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Heather Clark reveals the powerful impact of Plath biographers. Splicing the words pathology, biography, and Plath’s name, she coins the term P(l)athographers. Clark helps us to understand their cumulative practice of distortedly mythologizing Plath and misdirecting readers’ interpretations of her writing. For Clark, Plath’s English Tripos exam at Cambridge offers us more understanding of Plath’s poetics than her relationship with her dead father ever could.
The comparison of two small oases of the Kharga and Dakhla depressions, in the Western Desert of Egypt, confirmed that spring-fed oases have been attractive after the onset of aridity, ca 4500 BC, but irrigated agriculture has not been proved yet before the Intermediate Period. Irrigated areas were suject to harsh constraints despite the wealth of underground water during millennia: wind-induced dune shifting and soil erosion in Amheida and El-Deir, while flash floods destroyed most of the El-Deir oasis during the Roman period. Recovery was more difficult because artesian springs, which relied on water stored during the wet phase of the Holocene, were progressively exhausted by irrigation practices and could no longer compensate for the drying up of the oasis environment. If natural factors are not the unique causes of economic decay in the oases, they may have some responsibility in the progressive abandonment of agriculture during the third and fourth centuries. Amheida disappeared to the benefit of El-Kasr fortress, while El-Deir retained some importance for caravan trade between Hibis and the Nile Valley thanks to a well secured by a newly built fortress from 288 to the sixth century AD.
Three sites of Kharga Oasis (Dush, Labakha, and El-Deir), which were explored between 1981 and 2010, are considered in this chapter. They were occupied from the end of the fourth century BC till the early fifth century AD. About a thousand buried individuals were examined. The studies concerned sex ratio, age at death, causes of death, and pathology of mummies. More men than women were discovered, and the number of children found was particularly high in the Christian cemetery at El-Deir. Regarding age at death, the main feature is the proportion of women between 12 and 40 (as at many cemeteries). The pathological study, mainly based on X-rays, revealed problems with bones (fractures, arthritis, scoliosis…), problems with teeth (worn teeth, decay cases), and many cases of bilharzia. Presence of GAL (growth arrest lines) was observed on many mummies or skeletons,indicating periods when food was inadequate. Exploring cemeteries revealed the activities of their inhabitants: they were mainly farmers and craftsmen involved in potting, weaving, wickerwork, stone-cutting, and woodwork. There were obviously “rich” and “poor” tombs, but differences in quality could be due to an impoverishment of populations between Ptolemaic and Roman times.
Enzyme histochemistry is a valuable histological method which provides a connection between morphology, activity, and spatial localization of investigated enzymes. Even though the method relies purely on arbitrary evaluations performed by the human eye, it is still wildly accepted and used in histo(patho)logy. Texture analysis emerged as an excellent tool for image quantification of subtle differences reflected in both spatial discrepancies and gray level values of pixels. The current study of texture analysis utilizes the gray-level co-occurrence matrix as a method for quantification of differences between ecto-5′-nucleotidase activities in healthy hippocampal tissue and tissue with marked neurodegeneration. We used the angular second moment, contrast (CON), correlation, inverse difference moment (INV), and entropy for texture analysis and receiver operating characteristic analysis with immunoblot and qualitative assessment of enzyme histochemistry as a validation. Our results strongly argue that co-occurrence matrix analysis could be used for the determination of fine differences in the enzyme activities with the possibility to ascribe those differences to regions or specific cell types. In addition, it emerged that INV and CON are especially useful parameters for this type of enzyme histochemistry analysis. We concluded that texture analysis is a reliable method for quantification of this descriptive technique, thus removing biases and adding it a quantitative dimension.
Commingled and fragmentary remains are found in numerous contexts worldwide. These assemblages typically require large scale, long term study to fully extract and contextualize meaningful data. However, when uncovered in CRM and foreign settings where remains cannot leave their country of origin, there is a need for quick, reliable data collection. Presented here is a recording system for use in field- and research-based laboratory settings. Utilizing visual forms and a minimal set of observations for skeletal elements from the cranium to the foot, the database facilitates data collection of fragment identification, age at death and sex estimation, dental observations, trauma recording, and taphonomic observations. A data dictionary is also provided, with definitions and value lists used in the database itself. The database has been used in field labs throughout the old world and by numerous researchers who have modified it to meet their own research needs. By presenting a minimal standard of data in a highly adaptable database, the recording system described here provides consistent baseline data in a user-friendly, quick-access format
Adenoid hypertrophy is a common cause of upper airway obstruction, and adenoidectomy is one of the most frequently performed operations in children. Topical nasal steroids can act directly on nasopharyngeal lymphoid tissue to decrease its reactive inflammatory changes and potentially reduce its size.
