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Detrital zircon populations from six samples of upper Triassic sandstone (Algarve Basin) were analysed, yielding mostly Precambrian ages. zircon age populations of the Triassic sandstone sampled from the western and central sectors of the basin are distinct, suggesting local recycling and/or lateral changes in their sources. Our findings and the available detrital zircon ages from the Palaeozoic terranes of SW Iberia, Nova Scotia and NW Morocco were jointly examined using the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test and multidimensional scaling diagrams. The obtained results enable direct discrimination of competing Laurussian-type and Gondwanan-type sediment sources, involving recycling and mixing relationships. The detrital zircon populations of the Algarve Triassic sandstone are very different from those of the lower–upper Carboniferous Mértola and Mira formations (South Portuguese Zone), upper Devonian – lower Carboniferous Horta da Torre, Represa and Santa Iria formations (Pulo do Lobo Zone), and the late Carboniferous Santa Susana and early Permian Viar basins, which are ruled out as potential sources. The detrital zircon populations of Triassic sandstone from the central sector and those from the Ossa–Morena Zone Ediacaran–Cambrian siliciclastic rocks, upper Devonian – Carboniferous Ronquillo, Tercenas, Phyllite-Quartzite and Brejeira formations (South Portuguese Zone), and Frasnian siliciclastic rocks of the Pulo do Lobo Zone are not statistically distinguishable. Thus, sedimentation in the central sector was influenced by Gondwanan- and Laurussian-type putative sources exposed in SW Iberia, in contrast to the western sector, where Meguma Terrane and Sehoul Block Cambrian siliciclastic rocks allegedly constituted the main (Laurussian-type) sources. These findings provide insights into the denudation of distinctive source terranes distributed along the late Palaeozoic suture zone that juxtaposed the Laurussian and Gondwanan margins.
The South Altyn Orogenic Belt (SAOB) is one of the most important orogenic belts in NW China, consisting of the South Altyn Continental Block and the Apa–Mangya Ophiolitic Mélange Belt. However, its Palaeozoic tectonic evolution is still controversial. Here, we present petrological, geochemical, zircon U–Pb and Lu–Hf isotopic data for the Mangya plutons with the aim of establishing the Palaeozoic tectonic evolution. We divide the Early Palaeozoic magmatism in the Apa–Mangya Ophiolitic Mélange Belt into four episodes and propose a plate tectonic model for the formation of these rocks. During 511–494 Ma, the South Altyn Ocean (SAO) was in a spreading stage, and some shoshonite series, I-type granitic rocks were generated. From 484 to 458 Ma, the oceanic crust of the SAO subducted northward, accompanied by large-scale magmatic events resulting in the generation of vast high-K calc-alkaline series, I-type granitic rocks. During 450–433 Ma, the SAO closed, and break-off of the subducted oceanic slab occurred, with the generation of some high-K calc-alkaline series, I–S transitional type granites. The SAOB was in post-orogenic extensional environment from 419 to 404 Ma, and many A-type granites were generated.
We investigate the phased evolution and variation of the South Asian monsoon and resulting weathering intensity and physical erosion in the Himalaya–Karakoram Mountains since late Pliocene time (c. 3.4 Ma) using a comprehensive approach. Neodymium and strontium isotopic compositions and single-grain zircon U–Pb age spectra reveal the sources of the deposits in the east Arabian Sea, and show a combination of sources from the Himalaya and the Karakoram–Kohistan–Ladakh Mountains, with sediments from the Indian Peninsula such as the Deccan Traps or Craton. We interpret shifts in the sediment sources to have been forced by sea-level changes that correlate with South Asian monsoon rainfall variation since late Pliocene time. We collected 908 samples from the International Ocean Discovery Program Hole U1456A, which was drilled in the east Arabian Sea. Time series of hematite content and grain size of the sediments were examined downcore. We found South Asian monsoon precipitation and weathering intensity experienced three phases from late Pliocene time. Lower monsoon precipitation, with a lower variability and strong weathering intensity, occurred during 3.4–2.4 Ma; an increased and more variable South Asian monsoon rainfall, along with strengthened but fluctuating weathering intensity, occurred at 1.8–1.1 Ma; and a reduced rainfall with lower South Asian monsoon precipitation variability and moderate weathering intensity marked the period 1.1–0.1 Ma. Maximum entropy spectral analysis and wavelet transform show that there were orbital-dominated cycles of periods c. 100 and c. 41 ka in these proxy-based time series. We propose that the monsoon, sea level, global temperature and insolation together forced the weathering and erosion in SW Asia.
