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This article advocates a new interpretation of inner experience – the experience that one has of one’s empirical-psychological features ‘from within’ – in Kant. It argues that for Kant inner experience is the empirical cognition of mental states, but not that of a persistent mental substance. The schema of persistence is thereby substituted with the regulative idea of the soul. This view is shown to be superior to two opposed interpretations: the parity view that regards inner experience as empirical cognition of a mental object on a par with outer experience and the disparity view that denies altogether that inner experience is empirical cognition.
The objectives of the research described here were to describe the persistence of intramammary infections (IMI) caused by coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) in goats using strain-typing, and to evaluate the relationship between species-specific CNS IMI and somatic cell score (SCS) at the udder-half level. Udder-half milk samples were collected from all 909 lactating goats (1817 halves; 1 blind half) in a single herd. Milk samples were cultured on Columbia blood agar, and 220 goats with at least one half yielding a single colony type CNS were enrolled for two additional half-level samplings at approximately 1-month intervals. Isolates were identified to the species level by matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry or PCR amplification and partial sequencing of tuf or rpoB. An IMI was defined as persistent when ≥1 follow-up sample yielded the same species and strain as on Day 0 based on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. A generalised mixed linear model was used to evaluate the odds of persistence as a function of CNS species. A mixed linear model was used to evaluate the relationship between IMI status on a given day and SCS. Among 192 IMI, 69.8% were persistent based on species and strain-type. Staphylococcus simulans IMI had higher odds of persistence than Staphylococcus arlettae IMI. In primiparous goats, Staphylococcus epidermidis IMI was associated with higher SCS than S. arlettae, Staphylococcus xylosus and ‘other CNS’ IMI. The differences detected in the present study between CNS species, with regard to persistence of IMI and association with SCS, highlight the need to study CNS at the species and strain level to understand the pathogenicity and epidemiology of CNS in goats.
Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is associated with high rates of psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia in up to 30% of individuals with the syndrome. Despite this, we know relatively little about trajectories and predictors of persistence of psychiatric disorders from middle childhood to early adulthood. Accordingly, we followed youth over four timepoints, every 3 years, to assess long-term trajectories of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety, mood, and psychosis-spectrum disorders (PSDs), as well as medication usage.
Eighty-seven youth with 22q11DS and 65 controls between the ages of 9 and 15 years at the first timepoint (T1; mean age 11.88 ± 2.1) were followed for 9 years (mean age of 21.22 ± 2.01 years at T4). Baseline cognitive, clinical, and familial predictors of persistence were identified for each class of psychiatric disorders.
Baseline age and parent-rated hyperactivity scores predicted ADHD persistence [area under curve (AUC) = 0.81]. The presence of family conflict predicted persistence of anxiety disorders (ADs) whereas parent ratings of child internalizing symptoms predicted persistence of both anxiety and mood disorders (MDs) (AUC = 0.84 and 0.83, respectively). Baseline prodromal symptoms predicted persistent and emergent PSDs (AUC = 0.83). Parent-reported use of anti-depressants/anxiolytics increased significantly from T1 to T4.
Psychiatric, behavioral, and cognitive functioning during late childhood and early adolescence successfully predicted children with 22q11DS who were at highest risk for persistent psychiatric illness in young adulthood. These findings emphasize the critical importance of early assessments and interventions in youth with 22q11DS.
Egyptian broomrape (Phelipanche aegyptiaca Pers.) is a root-parasitic weed that severely damages many crops worldwide, including tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). In Israel, the management protocol used for P. aegyptiaca in open-field tomato includes PPI sulfosulfuron at 37.5 g ai ha−1 to the top 10-cm soil layer. The objective of this study was to investigate the co-effect of sulfosulfuron application timing and variable degradation rate in soil on the control efficacy of P. aegyptiaca in tomato. Degradation of sulfosulfuron (80ng g−1 soil) at a temperature of 15C, measured in soil samples from three farms using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry, followed a first-order kinetics with variable degradation rate constant among sites (0.008 to 0.012 d−1). Incubation at 25 C increased sulfosulfuron degradation rate constant by a factor of 2 to 2.7 in soils from the different sites, with a similar degradation rate order among soils. A higher degradation rate in the soil resulted in a shorter period of residual activity, measured using a sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.] bioassay. Phelipanche aegyptiaca management in open-field tomatoes was investigated in five independent field experiments. Sulfosulfuron soil concentration throughout the growing season (following preplant incorporation of 37.5 g ha−1) was calculated from laboratory-measured degradation rates, which were corrected to represent the effect of recorded temperatures at each field. At the end of the tomato growing season, control efficacy of P. aegyptiaca varied among experiments (70.4% to 100%) and positively correlated with predicted sulfosulfuron concentration at the critical period for seedling control (R2=0.67). The current study confirms that sulfosulfuron is degraded in soil to nonphytotoxic metabolites and that rapid degradation rates would result in reduced injury to P. aegyptiaca seedling and, consequently, lower control efficacy.