To study the light microscopic changes in adenoidal lymphoid tissue after one month of topical steroid use.
Twenty-six children with adenoid hypertrophy grade 3 scheduled for adenoidectomy were randomly divided into two equal groups: one group received mometasone furoate aqueous nasal spray (Nasonex) 100 mcg/day for four weeks, and a control group received nasal normal saline 0.9 per cent for four weeks. The removed adenoids were examined histopathologically.
Adenoidal tissue from the mometasone group had less reactive germinal centres and less spongiosis compared to the control group. The latter showed proliferating, reactive, variable sized and shaped lymphoid follicles, with congested blood vessels in the interfollicular areas.
The use of intranasal mometasone furoate aqueous nasal spray (Nasonex) for one month reduced adenoidal tissue reactive cellular changes and its vascularity. This is, however, a pilot study; a longer treatment period is needed to assess the effect of treatment on adenoidal size.
The study of the exploitation of animals for traction in prehistoric Europe has been linked to the ‘secondary products revolution’. Such an approach, however, leaves little scope for identification of the less specialised exploitation of animals for traction during the European Neolithic. This study presents zooarchaeological evidence—in the form of sub-pathological alterations to cattle foot bones—for the exploitation of cattle for the occasional pulling of heavy loads, or ‘light’ traction. The analysis and systematic comparison of material from 11 Neolithic sites in the Western Balkans (c. 6100–4500 cal BC) provides the earliest direct evidence for the use of cattle for such a purpose.
In sociological terms, decadence serves as a classifier for categorizing pathological social conditions that catalyse ‘decline.’ While the term ‘decadence’ itself has not been explicitly used in much sociological scholarship, the structure of decadence has been deployed to situate related concepts like anomie and alienation in narratives of decline. With respect to artistic production, the ‘decadent role’ may be such that pathological attributes become accepted or expected to the point that they confer artistic legitimacy. Hence the decadent role becomes acceptable under a creative mandate; that is, individual artists may present the pathological features of social decline so long as they connect those decadent attributes to creative output. This sociological dynamic helps to explain why the work of certain nineteenth-century decadents ? such as Oscar Wilde ? is now held in high artistic regard. In the case of Wilde, his reputation as an artist has survived efforts to label him as pathological, so he has posthumously ‘lived up’ to the creative mandate his decadence entailed.
Notions of decadence, decline, and decay are intrinsically linked to the history of art. The discipline’s three recognized forefathers ? Giorgio Vasari, Johann Joachim Winckelmann, and Heinrich Wölfflin ? all relied on the concept of decadence (and its antonym, progress) to make sense of the history of the visual arts and to evaluate the art of their times. A developmental model of art was central to the interpretative schemes of these art historians. In this organicist model, earlier developments prepare the stage for what comes later; and after a particular style flourishes for a time, its decline is inevitable as newer styles overtake it. Decadent artists such as Gustave Moreau and Aubrey Beardsley mock aesthetic standards and moral rules, precluding universal appreciation, and proudly so. Decadent artists and decadent audiences are estranged from their society and feel disdain for those who are scandalized by decadent art’s innovative form and immoral subject matter.
To identify epidemiological and pathophysiological factors, and treatment strategies, in external auditory canal cholesteatoma and benign necrotising otitis externa.
A retrospective case study was conducted of patients suffering from external auditory canal cholesteatoma and benign necrotising otitis externa admitted to tertiary hospitals, in the Capital Region of Denmark, over a five-year period.
Eighty-three patients (95 ears) with external auditory canal cholesteatoma or benign necrotising otitis externa were identified. A minimum incidence rate of 0.97 per 100 000 inhabitants per year was demonstrated. Sixty-eight per cent of cases had a history of smoking. Most lesions (74 per cent) were localised in the floor of the ear canal. Treatment time was 3.2 months for patients who had surgery and 6.0 months for those who received conservative treatment.
It is suggested that external auditory canal cholesteatoma and benign necrotising otitis externa are in fact the same disease, and therefore the diagnosis of external auditory canal cholesteatoma should be changed to benign necrotising otitis externa. Microangiopathy has a leading role in the aetiology. Surgery should be conducted in most cases.