The Ghaleh-Dezh metagranites in the northern Sanandaj–Sirjan Zone (SaSZ) in western Iran are found in a 0.5 km long by 0.3 km wide unit emplaced within the older Precambrian basement. New zircon U–Pb ages confirm that crystallization and emplacement of the protolith of the metagranites occurred at 312 ± 10 Ma and 298 ± 17 Ma in the Upper Carboniferous (Pennsylvanian) – Early Permian, which is consistent with the ages of recently discovered Palaeozoic granites in the northern SaSZ. The studied metagranitic body has been metamorphosed at lower greenschist facies and deformed in ductile–brittle regime due to subsequent reheating events during the Mesozoic. The rocks are metaluminous to slightly peraluminous granites with an A2-type affinity. Initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios and εNd(t) contents vary from 0.7037 to 0.7130 and −0.70 to 0.34, respectively. 143Nd/144Nd(i) values for the granitic rocks are fairly uniform at ∼0.5123. The geochemical and isotopic evidence indicates that these rocks were generated from a mantle magma with crustal contamination and fractional crystallization. Rb–Sr isochron and 40Ar/39Ar K-feldspar ages are 274 Ma and 60–70 Ma, respectively. The older event, c. 270 Ma, was likely related to the opening of Neotethys, whereas the younger ages likely relate to collisional events in the region during the closure of Neotethys.
This study presents monazite and rutile U–Pb and hornblende and biotite 40Ar/39Ar geochronological data for high-grade rocks of the eastern Grenville-aged Rayner orogen at Mount Brown in order to analyse the extent and degree of Pan-African-aged reworking. Monazite from paragneiss yields U–Pb ages of 910 Ma for larger granular grains and 670–630 Ma for smaller globular beads around garnet porphyroblasts or hosted by symplectites. Rutile from leucogneiss yields U–Pb ages of 520–515 Ma. Hornblende and biotite from different rock types yield 40Ar/39Ar plateau ages of 744 and 520–505 Ma, respectively. Combining these results with published zircon U–Pb age data suggests that granulite facies metamorphism occurred at 910 Ma, with a local low-temperature fluid flow event at 670–630 Ma and thermal reworking at 520–505 Ma. The older age of 744 Ma may reflect cooling or partial resetting of the hornblende 40Ar/39Ar system, indicating that Pan-African-aged reworking did not exceed temperatures much higher than the hornblende Ar closure temperature. These data also suggest that the complete isotopic resetting of some minerals may occur without the growth of new mineral phases, providing an example of the style of reworking that is likely to occur in polymetamorphic terranes.