Self-reported psychotic experiences (SRPE) by individuals from the general population are often unconfirmed by clinical interview and referred to as ‘false-positive’ (FP) SRPE. FP SRPE have been suggested to represent the mildest form of risk along the extended psychosis continuum. However, little is known about their (clinical) outcome and evolution over time. Aims of this study were to prospectively examine, in individuals with FP SRPE, (1) the prevalence of remission, persistence and transition to validated PE at 3-year follow-up; (2) potential baseline psychopathological and psychosocial predictors of persistence of FP SRPE and transition to validated PE; and (3) whether those with persistent FP SRPE and validated PE already differed on psychopathology and psychosocial factors at baseline. We tested the hypotheses that (i) individuals with FP SRPE would be more likely to have SRPE and validated PE at follow-up; and (ii) that FP SRPE would be predictive of lower functioning and more psychopathology and help-seeking behaviour at follow-up.
Baseline (n = 6646) and 3-year follow-up (n = 5303) data of the second the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS-2), a general population research project on prevalence, incidence, course and consequences of psychiatric disorders was used. Self-report of PE was followed by clinical interview to determine clinical validity. The presence of mood, anxiety and substance use disorders, childhood adversity, help-seeking and functioning as well as PE characteristics (number, frequency, distress and impact) were used in the analyses which included only individuals with complete data for both assessments waves (n = 4683).
At baseline, 454 participants had any FP SRPE; of these 372 participants had complete follow-up data available. Those with baseline FP SRPE were significantly more likely to report SRPE (OR = 3.58; 95% CI 2.38–5.40, p < 0.001) and validated PE (OR = 6.26; 95% CI 3.91–10.02, p < 0.001) at follow-up. Baseline FP SRPE also predicted the presence of mood and anxiety disorders, reduced functioning and help-seeking at follow-up. Several baseline psychopathological, psychosocial and PE characteristics were predictive for the persistence of SRPE. These factors also differentiated groups with FP SRPE or validated PE from those with remitted FP SRPE at follow-up.
‘FP SRPE’ are not truly ‘false’ as they index risk for the development of clinically relevant psychotic symptoms, development of mood and anxiety disorders and reduced functioning. Self-reported PE, even unconfirmed, warrant ‘watchful waiting’ and follow-up over time, especially when they are reported by individuals with reduced psychosocial functioning and general psychiatric problems.
The signal transduction pathway is the important process of communication of the cells. It is the dynamical interaction between the ligand-receptor complexes and an inhibitor protein in second messenger synthesis. The signaling molecules are detected and bounded by receptors, typically G-Protein receptors, across the cell membrane and that in turns alerts intracellular molecules to stimulate a response or a desired consequence in the target cells. In this research, we consider a model of the signal transduction process consisting of a system of three differential equations which involve the dynamic interaction between an inhibitor protein and the ligand-receptor complexes in the second messenger synthesis. We will incorporate a delay τ in the time needed before the signal amplification process can take effect on the production of the ligand-receptor complex. We investigate persistence and stability of the system. It is shown that the system allows positive solutions and the positive equilibrium is locally asymptotically stable under suitable conditions on the system parameters.
Avian influenza virus (AIV) type A subtype H9N2 usually causes mild asymptomatic infections, and is mostly undetected and is, therefore, under-reported. This has allowed the virus to rapidly evolve via mutations and reassortments in its genome with other avian influenza subtypes especially H1N1, H5N1 and H7N3 thereby introducing new variant strains and producing severe disease. It has been reported that the AIV H9N2 donated its internal genes for the devastating 1997 Hong Kong outbreak and furthermore, it may be the cause of the next influenza pandemic. There are many factors such as its wide host range, ability to cross the species barrier, ecological diversity, antiviral resistance and zoonotic importance that make it an excellent candidate for the next influenza pandemic. These and other factors like ineffective vaccination, negative immunological pressures, lack of surveillance, which contribute to its continuous persistence and evolutionary dynamics are discussed in this paper. It is important to take the necessary measures to control and prevent its unchecked circulation to prevent the future outbreaks.
