To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
This chapter explores competing perspectives and appraisals of anger in society and in education. It highlights the possibility of accepting and productively using moral anger, in contradiction to the prevalent approach of many educational psychologists and philosophers who are basically against anger. The chapter starts with a discussion of views admonishing against anger, from philosophy and psychology, before exploring their limitations, alongside more tolerant approaches to anger. It then considers the potential productive value of exploring anger in education.
Deep learning has pushed the scope of digital pathology beyond simple digitization and telemedicine. The incorporation of these algorithms in routine workflow is on the horizon and maybe a disruptive technology, reducing processing time, and increasing detection of anomalies. While the newest computational methods enjoy much of the press, incorporating deep learning into standard laboratory workflow requires many more steps than simply training and testing a model. Image analysis using deep learning methods often requires substantial pre- and post-processing order to improve interpretation and prediction. Similar to any data processing pipeline, images must be prepared for modeling and the resultant predictions need further processing for interpretation. Examples include artifact detection, color normalization, image subsampling or tiling, removal of errant predictions, etc. Once processed, predictions are complicated by image file size – typically several gigabytes when unpacked. This forces images to be tiled, meaning that a series of subsamples from the whole-slide image (WSI) are used in modeling. Herein, we review many of these methods as they pertain to the analysis of biopsy slides and discuss the multitude of unique issues that are part of the analysis of very large images.
Although the gross and microscopic pathology in rats infected with Angiostrongylus cantonensis has been well described, corresponding changes detected using diagnostic imaging modalities have not been reported. This work describes the cardiopulmonary changes in mature Wistar rats chronically infected with moderate burdens of A. cantonensis using radiology, computed tomography (CT), CT angiography, echocardiography, necropsy and histological examinations. Haematology and coagulation studies were also performed. Thoracic radiography, CT and CT angiography showed moderately severe alveolar pulmonary patterns mainly affecting caudal portions of the caudal lung lobes and associated dilatation of the caudal lobar pulmonary arteries. Presumptive worm profiles could be detected using echocardiography, with worms seen in the right ventricular outflow tract or straddling either the pulmonary and/or the tricuspid valves. Extensive, multifocal, coalescing dark areas and multiple pale foci affecting the caudal lung lobes were observed at necropsy. Histologically, these were composed of numerous large, confluent granulomas and fibrotic nodules. Adult worms were found predominantly in the mid- to distal pulmonary arteries. An inflammatory leukogram, hyperproteinaemia and hyperfibrinogenaemia were found in most rats. These findings provide a comparative model for A. cantonensis in its accidental hosts, such as humans and dogs. In addition, the pathological and imaging changes are comparable to those seen in dogs infected with Angiostrongylus vasorum, suggesting rats infected with A. cantonensis could be a model for dogs with A. vasorum infection.
The small intestine has three structural parts: duodenum, jejunum and ileum. The jejunum and ileum are about 2.5 m long and 3 m long respectively in adults and form the majority of the small intestine, which has a total mucosal surface area of approximately 30 square metres. The small intestine was long regarded as a place where little happens, essentially because visualisation was imprecise or inaccurate. With the development of flexible endoscopy, it was possible first to reach the ileum because of ileocolonoscopy, and later to reach the jejunum because of enteroscopy. As a result of these developments, biopsies from the ileum and jejunum are now part of routine histopathological practice. The pathology may include neoplastic and inflammatory diseases. This chapter on jejunitis and ileitis focuses mainly on the inflammatory conditions. These can be limited to the small intestine, jejunum, and/or terminal ileum, or may also involve the upper gastrointestinal tract and/or colon and rectum. The text includes a description of both acute, usually infectious, diseases, and chronic inflammatory diseases. There are many chronic diseases, affecting in particular the terminal ileum. Clinically, Crohn’s disease is often a consideration. Drug-induced lesions, infections, endometriosis, ulcerative colitis, lymphoma, and lymphoid hyperplasia can mimic Crohn’s disease of the terminal ileum. Biopsies can help to solve the differential diagnosis and orient the clinical team towards proper management of the patient.
Electronic prescribing is becoming more common, and while it has many safety advantages, it also introduces new risks. The author describes some of the most common issues when using any e-prescribing software, including risks to the prescriber and patient, pitfalls of clinical decision support and how to navigate medical dictionaries and avoid common errors.
Macfarlane highlights Aristotle’s use of the concept of pathological pneuma, which reveals Aristotle’s connections with the medical ideas current in his time. Macfarlane’s analysis casts new light on this connection, the difference between respired and connate pneuma, and on the relation between connate pneuma and blood.