We present detailed petrography, geochemistry and zircon U–Pb–Hf isotopes of the Mante Aobao granite porphyry in East Ujimqin Banner, Inner Mongolia, with the aim of determining its age and petrogenesis, important for understanding the early Palaeozoic tectonic evolution of the Xing’an–Mongolian Orogenic Belt. The Mante Aobao granite porphyry consists of plagioclase, quartz and minor biotite, but without amphibole. Zircon U–Pb analyses yield ages of 450 ± 1 Ma and 445 ± 2 Ma for the granite porphyry, indicating that it formed during Late Ordovician time. The granite porphyry is metaluminous to slightly peraluminous (aluminous saturation index A/CNK = 0.98–1.11) with high SiO2, K2O and Na2O concentrations and differentiation index (DI = 85–90). Chondrite-normalized rare earth element (REE) patterns display enrichment of light REEs (LREEs) with high ratios of (La/Yb)N and negative Eu anomalies. In the mantle-normalized multi-element variation diagrams, all samples are characterized by depletions of high-field-strength elements (HFSEs; Nb, Ta and Ti) and enrichments of large-ion lithophiles (LILEs; Rb, Th, U and K). These geochemical features indicate that the granite porphyry is a highly fractionated I-type granite and formed in a subduction-related setting. Zircon grains have positive εHf(t) values of +9.2 to +11.2, and TDM2(Hf) ages of 691–821 Ma, suggesting that the granite porphyry was generated by partial melting of Neoproterozoic juvenile crust with involvement of fractional crystallization during magmatic evolution. It is likely that underplating of mantle-derived magmas during Late Ordovician time provided the necessary heat to partially melt this juvenile crust. Combined with the regional geological data, we infer that the Mante Aobao granite porphyry was emplaced in an active continental margin setting that was probably related to the northwards subduction of the Paleo-Asian Plate beneath the South Mongolian Terrane along the Sonid Zuoqi–Xilinhot axis.
The Ganjiang River, one of eight major tributaries of the Yangtze River, located in the western hinterland of the Cathaysia Block, SE China, has a length of 823 km and a drainage area of 82 809 km2, whose detrital zircons provide a valuable means to trace sediment provenances of the river and explore the crustal growth and evolution of the Cathaysia Block. In the current study, 389 concordia zircon U–Pb age spots and rare earth element (REE) contents, in combination with 201 Lu–Hf isotope analyses, have been determined. Oscillatory zoning, high Th/U ratios and REE distribution patterns indicate that most detrital zircon grains are of magmatic origin. The age can be further divided into seven groups: 130–185 Ma with a peak at 153 Ma (7 %); 217–379 Ma with a peak at 224 Ma (16 %); 390–494 Ma with a peak at 424 Ma (37 %); 500–698 Ma with a peak at 624 Ma (5 %); 716–897 Ma with a peak at 812 Ma (10 %); 902–1191 Ma with a peak at 976 Ma (13 %); and 2232–2614 Ma with a peak at 2471 Ma (5 %). The sources of almost all the zircon age groups can be found from the exposed rocks. In particular, Yanshanian, Hercynian to Indosinian, Pan-African, Grenvillian and Palaeoproterozoic–Archaean zircons can be mainly sourced from the northern Guangdong – southern Jiangxi – western Fujian region, while Caledonian zircons come from southern and central Jiangxi, and Jinningian zircons are from central and northern Jiangxi. Most determined zircon grains exhibit negative εHf(t) values and TDM2 ages of 797 to 4016 Ma with a wide peak at 1500–2100 Ma and a keen peak at 1824 Ma, suggesting that most zircons are sourced from the reworked ancient crustal materials or crust–mantle mixing. The zircon Hf model age cumulative probability diagram shows that rapid crustal growth took place at the Palaeo- to Mesoproterozoic and that about 90 % of the crust of the Cathaysia Block was formed before 1.5 Ga.
The Wulanba granite, consisting of biotite monzogranite and syenogranite, is located in the southern part of the Great Xing’an Range, NE China. Whole-rock major- and trace-element geochemistry suggests the Wulanba granite is a high-K–shoshonitic, slightly peraluminous and highly differentiated I-type granite. The Sr–Nd–Hf isotopes indicate that it originated from partial melting of juvenile crust derived from the depleted mantle with a minor input of old crust. The relatively young T2DM and tDM2 ages indicate it was most likely derived from a Late Neoproterozoic to Early Palaeozoic source. We have demonstrated that the biotite monzogranite is the ore-related intrusion of the Haobugao Zn–Fe mineralization based on the following geological, geochronological and geochemical evidence: (1) the chalcopyrite/pyrite in the biotite monzogranite and the continuous mineralization of drill core ZK2508; (2) the consistence of the emplacement age of the biotite monzogranite (~141–140/138 Ma) with the skarn mineralization age (~142 Ma); and (3) the presence of rich ore-forming elements (Fe–Zn–Cu) in the biotite monzogranite, and the similar Pb compositions of the sulfides from the Haobugao deposit and the biotite monzogranite. Compared to the barren syenogranite, the fertile biotite monzogranite is more oxidized, while the edges of the apatite grains in the biotite monzogranite are more oxidized than the centres. The average F/Cl ratio of the fertile biotite monzogranite (~123.45) is much higher than that of the barren syenogranite (~73.98). We conclude that these differences reflect unique geochemical signatures, and the geochemical composition of the apatite can be used to infer the economic potential of granites.