The abundance of specimens of Ichthyosaurus provides an opportunity to assess morphological variation without the limits of a small sample size. This research evaluates the variation and taxonomic utility of hindfin morphology. Two seemingly distinct morphotypes of the mesopodium occur in the genus. Morphotype 1 has three elements in the third row: metatarsal two, distal tarsal three and distal tarsal four. This is the common morphology in Ichthyosaurus breviceps, I. conybeari and I. somersetensis. Morphotype 2 has four elements in the third row, owing to a bifurcation. This morphotype occurs in at least some specimens of each species, but it has several variations distinguished by the extent of contact of elements in the third row with the astragalus. Two specimens display a different morphotype in each fin, suggesting that the difference reflects individual variation. In Ichthyosaurus, the hindfin is taxonomically useful at the genus level, but species cannot be identified unequivocally from a well-preserved hindfin, although certain morphologies are more common in certain species than others. The large sample size filled in morphological gaps between what initially appeared to be taxonomically distinct characters. The full picture of variation would have been obscured with a small sample size. Furthermore, we have found several unusual morphologies which, in isolation, could have been mistaken for new taxa. Thus, one must be cautious when describing new species or genera on the basis of limited material, such as isolated fins and fragmentary specimens.
Preweaning mortality in piglets is a welfare issue, as well as an ethical and economic concern in commercial pig farming. Studying the causes of preweaning mortality and their prevalence is necessary to reduce losses. Preweaning piglet mortality was investigated in a field study including 347 sows from 14 loose-housed Norwegian piglet-producing herds. A total of 5254 piglets were born in these herds during the study period, and 1200 piglets were necropsied. The cause of death was based on pathoanatomical diagnosis (PAD). Preweaning mortality of all piglets in the study was 23.4%, including 6.3% stillborn. The two main causes of preweaning mortality in live-born piglets (n=4924) were trauma (7.1%) and starvation (2.7%). Piglets dying of an infection accounted for 2.0%. Among the necropsied piglets (n=1200), 29.1% had died due to trauma, 26.8% were categorized as stillborn and 11% had died of starvation. Piglets that had died of trauma, had a mean time of death of 1 lactation day (LD 1), ranging from LD 0 to LD 21. The mean time of death of piglets that died due to bacterial infection was LD 9, ranging from LD 0 to LD 31, with Escherichia coli accounting for most infections found in necropsied piglets. Farmers were able to identify death by trauma in piglets, but were less able to identify death due to hunger. Most piglets that died in the preweaning period, died of trauma. Surprisingly, this included large and well-fed piglets. The second most prevalent cause of preweaning mortality was starvation. Improved monitoring may reveal piglets with low body mass index, and additional nutrition may contribute to increase the survival rate.
X-ray micro-computed tomography (μCT) is a technique which can obtain three-dimensional images of a sample, including its internal structure, without the need for destructive sectioning. Here, we review the capability of the technique and examine its potential to provide novel insights into the lifestyles of parasites embedded within host tissue. The current capabilities and limitations of the technology in producing contrast in soft tissues are discussed, as well as the potential solutions for parasitologists looking to apply this technique. We present example images of the mouse whipworm Trichuris muris and discuss the application of μCT to provide unique insights into parasite behaviour and pathology, which are inaccessible to other imaging modalities.
Tularemia caused by the bacterium Francisella tularensis is a zoonotic disease. Tularemia is a common disease in the hare, and as a game species can be an important source of infection for humans. In this study, hares diagnosed with tularemia were examined with the aim to investigate whether the muscle (meat) had any pathological changes and/or contained F. tularensis. Real-time PCR and/or immunohistochemistry (IHC) detected the bacteria in muscle samples from 40 out of 43 investigated hares. IHC showed that bacteria were few and most commonly located in the peri- and endomysium. Histopathology showed occasional perimysial necroses and mild inflammation in association to the bacteria. Attempts to culture from 14 muscle samples were successful in two cases, both stored in the freezer <1 year. The result of this study shows that since F. tularensis is present in the muscle of infected hares, there is a risk for human infection when consuming undercooked hare meat. The risk is enhanced by the fact that some hares do not have easily detected gross lesions. The study contributes to a better understanding of sources of infection and risk factors for humans to contract tularemia.