Only with the completion of the life cycles of Fasciola hepatica in 1883 and 30 years later those of Schistosoma japonicum (1913), Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni (1915) did research on schistosomiasis really get underway. One of the first papers by Cawston in 1918, describing attempts to establish the means of transmission of S. haematobium in Natal, South Africa, forms the historical perspective against which to judge where we are now. Molecular biology techniques have produced a much better definition of the complexity of the schistosome species and their snail hosts, but also revealed the extent of hybridization between human and animal schistosomes that may impact on parasite adaptability. While diagnostics have greatly improved, the ability to detect single worm pair infections routinely, still falls short of its goal. The introduction of praziquantel ~1982 has revolutionized the treatment of infected individuals and led directly to the mass drug administration programmes. In turn, the severe pathological consequences of high worm burdens have been minimized, and for S. haematobium infections the incidence of associated squamous cell carcinoma has been reduced. In comparison, the development of effective vaccines has yet to come to fruition. The elimination of schistosomiasis japonica from Japan shows what is possible, using multiple lines of approach, but the clear and present danger is that the whole edifice of schistosome control is balanced on the monotherapy of praziquantel, and the development of drug resistance could topple that.
Sub-acute ruminal acidosis (SARA) can reduce the production efficiency and impair the welfare of cattle, potentially in all production systems. The aim of this study was to characterise measurable postmortem observations from divergently managed intensive beef finishing farms with high rates of concentrate feeding. At the time of slaughter, we obtained samples from 19 to 20 animals on each of 6 beef finishing units (119 animals in total) with diverse feeding practices, which had been subjectively classified as being high risk (three farms) or low risk (three farms) for SARA on the basis of the proportions of barley, silage and straw in the ration. We measured the concentrations of histamine, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), lactate and other short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in ruminal fluid, LPS and SCFA in caecal fluid. We also took samples of the ventral blind sac of the rumen for histopathology, immunohistopathology and gene expression. Subjective assessments were made of the presence of lesions on the ruminal wall, the colour of the lining of the ruminal wall and the shape of the ruminal papillae. Almost all variables differed significantly and substantially among farms. Very few pathological changes were detected in any of the rumens examined. The animals on the high-risk diets had lower concentrations of SCFA and higher concentrations of lactate and LPS in the ruminal fluid. Higher LPS concentrations were found in the caecum than the rumen but were not related to the risk status of the farm. The diameters of the stratum granulosum, stratum corneum and of the vasculature of the papillae, and the expression of the gene TLR4 in the ruminal epithelium were all increased on the high-risk farms. The expression of IFN-γ and IL-1β and the counts of cluster of differentiation 3 positive and major histocompatibility complex class two positive cells were lower on the high-risk farms. High among-farm variation and the unbalanced design inherent in this type of study in the field prevented confident assignment of variation in the dependent variables to individual dietary components; however, the CP percentage of the total mixed ration DM was the factor that was most consistently associated with the variables of interest. Despite the strong effect of farm on the measured variables, there was wide inter-animal variation.
Limbic-cortical imbalance is an established model for the neurobiology of major depressive disorder (MDD), but imaging genetics studies have been contradicting regarding potential risk and resilience mechanisms. Here, we re-assessed previously reported limbic-cortical alterations between MDD relatives and controls in combination with a newly acquired sample of MDD patients and controls, to disentangle pathology, risk, and resilience.
We analyzed functional magnetic resonance imaging data and negative affectivity (NA) of MDD patients (n = 48), unaffected first-degree relatives of MDD patients (n = 49) and controls (n = 109) who performed a faces matching task. Brain response and task-dependent amygdala functional connectivity (FC) were compared between groups and assessed for associations with NA.
Groups did not differ in task-related brain activation but activation in the superior frontal gyrus (SFG) was inversely correlated with NA in patients and controls. Pathology was associated with task-independent decreases of amygdala FC with regions of the default mode network (DMN) and decreased amygdala FC with the medial frontal gyrus during faces matching, potentially reflecting a task-independent DMN predominance and a limbic-cortical disintegration during faces processing in MDD. Risk was associated with task-independent decreases of amygdala-FC with fronto-parietal regions and reduced faces-associated amygdala-fusiform gyrus FC. Resilience corresponded to task-independent increases in amygdala FC with the perigenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC) and increased FC between amygdala, pgACC, and SFG during faces matching.
Our results encourage a refinement of the limbic-cortical imbalance model of depression. The validity of proposed risk and resilience markers needs to be tested in prospective studies. Further limitations are discussed.
Heather Clark reveals the powerful impact of Plath biographers. Splicing the words pathology, biography, and Plath’s name, she coins the term P(l)athographers. Clark helps us to understand their cumulative practice of distortedly mythologizing Plath and misdirecting readers’ interpretations of her writing. For Clark, Plath’s English Tripos exam at Cambridge offers us more understanding of Plath’s poetics than her relationship with her dead father ever could.