The Sichuan–Yunnan–Guizhou (SYG) Pb–Zn metallogenic province is one of the most productive areas of Pb–Zn resources in China. The Fule deposit occurs in Permian carbonate and contains Pb–Zn reserves exceeding 1 Mt. To investigate the sulphur source, in situ S isotopic analysis of sphalerite and pyrite was carried out using nanoscale secondary-ion mass spectrometry. The results show that the δ34S values of the sulphide minerals range from +16.1‰ to +23.0‰, higher than that of marine sulphates hosted in Permian carbonate rocks (+11‰), but similar to that of sulphates over a broader area (+12.9‰ to +25.9‰). The sulphates in the regional rocks could therefore represent an important source of S for the Fule deposit via thermochemical sulphate reduction. The S source of the Fule deposit is different from those of most other Pb–Zn deposits in the SYG Pb–Zn mineralization province, which were mainly derived from the ore-bearing strata. The δ34S values of the early to late generations and some single sulphide crystals from the cores to rims show a slight increasing trend, implying that partial Rayleigh fractionation took place in the Fule deposit. It is suggested that the Fule sulphide precipitation resulted from the mixing of a metalliferous fluid with a H2S-rich fluid derived from the regional strata. Combining the geology, mineralogy and S isotope results with previous Pb isotope studies, it is suggested that the Fule deposit should be attributed to a Mississippi Valley type deposit.
We focused on the Pirin–Pangeon–Thasos carbonate sequence of the Rhodope thrust system, combining Sr isotopes from marble with U–Pb dating of detrital zircons from interlayered schists with outcrop near the villages of Ilindentsi and Petrovo in Bulgaria. The youngest zircon age at Ilindentsi is 266 Ma, i.e. Middle Permian, while the youngest zircon at Petrovo yielded an age of 290 Ma, i.e. Early Permian. Strontium isotopes range from 0.707420 to 0.707653, and are consistent with a Middle Permian maximum depositional age. Middle Permian sedimentation of this carbonate platform most likely occurred along the Eurasian margin rather than the Gondwana margin.
Whole-rock and Sr–Nd–Pb isotopic composition data, zircon Hf isotopic data and zircon U–Pb ages were obtained for the Late Triassic porphyries in the Zhongdian arc, eastern Tibet. These porphyries are intermediate and metaluminous and are enriched in large ion lithophile elements and depleted in high field strength elements. Moreover, they have weak negative Eu anomalies, high Sr and Ba contents, and high Sr/Y ratios. Different mineral geothermobarometers suggest that the porphyries in the Zhongdian arc crystallized at c. 640–829 °C and pressures of 2.1–2.8 kbar at depths shallower than 8 km. The porphyries have a calculated water content of 4.47–4.94 wt % and a relatively high magmatic oxygen fugacity. These porphyries were emplaced mainly at 230–203 Ma with a peak at 218–215 Ma. The Sr–Nd–Pb–Hf isotope data suggest that the porphyries in the Zhongdian arc were derived from a mixed melt of 50–65 % asthenospheric mantle and 35–50 % eclogite from the western Yangtze lower crust that experienced low-degree partial melting of 2–10 %. Subsequent fractional crystallization resulted in the decreasing trends of the major- and trace-element contents. The high Sr/Y and La/Yb values are the result of the low degree of partial melting of the western Yangtze lower crust rather than fractional crystallization, because no linear relationship was noted between Sr/Y or La/Yb and SiO2. The mixed melts from the lower crust and asthenospheric mantle provided a fertile magma source, and subsequent fractional crystallization under the favourable magmatic conditions of high water content and high oxidation state resulted in the formation of the porphyry Cu–Au deposits.