We analyse the asymptotic behaviour of a biological system described by a stochastic competition model with
resources (chemostat model), in which the species mortality rates are influenced by the fractional Brownian motion of the extrinsic noise environment. By constructing a Lyapunov functional, the persistence and extinction criteria are derived in the mean square sense. Some examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the theoretical result.
On construit dans cet article un nouveau type de contrats salariaux imbriqués proches de ceux qui avaient été développés par Calvo (1983). On intègre ces contrats dans un modèle d'équilibre général intertemporal stochastique, en modélisant explicitement la détermination des salaires par des syndicats maximisant leur utilité de manière rationnelle. On calcule les contrats de salaires optimaux, ainsi que la réponse dynamique de l'économie à des chocs monétaires. II est démontré que, contrairement à ce qui se passe dans de nombreux modèles « traditionnels », on peut obtenir une réponse très persistante et « en cloche » de l'output, ainsi que des autocorrélations positives pour les variations de l'emploi et de la production. Tous ces résultats sont obtenus dans un modèle avec solutions exactes.
La littérature empirique sur les chocs de politique monétaire nous informe que des chocs restrictifs sont suivis d'une hausse persistante des taux d'intérêt et d'une diminution persistante de la production. Les modèles monétaires standards de cycle peuvent expliquer les effets directs des chocs monétaires, mais ont des difficultés à reproduire la persistance de ceux-ci. Dans cet article, j'examine si les frictions qui affectent les décisions des ménages d'allocation des ressources peuvent mener à des effets persistants. Dans le modèle, les ménages détiennent deux actifs. L'un est utilisé à des fins de transaction (le compte à vue) et l'autre à des fins d'investissement (le carnet d'épargne). Il existe un faible coût de transaction pour transférer des fonds entre les actifs. Le fait que les entreprises accumulent des bénéfices non distribués et reversent les profits aux consommateurs avec un certain délai constitue également un facteur clé du modèle. Je montre que dans cet environnement, des chocs monétaires peuvent avoir des effets persistants même si le coût d'ajustement est très faible.
Evidence suggests that childhood adversity is associated with the development of psychotic experiences (PE), psychotic symptoms and disorders. However, less is known regarding the impact of early adversity on the persistence of PE and clinically relevant psychosis. Thus we conducted a systematic review of the association between childhood adversity and the course of PE and symptoms over time.
A systematic search of Medline, EMBASE and PsychINFO databases was undertaken to identify articles published between January 1956 and November 2014. We included studies conducted on general population samples, individuals at ultra-high risk (UHR) of psychosis, and patients with full-blown psychotic disorders. A meta-analysis was performed on a subgroup.
A total of 20 studies were included. Of these, 17 reported positive associations between exposure to overall or specific subtypes of childhood adversity and persistence of PE or clinically relevant psychotic symptoms. A meta-analysis of nine studies yielded a weighted odds ratio of 1.76 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19–2.32, p < 0.001] for general population studies and 1.55 (95% CI 0.32–2.77, p = 0.007) for studies conducted using clinical populations.
The available evidence is limited but tentatively suggests that reported exposure to adverse events in childhood is associated with persistence of PE and clinically relevant psychotic symptoms. This partially strengthens the case for addressing the consequences of early adversity in individuals presenting with psychotic phenomena to improve long-term outcomes. However, the heterogeneity of studies was high which urges caution in interpreting the results and highlights the need for more methodologically robust studies.
Continuous treatment is an important indicator of medication adherence in dementia. However, long-term studies in larger clinical settings are lacking, and little is known about moderating effects of patient and service characteristics.
Data from 12,910 outpatients with dementia (mean age 79.2 years; SD = 7.6 years) treated between January 2003 and December 2013 in Germany were included. Continuous treatment was analysed using Kaplan–Meier curves and log-rank tests. In addition, multivariate Cox regression models were fitted with continuous treatment as dependent variable and the predictors antidementia agent, age, gender, medical comorbidities, physician specialty, and health insurance status.