By using an experimental model of dexamethasone-induced osteoporosis we investigated the effects of different therapeutic schemes combining sodium alendronate (SA) and simvastatin on bone mineral and protein composition, microstructural and mechanical remodeling. Wistar rats were randomized into eight groups: G1: non-osteoporotic; G2: osteoporotic; G3, G4, and G5: osteoporotic+SA (0.2, 0.4, and 0.8 mg/kg, respectively); G6, G7, and G8: osteoporotic+SA (0.2, 0.4, and 0.8 mg/kg, respectively)+simvastatin (0.4, 0.6, and 1 mg/kg, respectively). Osteoporosis was induced by dexamethasone (7 mg/kg, i.m.) once a week for 5 weeks. All treatments were administered for 8 weeks. Dexamethasone increased serum levels of alkaline phosphatase, calcium, phosphorus, and urea, especially in non-treated animals, which showed severe osteoporosis. Dexamethasone also induced bone microstructural fragility and reduced mechanical resistance, which were associated with a marked depletion in mineral mass, collagenous and non-collagenous protein levels in cortical and cancellous bone. Although SA has attenuated osteoporosis severity, the effectiveness of drug therapy was enhanced combining alendronate and simvastatin. The restoration in serum parameters, organic and inorganic bone mass, and mechanical behavior showed a dose-dependent effect that was potentially related to the complementary mechanisms by which each drug acts to induce bone anabolism, accelerating tissue repair.
Outbreaks of cutaneous infectious disease in amphibians are increasingly being attributed to an overlooked group of fungal-like pathogens, the Dermocystids. During the last 10 years on the Isle of Rum, Scotland, palmate newts (Lissotriton helveticus) have been reportedly afflicted by unusual skin lesions. Here we present pathological and molecular findings confirming that the pathogen associated with these lesions is a novel organism of the order Dermocystida, and represents the first formally reported, and potentially lethal, case of amphibian Dermocystid infection in the UK. Whilst the gross pathology and the parasite cyst morphology were synonymous to those described in a study from infected L. helveticus in France, we observed a more extreme clinical outcome on Rum involving severe subcutaneous oedema. Phylogenetic topologies supported synonymy between Dermocystid sequences from Rum and France and as well as their distinction from Amphibiocystidium spp. Phylogenetic analysis also suggested that the amphibian-infecting Dermocystids are not monophyletic. We conclude that the L. helveticus-infecting pathogen represents a single, novel species; Amphibiothecum meredithae.
In recent years, a malaria infection of humans in South East Asia, originally diagnosed as a known human-infecting species, Plasmodium malariae, has been identified as a simian parasite, Plasmodium knowlesi. This species had been subject to considerable investigation in monkeys since the 1930s. With the development of continuous culture of the erythrocytic stages of the human malarial parasite, Plasmodium falciparum in 1976, the emphasis in research shifted away from knowlesi. However, its importance as a human pathogen has provoked a renewed interest in P. knowlesi, not least because it too can be maintained in continuous culture and thus provides an experimental model. In fact, this parasite species has a long history in malaria research, and the purpose of this chapter is to outline approximately the first 50 years of this history.
The endoscopic modified Lothrop procedure is mainly used for refractory frontal sinusitis. However, we have used it as an access procedure to facilitate treatment for an extended range of additional frontal sinus pathologies.
A retrospective review of patients who underwent the endoscopic modified Lothrop procedure for ‘alternative’ frontal sinus pathologies was conducted. Patient data were reviewed. The main outcome parameter measured was signs of recurrence.
Twelve patients (6 males, 6 females) from a 7-year study period, with a mean age of 45.2 years (range, 16–78 years), were analysed. The surgical indications included frontoethmoidal mucoceles, cerebrospinal fluid leaks within the frontal sinus, cystic fibrosis, frontal sinus osteoma, frontal sinus ossifying fibroma and frontal silent sinus syndrome. The mean follow-up period was 33.3 months. There were no known recurrences.
We have used the endoscopic modified Lothrop procedure for a range of frontal sinus pathologies, safely and effectively, with no peri-operative complications.
The relationship between the use of pesticides and grey partridge poisoning, mainly due to irregular use of rodent baits, is reviewed in the current paper. The aim of this review is to emphasise the existing problem of partridge extinction and how it would impact the agriculture ecology. A drastic decline in the population of Grey Partridge Perdix perdix has been observed in the Republic of Serbia as well as in many other countries, due to intensive agriculture, predominantly caused by the abuse of pesticides. Pathological and toxicological findings indicate poisoning, and this can be confirmed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Actions such as monitoring and reporting incidents in the future should provide questions of how to improve and implement the established regulations.
Two unusual bumps occur on the internal surface of a rib of the marine reptile Prognathodon saturator from the Upper Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) of Maastricht, The Netherlands. These bumps are interpreted as stress fractures, possibly related to agonistic behaviour.