Phase retrieval is necessary for propagation-based phase-contrast imaging (PB-PCI). Arhatari established a model for predicting the impact of the sample-to-detector distance and the system noise on the phase retrieval performance. We have extended Arhatari's model to account for the parameters of excessive source size, finite detector resolution, and geometrical magnification for more practical cases. However, there exist interaction effects among these parameters resulting in difficulty of predicting the phase retrieval performance. In this study, we found that optimizing the trade-off among these parameters for phase retrieval is consistent with the improvement of edge enhancement to noise ratio (EE/N) in the “forward problem” of the PB-PCI. Hence, we engaged in establishing a relationship between EE/N and phase retrieval performance in terms of the “forward problem” and “inverse problem” of the PB-PCI, respectively. Our results showed that, at fixed detector resolution, phase retrieval from the phase-contrast projections at the same EE/N level resulted in the consistent phase retrieval performance. Therefore, the performance of phase retrieval can be predicted based on the EE/N level and be quantitatively optimized by increasing EE/N.
The Daheyan region, situated in the SW of the Bogda Mountains in eastern Tianshan, is important for understanding the accretionary history of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. We investigated Carboniferous intrusions from the Daheyan area, SW Bogda Mountains, obtaining new zircon U–Pb ages, whole-rock geochemical data and Hf isotope data for these intrusions. Zircon U–Pb dating indicates that syenogranite, diorite, granodiorite and monzonite of the Daheyan intrusions were all formed during late Carboniferous (311–303 Ma) magmatism. The syenogranite has geochemical characteristics of A-type granites that were mainly sourced from melting of juvenile crust. In comparison, the low-Mg-number diorite intrusion, with tholeiite and metaluminous features, was derived from young crust and mixed some mantle materials. The granodiorite and monzonite are both I-type granites, and are both sourced from the melting of juvenile crust. Based on a comprehensive analysis of previous geochronological, geochemical and isotopic data of magmatic and sedimentary rocks in the Bogda–Harlik belt, we consider that late Carboniferous intrusive rocks of the Bogda Mountains formed in an intra-arc extension related to a continent-based arc setting.
The Sierra de Pie de Palo, in the Argentinean Sierras Pampeanas (Andean foreland), consists of a Mesoproterozoic basement and an Ediacaran – upper Cambrian sedimentary cover that underwent folding, thrusting and metamorphism during the Ordovician Famatinian orogeny. Mafic rocks and granitoids of the easternmost Sierra de Pie de Palo provide information about the magmatic activity at the proto-Andean margin of Gondwana during late Cambrian – Early Ordovician time. Magmatic activity began in the Sierra de Pie de Palo as dykes, sills and small intrusions of tholeiitic gabbros between 490 and 470 Ma, before shortening and regional metamorphism. Variable mantle sources (Nd depleted mantle age, TDM between 1.7 and 1.3 Ga) were involved in the mafic magmatism. Nd-isotope signatures were probably inherited from a Mesoproterozoic subcontinental mantle. Mafic magmatism was coincident with collapse of a Cambrian carbonate-siliciclastic platform that extended along SW Gondwana, and was probably coeval with the beginning of subduction. After mafic magmatism, peraluminous granitoids were emplaced in the Sierra de Pie de Palo along ductile shear zones during a contractional tectonic phase, coeval with moderate to high P/T metamorphism, and with the Cordilleran-type magmatic arc that resulted from a flare-up at c. 470 Ma. Granitoids resulted mainly from partial melting of metasedimentary rocks, although some hybridization with juvenile magmas and/or rocks cannot be ruled out. The evidence shown here further implies that the Pie de Palo block was part of the continental upper plate during the Famatinian subduction, and not an exotic block that collided with the Gondwana margin.
