crucial in reducing deleterious health consequences, should focus on translating the knowledge of the association of certain personality traits and alcohol consumption into improved prevention and treatment.
On average, men tend to start earlier, perform better, and persist longer than women in the chess domain. Similarly to several other domains, such as those related with STEM fields (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics), women are highly underrepresented in the chess domain. The marked difference in the amount of men and women participating in chess, has led to the assumption that the differences in chess performance between men and women is due to a statistical effect derived from the differences in participation rates. In contrast, other findings suggest that men might have an innate advantage or better predisposition for chess playing, enhanced by certain cultural factors. Some differences in the chess playing of men and women that have been reported in relatively recent studies are also highlighted. The chapter closes by presenting a statistical analysis that compares sex differences in chess performance at different levels of practice, which suggests factors other than practice as the underlying causes of these sex differences.
Human personality is the other main broad domain addressed within the general framework of individual differences. The chapter provides a brief description about the main approaches used in the study of human personality. Moreover, substantial questions addressed in this chapter include whether personality influences chess playing style, or whether chess player’s personality differs in some special way from that of other people uninvolved in chess. In addition, whether personality factors may interact in some way with cognitive abilities in chess players is another interesting and relatively novel topic. In contrast with intelligence, however, the body of research about the personality of chess players is rather scarce. Nevertheless, there have been some interesting findings in the latter years that are summarized within this chapter. The ending section of this chapter presents novel data about the interplay amongst personality, motivation, and emotional regulation in predicting chess skill.
As Americans’ trust in their government—most specifically Congress—has declined over the past half century, it has become increasingly important to answer the question of who does or does not trust government and why. Trust research tends to take for granted that sex affects trust—most studies control for it—but results have been mixed. This could be because researchers have been looking at the wrong aspect of gender, relying on the traditional distinction of sex rather than an alternative—the non-sex-specific distinction of feminine personality traits. These traits are communal in nature, and as such, they may lead to higher levels of trust in government. This article analyzes the potential effect of femininity, demonstrating that feminine personalities are significantly more trusting of our governing institutions than nonfeminine personalities.
Entrepreneurial orientation (EO) is a key factor in the creation and development of companies. This study examines the CEO's personal background (personality, proactivity and resistance to change) and its influence on the EO of the organization to determine which factors enhance or weaken EO. We achieve this goal through quantitative research, developing a structural equations model with partial least squares to analyse a sample of 358 Spanish SMEs from different sectors. The results suggest that specific personality dimensions exert substantial influence on the organization's EO. We also analyse individual proactivity and resistance to change as conduits for the effect of personality dimensions on the company's EO.
The collective nature of character is a defining aspect of magical realism in the Americas and arguably the mode’s most notable departure from the conventions of literary realism. Magical realist authors aim to express communal realities, whether political, historical and/or cultural. To this end, they create 'insubstantial' characters who are not individualized or given complex interior lives. Rather, their identity is relational and based in collective structures, whether family, class, culture and/or ideology. Given magical realism’s greater investment in political and cultural selfhood, characters tend toward archetype and their lives toward allegory. The magical realist strategy of minimizing individuality in favor of collective experience allows authors to foreground politics over personality. As readers, we are asked to focus not on single selves, but on the political arc of entire continents and cultures. The authors discussed are García Márquez, Carpentier, Allende, Borges, Donoso and Erdrich.
While psychologists agree that individuals differ from each other on a variety of traits (e.g., personality), the theoretical and methodological assumptions used to develop pen and paper psychometric tests have failed to keep pace with recent computational developments that utilise digital traces to infer information about individuals and the world around them. For example, while self-report assessments are designed to predict behaviour in the absence of any real-world measure, digital devices (e.g., smartphones) have facilitated the measurement of many real-world outcomes (Piwek et al., 2016). Even the purchase of a specific device can reveal something about the individual behind the screen (Shaw, Ellis and Ziegler, 2018). Smartphones could therefore lead to a step change in how we study and conceptualise a variety of individual differences. This is particularly pertinent when it comes to understanding personality traits (e.g., levels of extraversion – a measure of sociability) that are automatically deployed in new situations seamlessly and non-consciously (Roberts and Hill, 2017).
A number of studies using smartphones have correlated data from these devices with traditional psychometric tests. However, following a brief review of this work, this chapter will question how much progress has been made in this domain. There remains a general consensus among many social scientists that, while traditional psychometric measures are far from perfect, they are the only option available. This chapter will challenge that assumption however, data derived from smartphone sensing may ultimately support the notion that existing psychometric tools remain valuable and reinforce existing conceptualisations of standard personality models.
There is a common misconception that our genomes - all unique, except for those in identical twins - have the upper hand in controlling our destiny. The latest genetic discoveries, however, do not support that view. Although genetic variation does influence differences in various human behaviours to a greater or lesser degree, most of the time this does not undermine our genuine free will. Genetic determinism comes into play only in various medical conditions, notably some psychiatric syndromes. Denis Alexander here demonstrates that we are not slaves to our genes. He shows how a predisposition to behave in certain ways is influenced at a molecular level by particular genes. Yet a far greater influence on our behaviours is our world-views that lie beyond science - and that have an impact on how we think the latest genetic discoveries should, or should not, be applied. Written in an engaging style, Alexander's book offers tools for understanding and assessing the latest genetic discoveries critically.
This chapter examines the relationship between trait-based (personality) anger and trust in government. I utilize the NEO-PI-R measure of anger, derived from clinical psychology, to show that individuals whose personality predisposes them to be angry are more distrustful of the national government across multiple metrics. I also show that the relationship between trait-based anger and trust in government is moderated by an individual’s partisan affiliation.
The common kestrel is a generalist predator. However, it also shows significant within-species variation in food habits, such as local specialisations on given prey (e.g. voles in northern or lizards in southern Europe) or even individual food preferences. This chapter illustrates the factors that affect the diet composition of kestrels, their foraging strategies and the processes of food competition, including kleptoparasitism. It also explores the last-generation techniques, such as stable isotope analyses and accelerometer-GPS loggers, that would enable the limits of classic methods used to study the feeding ecology of kestrels to be overcome.
The chapter considers gender and personality research within the dispositional paradigm. It provides a brief discussion of current research to demonstrate the largely Western focus on empirical research on gender differences in personality traits. The chapter draws on our own research with the Chinese Personality Assessment Inventory (CPAI) in Chinese and non-Chinese samples, South African work on the etic NEO Personality Inventory - Revised (NEO-PI-R), and the development of the emic South African Personality Inventory (SAPI), and extraction of personality traits in the Arab Levant to present a more balanced picture of gender research in personality beyond the etic context. In so doing we illustrate the need for a more nuanced approach to understanding gender in personality psychology where gender is recognized alongside issues of culture, ethnicity, sexual orientation, nationality, etc. The chapter illustrates the value of incorporating intersectionality in understanding gender within the dispositional approach to personality.