Notions of decadence, decline, and decay are intrinsically linked to the history of art. The discipline’s three recognized forefathers ? Giorgio Vasari, Johann Joachim Winckelmann, and Heinrich Wölfflin ? all relied on the concept of decadence (and its antonym, progress) to make sense of the history of the visual arts and to evaluate the art of their times. A developmental model of art was central to the interpretative schemes of these art historians. In this organicist model, earlier developments prepare the stage for what comes later; and after a particular style flourishes for a time, its decline is inevitable as newer styles overtake it. Decadent artists such as Gustave Moreau and Aubrey Beardsley mock aesthetic standards and moral rules, precluding universal appreciation, and proudly so. Decadent artists and decadent audiences are estranged from their society and feel disdain for those who are scandalized by decadent art’s innovative form and immoral subject matter.
In sociological terms, decadence serves as a classifier for categorizing pathological social conditions that catalyse ‘decline.’ While the term ‘decadence’ itself has not been explicitly used in much sociological scholarship, the structure of decadence has been deployed to situate related concepts like anomie and alienation in narratives of decline. With respect to artistic production, the ‘decadent role’ may be such that pathological attributes become accepted or expected to the point that they confer artistic legitimacy. Hence the decadent role becomes acceptable under a creative mandate; that is, individual artists may present the pathological features of social decline so long as they connect those decadent attributes to creative output. This sociological dynamic helps to explain why the work of certain nineteenth-century decadents ? such as Oscar Wilde ? is now held in high artistic regard. In the case of Wilde, his reputation as an artist has survived efforts to label him as pathological, so he has posthumously ‘lived up’ to the creative mandate his decadence entailed.
Three sites of Kharga Oasis (Dush, Labakha, and El-Deir), which were explored between 1981 and 2010, are considered in this chapter. They were occupied from the end of the fourth century BC till the early fifth century AD. About a thousand buried individuals were examined. The studies concerned sex ratio, age at death, causes of death, and pathology of mummies. More men than women were discovered, and the number of children found was particularly high in the Christian cemetery at El-Deir. Regarding age at death, the main feature is the proportion of women between 12 and 40 (as at many cemeteries). The pathological study, mainly based on X-rays, revealed problems with bones (fractures, arthritis, scoliosis…), problems with teeth (worn teeth, decay cases), and many cases of bilharzia. Presence of GAL (growth arrest lines) was observed on many mummies or skeletons,indicating periods when food was inadequate. Exploring cemeteries revealed the activities of their inhabitants: they were mainly farmers and craftsmen involved in potting, weaving, wickerwork, stone-cutting, and woodwork. There were obviously “rich” and “poor” tombs, but differences in quality could be due to an impoverishment of populations between Ptolemaic and Roman times.
The comparison of two small oases of the Kharga and Dakhla depressions, in the Western Desert of Egypt, confirmed that spring-fed oases have been attractive after the onset of aridity, ca 4500 BC, but irrigated agriculture has not been proved yet before the Intermediate Period. Irrigated areas were suject to harsh constraints despite the wealth of underground water during millennia: wind-induced dune shifting and soil erosion in Amheida and El-Deir, while flash floods destroyed most of the El-Deir oasis during the Roman period. Recovery was more difficult because artesian springs, which relied on water stored during the wet phase of the Holocene, were progressively exhausted by irrigation practices and could no longer compensate for the drying up of the oasis environment. If natural factors are not the unique causes of economic decay in the oases, they may have some responsibility in the progressive abandonment of agriculture during the third and fourth centuries. Amheida disappeared to the benefit of El-Kasr fortress, while El-Deir retained some importance for caravan trade between Hibis and the Nile Valley thanks to a well secured by a newly built fortress from 288 to the sixth century AD.
Enzyme histochemistry is a valuable histological method which provides a connection between morphology, activity, and spatial localization of investigated enzymes. Even though the method relies purely on arbitrary evaluations performed by the human eye, it is still wildly accepted and used in histo(patho)logy. Texture analysis emerged as an excellent tool for image quantification of subtle differences reflected in both spatial discrepancies and gray level values of pixels. The current study of texture analysis utilizes the gray-level co-occurrence matrix as a method for quantification of differences between ecto-5′-nucleotidase activities in healthy hippocampal tissue and tissue with marked neurodegeneration. We used the angular second moment, contrast (CON), correlation, inverse difference moment (INV), and entropy for texture analysis and receiver operating characteristic analysis with immunoblot and qualitative assessment of enzyme histochemistry as a validation. Our results strongly argue that co-occurrence matrix analysis could be used for the determination of fine differences in the enzyme activities with the possibility to ascribe those differences to regions or specific cell types. In addition, it emerged that INV and CON are especially useful parameters for this type of enzyme histochemistry analysis. We concluded that texture analysis is a reliable method for quantification of this descriptive technique, thus removing biases and adding it a quantitative dimension.