The periodic dispersal and assembly of continental fragments has been an inherent feature of the continental crust. Based on the discovery of large-scale supercontinent cycle and the theory of plate tectonics, several supercontinents have been identified, such as Columbia/Nuna, Rodinia, Gondwana and Pangaea. Neoproterozoic magmatic events related to the break-up of Rodinia are globally well preserved. Although Neoproterozoic magmatic events were very weak in the North China Craton (NCC), they are crucial in reconstructing the geometries of the NCC and could facilitate the completion of the Neoproterozoic configuration of the supercontinent. In this study, c. 853–835 Ma magmatic rocks are identified in the western margin of the NCC. Precise zircon U–Pb age determination yields 206Pb/238U average ages of 835.5 ± 5.3 Ma (HL-39) and 853.7 ± 4.5 Ma (HL-30). In situ zircon Hf isotope compositions of the samples reveal that their parental magma was formed by the reworking of ancient crust evolved from Mesoproterozoic mantle. In summary, the discovery of Neoproterozoic magmatic rocks in the western margin of the NCC, and reported synchronous rocks in other parts of the NCC indicate that the NCC might be conjoined with the supercontinent Rodinia during the Neoproterozoic. This discovery is of significant help in unravelling the early Neoproterozoic history of the NCC and the evolution of the supercontinent Rodinia.
Using general-purpose photovoltaic device model, we have simulated the operation and functionality of a working Sn perovskite/Cu2O hole transport layer (HTL)/Cu back-contact device versus a standard Pb perovskite/Spiro HTL/Ag back-contact device. The results are extremely promising in that they showcase comparable cell efficiencies, with the Sn perovskite/Cu2O HTL/Cu back-contact device showing a highest 22.9% efficiency [Jsc of 353.4 A/m2, Voc of 0.84 V, fill factor (FF) of 0.77] at 427 nm active layer thickness compared with 24.6% of the standard Pb perovskite/Spiro HTL/Ag back-contact device (Jsc of 356.8 A/m2, Voc of 0.82 V, FF of 0.84) at the same active layer thickness. Jsc, Voc, and FF kinetics reveal that the Sn perovskite/Cu2O HTL/Cu back-contact device can perform better by reducing the recombination centers both within each layer matrix and in the interfacial contacts.
The East Kunlun Orogen (EKO) is the NW part of the Central China Orogenic Belt, which records the evolutionary history of the Proto- and Palaeo-Tethys Oceans from the Cambrian to the Triassic. An Early Palaeozoic eclogite belt has been recognized in recent years, which extends discontinuously for ∼500 km as three eclogite-bearing terranes. In this study, we report an integrated study of zircon grains from mica-schists accompanying the eclogites, in terms of mineral inclusions, U–Pb age systematics and P–T conditions. The presence of coesite is identified, as inclusions within the metamorphic domain of zircons, which provides unambiguous evidence for subducted terrigenous clastic rocks of the Proto-Tethys Ocean exhumed from coesite-forming depths. U–Pb dating of the metamorphic zircons yields a concordia age of 426.5 ± 0.88 Ma, which is likely to be the time of ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism in the Kehete terrane. P–T calculations suggest that metapelite may have experienced a clockwise P–T path with peak P/T conditions of 685 ± 41 °C and >28 kbar, and equilibrated at 482–566 °C and 5.6–8.9 kbar during subsequent exhumation. The high-pressure – ultrahigh-pressure (HP-UHP) metamorphic belt within the EKO may have formed by collision between the Qaidam Block and the South Kunlun Block, as a consequence of the closure of the Proto-Tethys Ocean.