After one year of follow-up, nearly 60% of patients continued drug treatment. Donezepil (HR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.82–0.95) and memantine (HR: 0.85; 0.79–0.91) patients were less likely to be discontinued treatment as compared to rivastigmine users. Patients were less likely to be discontinued if they were treated by specialist physicians as compared to general practitioners (HR: 0.44; 0.41–0.48). Younger male patients and patients who had private health insurance had a lower discontinuation risk. Regarding comorbidity, patients were more likely to be continuously treated with the index substance if a diagnosis of heart failure or hypertension had been diagnosed at baseline.
Our results imply that besides type of antidementia agent, involvement of a specialist in the complex process of prescribing antidementia drugs can provide meaningful benefits to patients, in terms of more disease-specific and continuous treatment.
Fomesafen, saflufenacil, and sulfentrazone had similar parameters for their mass spectrometry analysis, all being analyzed in negative mode with similar ionization energies. Flumioxazin was analyzed in positive mode using different ionization temperatures and voltage energies, and a larger injection volume (10 µl compared with 2–5 µl) due to lower liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS) detector response. Quantitative limits of detection in soil were < 5 parts per billion by weight for all herbicides. The field study was conducted three times (2010, 2011, 2012) with four blocks of each treatment each year. Herbicide concentrations over time were based on field samples that were later extracted and quantified using the described LC-MS procedures. Data were examined using a simple first-order (SFO) equation with each year-by-herbicide treatment combination regressed using SigmaPlot version 12.5 to determine regression parameters. The SFO rate constant was used to determine a half life, or DT50 (in days) for each curve. All data were analyzed using a GLMMix ANOVA procedure using SAS version 9.3 and contrast statements were used to directly compare each herbicide comparison. Slopes for each herbicide use the SFO curve and were estimated using SAS. The order from shortest to longest DT50 was flumioxazin (21.1 d) = saflufenacil (21.4 d) < fomesafen (45.6 d) < sulfentrazone (70.8 d). These results concur with the labeled recrop recommendations after application for flumioxazin and saflufenacil, which have shorter cotton plant-back restrictions compared with sulfentrazone and fomesafen. In these studies, none of the herbicides was highly persistent (all half-lives < 100 d), so none would be expected to be persistent pollutants in the environment, although further research is needed in this area.
Alcohol consumption is a possible co-factor of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) persistence, a major step in cervical carcinogenesis, but the association between alcohol and continuous HPV infection remains unclear. This prospective study identified the association between alcohol consumption and HR-HPV persistence. Overall, 9230 women who underwent screening during 2002–2011 at the National Cancer Center, Korea were analysed in multivariate logistic regression. Current drinkers [odds ratio (OR) 2·49, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·32–4·71] and drinkers for ⩾5 years (OR 2·33, 95% CI 1·17–4·63) had a higher risk of 2-year HR-HPV persistence (HPV positivity for 3 consecutive years) than non-drinkers and drinkers for <5 years, respectively (vs. HPV negativity for 3 consecutive years). A high drinking frequency (⩾twice/week) and a high beer intake (⩾3 glasses/occasion) had higher risks of 1-year (OR 1·80, 95% CI 1·01–3·36) HPV positivity for 2 consecutive years) and 2-year HR-HPV persistence (OR 3·62, 95% CI 1·35–9·75) than non-drinkers. Of the HPV-positive subjects enrolled, drinking habit (OR 2·68, 95% CI 1·10–6·51) and high consumption of beer or soju (⩾2 glasses/occasion; OR 2·90, 95% CI 1·06–7·98) increased the risk of 2-year consecutive or alternate HR-HPV positivity (vs. consecutive HPV negativity). These findings suggest that alcohol consumption might increase the risk of cervical HR-HPV persistence in Korean women.
Recent cross-sectional studies have shown psychotic experiences (PEs) are associated with suicidal ideation and behaviours. We aimed to examine associations between psychotic experiences (including persistent PE), and contemporaneous and incident non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicide attempts.
Participants were from an Australian longitudinal cohort of 1896 adolescents (12–17 years). NSSI and suicide attempts were measured using the Self-Harm Behaviour Questionnaire. Items from the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children were used to assess psychotic experiences, and the General Health Questionnaire-12 measured psychological distress.
Adolescents both psychologically distressed and endorsing psychotic experiences had increased odds of contemporaneous and incident NSSI and attempted suicide. Psychotic experiences alone did not predict future risk. Persistent psychotic experiences were associated with increased risk of NSSI and suicide attempts.
Psychological distress with accompanying psychotic experiences and persistent psychotic experiences are important predictors of NSSI and suicide attempts. Screening these phenotypes in adolescents will assist in discerning those adolescents most at risk, providing opportunities for targeted suicide prevention strategies.