Commingled and fragmentary remains are found in numerous contexts worldwide. These assemblages typically require large scale, long term study to fully extract and contextualize meaningful data. However, when uncovered in CRM and foreign settings where remains cannot leave their country of origin, there is a need for quick, reliable data collection. Presented here is a recording system for use in field- and research-based laboratory settings. Utilizing visual forms and a minimal set of observations for skeletal elements from the cranium to the foot, the database facilitates data collection of fragment identification, age at death and sex estimation, dental observations, trauma recording, and taphonomic observations. A data dictionary is also provided, with definitions and value lists used in the database itself. The database has been used in field labs throughout the old world and by numerous researchers who have modified it to meet their own research needs. By presenting a minimal standard of data in a highly adaptable database, the recording system described here provides consistent baseline data in a user-friendly, quick-access format
Adenoid hypertrophy is a common cause of upper airway obstruction, and adenoidectomy is one of the most frequently performed operations in children. Topical nasal steroids can act directly on nasopharyngeal lymphoid tissue to decrease its reactive inflammatory changes and potentially reduce its size.
To study the light microscopic changes in adenoidal lymphoid tissue after one month of topical steroid use.
Twenty-six children with adenoid hypertrophy grade 3 scheduled for adenoidectomy were randomly divided into two equal groups: one group received mometasone furoate aqueous nasal spray (Nasonex) 100 mcg/day for four weeks, and a control group received nasal normal saline 0.9 per cent for four weeks. The removed adenoids were examined histopathologically.
Adenoidal tissue from the mometasone group had less reactive germinal centres and less spongiosis compared to the control group. The latter showed proliferating, reactive, variable sized and shaped lymphoid follicles, with congested blood vessels in the interfollicular areas.
The use of intranasal mometasone furoate aqueous nasal spray (Nasonex) for one month reduced adenoidal tissue reactive cellular changes and its vascularity. This is, however, a pilot study; a longer treatment period is needed to assess the effect of treatment on adenoidal size.
The study of the exploitation of animals for traction in prehistoric Europe has been linked to the ‘secondary products revolution’. Such an approach, however, leaves little scope for identification of the less specialised exploitation of animals for traction during the European Neolithic. This study presents zooarchaeological evidence—in the form of sub-pathological alterations to cattle foot bones—for the exploitation of cattle for the occasional pulling of heavy loads, or ‘light’ traction. The analysis and systematic comparison of material from 11 Neolithic sites in the Western Balkans (c. 6100–4500 cal BC) provides the earliest direct evidence for the use of cattle for such a purpose.
To identify epidemiological and pathophysiological factors, and treatment strategies, in external auditory canal cholesteatoma and benign necrotising otitis externa.
A retrospective case study was conducted of patients suffering from external auditory canal cholesteatoma and benign necrotising otitis externa admitted to tertiary hospitals, in the Capital Region of Denmark, over a five-year period.
Eighty-three patients (95 ears) with external auditory canal cholesteatoma or benign necrotising otitis externa were identified. A minimum incidence rate of 0.97 per 100 000 inhabitants per year was demonstrated. Sixty-eight per cent of cases had a history of smoking. Most lesions (74 per cent) were localised in the floor of the ear canal. Treatment time was 3.2 months for patients who had surgery and 6.0 months for those who received conservative treatment.
It is suggested that external auditory canal cholesteatoma and benign necrotising otitis externa are in fact the same disease, and therefore the diagnosis of external auditory canal cholesteatoma should be changed to benign necrotising otitis externa. Microangiopathy has a leading role in the aetiology. Surgery should be conducted in most cases.
The abundance of specimens of Ichthyosaurus provides an opportunity to assess morphological variation without the limits of a small sample size. This research evaluates the variation and taxonomic utility of hindfin morphology. Two seemingly distinct morphotypes of the mesopodium occur in the genus. Morphotype 1 has three elements in the third row: metatarsal two, distal tarsal three and distal tarsal four. This is the common morphology in Ichthyosaurus breviceps, I. conybeari and I. somersetensis. Morphotype 2 has four elements in the third row, owing to a bifurcation. This morphotype occurs in at least some specimens of each species, but it has several variations distinguished by the extent of contact of elements in the third row with the astragalus. Two specimens display a different morphotype in each fin, suggesting that the difference reflects individual variation. In Ichthyosaurus, the hindfin is taxonomically useful at the genus level, but species cannot be identified unequivocally from a well-preserved hindfin, although certain morphologies are more common in certain species than others. The large sample size filled in morphological gaps between what initially appeared to be taxonomically distinct characters. The full picture of variation would have been obscured with a small sample size. Furthermore, we have found several unusual morphologies which, in isolation, could have been mistaken for new taxa. Thus, one must be cautious when describing new species or genera on the basis of limited material, such as isolated fins and fragmentary specimens.