The Upper Cretaceous Kanguk Formation of the Sverdrup Basin, Canadian Arctic Islands, contains numerous diagenetically altered volcanic ash layers (bentonites). Eleven bentonites were sampled from an outcrop section on Ellesmere Island for U–Pb zircon secondary ion mass spectrometry dating and whole-rock geochemical analysis. Two distinct types of bentonite are identified from the geochemical data. Relatively thick (0.1 to 5 m) peralkaline rhyolitic to trachytic bentonites erupted in an intraplate tectonic setting. These occur throughout the upper Turonian to lower Campanian (c. 92–83 Ma) outcrop section and are likely associated with the alkaline phase of the High Arctic Large Igneous Province. Two thinner (<5 cm) subalkaline dacitic to rhyolitic bentonites of late Turonian to early Coniacian age (c. 90–88 Ma) are also identified. The geochemistry of these bentonites is consistent with derivation from volcanoes within an active continental margin tectonic setting. The lack of nearby potential sources of subalkaline magmatism, together with the thinner bed thickness of the subalkaline bentonites and the small size of zircon phenocrysts therein (typically 50–80 μm in length) are consistent with a more distal source area. The zircon U–Pb age and whole-rock geochemistry of these two subalkaline bentonites correlate with an interval of intense volcanism in the Okhotsk–Chukotka Volcanic Belt, Russia. It is proposed that during late Turonian to early Coniacian times intense volcanism within the Okhotsk–Chukotka Volcanic Belt resulted in widespread volcanic ash dispersal across Arctic Alaska and Canada, reaching as far east as the Sverdrup Basin, more than 3000 km away.
The age of granophyric diorite from the Sosnowiec IG-1 borehole (Brunovistulia Terrane) was studied by means of U–Pb single-grain zircon analysis performed on a SHRIMP (sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe) IIe device. The isotope ages and provenance of zircons from the Emsian tuffs cropping out in the southern part of the Holy Cross Mountains (Małopolska Terrane) were also investigated using the same method. The age of the diorite intrusion (420 ± 2 Ma) is comparable with the combined Ar–Ar/magnetostratigraphic age of the Bardo diabase intrusion from the northern part of the Małopolska Terrane. These intrusions were emplaced during the same event of regional tectonic extension associated with the Rheic Ocean closure and the onset of processes creating the Rheno-Hecynian Basin near the Silurian/Devonian boundary. A negative Nb anomaly characteristic of both intrusions could be linked with the subduction of the Rheic oceanic crust under the SE margin of the Old Red Continent. Emsian magmatic activity in the distant Rheno-Hercynian Zone provided several tuff layers in the northern part of the Małopolska Terrane. As can be inferred from zircon ages, these tuffs were derived from mafic eruptions that cut sedimentary rocks containing detrital zircons transported from Baltica. This interpretation fits the existing models of development of the Rheno-Hercynian Basin in the Emsian.
Pre-Variscan basement rocks from the Pyrenees provide evidence of several magmatic episodes with complex geodynamic histories from late Neoproterozoic to Palaeozoic times. One of the most significant episodes, consisting of several granitic and granodioritic bodies and volcanic rocks, mostly pyroclastic in nature, dates from the Late Ordovician period. In the Eastern Pyrenees, this magmatism is well represented in the Ribes de Freser and Núria areas; here, the Núria orthogneiss and the Ribes granophyre, both dated at c. 457–460 Ma, seem to form a calc-alkaline plutonic suite emplaced at different crustal levels. The presence of numerous pyroclastic deposits and lavas interbedded with Upper Ordovician (Sandbian–lower Katian, formerly Caradoc) sediments, intruded by the Ribes granophyre, suggests that this magmatic episode also generated significant volcanism. Moreover, the area hosts an important volume of rhyolitic ignimbrites and andesitic lavas affected by Alpine deformation. These volcanic rocks were previously attributed to late Variscan volcanism, extensively represented in other areas of the Pyrenees. Here we present the first five laser-ablation U–Pb zircon dates for this ignimbritic succession and two new ages for the Ribes granophyre. The ages of the ignimbrites, overlapping within error, are all 460 Ma, suggesting a genetic relationship between the plutonic and volcanic rocks and indicating that the Sandbian–Katian magmatism is much more voluminous than reported in previous studies, and possibly includes mega-eruptions linked to the formation of collapse calderas.