A reaction–diffusion replicator equation is studied. A novel method to apply the
principle of global regulation is used to write down a model with explicit spatial
structure. Properties of stationary solutions together with their stability are analyzed
analytically, and relationships between stability of the rest points of the
non-distributed replicator equation and the distributed system are shown. In particular,
we present the conditions on the diffusion coefficients under which the non-distributed
replicator equation can be used to describe the number and stability of the stationary
solutions to the distributed system. A numerical example is given, which shows that the
suggested modeling framework promotes the system’s persistence, i.e., a scenario is
possible when in the spatially explicit system all the interacting species survive whereas
some of them go extinct in the non-distributed one.
The objectives of this study were to compare the impact of different coagulase-negative species (CNS) on udder health measured in terms of individual quarter milk somatic cell count (SCC) and duration of intramammary infection, and to get some insight into most likely routes of infection for different CNS species. This longitudinal observational study was performed on four farms that were sampled at 4-week intervals for a total of 12 visits each. Quarters infected with CNS were followed through time with milk samples being submitted for bacteriological culture and SCC determination. PCR amplification of the internal transcribed spacer region and sequencing of the sodA and rpoB genes were used for species allocation. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed to assess strain identity. The percentage of quarters affected per farm varied between 6 and 35%, with the most frequently isolated CNS species being Staphylococcus epidermidis, followed by Staph. simulans, Staph. chromogenes and Staph. haemolyticus. It was possible to follow 111 intramammary infections due to CNS through time. Duration of infection had a mean of 188 d and was not significantly different between CNS species. Geometric mean quarter SCC overall was 132 000 cells/ml and was also not significantly different between CNS species. Despite the possibility of a different epidemiology of infection, the impact in terms of udder health seems to be similar for different CNS species.
Previous studies have reported mixed results on neuropsychological deficits in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and only a few studies have focused on adolescents. There is also a debate about whether the executive function (EF) impairments in ADHD are primary deficits or have some contribution from the underlying non-EF processes. The aim of this study was to investigate the impairments in EF and neuropsychological function with relatively low executive demand (low-EF) in adolescents with childhood diagnosis of ADHD as a function of current ADHD status.
Psychiatric diagnostic interviews and computerized neuropsychological tests classified into EF and low-EF tasks were completed by 435 adolescents with a childhood diagnosis of ADHD (300 adolescents classified as persistent ADHD, 109 as subsyndromal ADHD and 26 as remitted ADHD based on the current diagnosis) and 263 typically developing (TD) adolescents.
There were significant EF (spatial working memory, spatial planning and verbal working memory) and low-EF (signal detectability, spatial span and visual recognition memory) impairments in persistent and subsyndromal ADHD. The impairments in EF were independent of low-EF despite significant moderate correlations between any two of these tasks. Adolescents with remitted ADHD showed no deficit in either EF or low-EF.
This study suggests that adolescents with persistent and subsyndromal ADHD have EF and low-EF impairments that might contribute to ADHD independently.
This note demonstrates analytically that a persistent catastrophic shock on endowment growth, even if moderate, yields negative equity premiums when a representative agent is relatively prudent. In particular, it derives the minimum persistence necessary to have zero equity premiums.
Background: The purpose of the study was to examine the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptomatology across the lifespan by comparing older individuals’ self-reports about current ADHD symptoms and symptoms in childhood.
Methods: The 25-item Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS) was initially administered in a population-based sample of 1,599 persons aged 65–80 years. We also asked about current health, memory, and problems in childhood. Based on their WURS scores (below and above 36), we randomly drew two subsamples, each with 30 individuals. They were followed up by the Wender Riktad ADHD Symtom Skala (WRASS)-scale, a Swedish version of the Targeted Attention Deficit Disorder Rating Scale (TADDS).
Results: Our main finding was that higher WURS scores were significantly related to higher scores on the WRASS scale, indicating persistence of self-reported ADHD symptoms over the whole lifespan. Among those with a WURS score of 36 or more, 16 (53.3%) individuals scored 70 or more; the clinical cut-off used in Sweden. None of the individuals with a WURS score below 36 scored higher than 70 on the WRASS scale.
Conclusions: Our findings support the idea of a significant persistence of ADHD symptoms from childhood to old age. The results encourage studies of ADHD using a lifespan perspective, particularly in examining ADHD symptoms in old age.