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In the aftermath of the Global Financial Crisis, states around the world have experienced sustained growth in the emerging industry of litigation finance in light of the perceived insularity of courtrooms from the instabilities and fluctuations of financial markets. In Canada, this nascent industry has been dominated by class actions given the high costs, risk exposures, and attractive rewards associated with collective redress. Such investments have been legitimated as promoting access to justice, a fundamental human right. This paper traces the historical and contemporary development of this legal dynamic of financialization by documenting the progressive liberalization of maintenance and champerty laws from the nineteenth century to the current period through a series of case studies, before exploring the legal economics of the emerging industry in Canada. In so doing, this paper critically examines the impacts of law’s financialization on multilayer access to justice.
While Canada has long criminalized aspects of sex work, the specific act of purchasing sexual services was not against the law per se. In 2014, however, the then Conservative government implemented new legislation targeting sex work clients. Given the criminalization and persistent stigmatization of their activities, assessing clients’ changing actions, perceptions, and knowledge of the new legislation is challenging. We thus turned to a major Canadian online sex work review forum to examine postings on forum threads. This paper examines the risk knowledge practices in which clients engage as they try to make sense of the modified legal regime and avoid new legal risks. Our findings illuminate clients’ varied understandings of their own criminalization.
For this study, we adapted the Montgomery Borgatta Caregiver Burden Scale, used widely in the United States, to the Saudi Arabian context. To produce an Arabic, culturally sensitive version of the scale, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 20 Saudi family caregivers. The Arabic version of the scale was tested, and participants were asked to comment on the appropriateness of items for the construct of “caregiver burden” using the repertory grid technique and laddering procedure – two constructivist methods derived from personal construct theory. From interview findings, we examined the content of the items and the caregiver burden construct itself. Our findings suggest that the use of constructivist methods to refine constructs and quantitative instruments is highly informative. This strategy is feasible even when little is known about the investigated constructs in the target culture and further elucidates our understanding of cross-cultural variations or invariance of different versions of the scale.
This article explores and appraises international legal developments regarding the right to self-defence against vicarious aggression — that is, armed attacks by non-state entities that are sponsored or hosted by a foreign state. Despite efforts to develop a normative framework and mechanisms of accountability to curb states’ use of non-state entities as proxies for armed activity, some states continue to view these entities as valuable tools for the realization of their foreign policy goals. Consequently, international practice shows general recognition of a right of self-defence against non-state armed entities. There is also an emerging body of authoritative opinion, backed by an evolving state practice, that supports the extension of the application of this right against a non-state entity’s host or sponsoring state, provided some conditions are met.
Opponents of commodification say that some things should not be for sale. Is citizenship one of them? Citizenship-by-investment schemes of naturalization allow investors virtually to “buy” citizenship. Revisiting objections to the older practice of selling another civic status—noble status—underscores many reasons why this trade may be regarded as problematic. The practice of selling citizenship is not only similar to that of selling honours but might also be thought wrong in analogous ways.
L’étude porte sur des constructions à interprétation adversative du français, articulées par et, comme John a un doctorat en linguistique et il ne sait ni lire ni écrire. Dans un premier temps, on caractérise le concept d’attente trompée et on illustre l’effet de surprise qui en découle. Dans un second temps, on étudie les raisons qui président à l’ordonnancement contraint des énonciations. On verra qu’il s’agit d’une manœuvre rhétorique ordonnée, procédant en deux temps: d’abord l’ouverture d’une attente forte, puis le déni de cette attente. Cela montre que ce ne sont pas des constructions totalement symétriques. On verra également qu’il y a très peu d’asyndètes (John a un doctorat en linguistique, il ne sait ni lire ni écrire) — avec la même interprétation adversative: ce sont des constructions massivement connectées par et.
This study investigated the reciprocal relationship between parental caregiving and labour force participation to determine whether (1) caregiving related to subsequent employment; (2) employment related to subsequent caregiving; (3) caregiving and labour force participation had a reciprocal relationship across time; and (4) gender differences existed in these relationships. A cross-lagged panel design was applied with structural equation modeling. The study sample included adult children aged 51 or older with living parents or parents-in-law. No reciprocal relationship was found between caregiving and labour force participation, but gender differences were evident. Women caregivers in 2006 were less likely to be working in 2008, whereas employment status was not related to subsequent caregiving. In contrast, men working in 2008 were less likely to be caregiving in 2010, whereas caregiving was not related to subsequent employment status. Findings suggest that gender plays an important role in the relationship between caregiving and labour force participation.
The study was conducted in Gamo Goffa Zone of Southern Ethiopia to characterize traditional cattle breeding practices and cattle trait preferences of the Gamo Highland and Gamo Lowland cattle types. Data collected through group discussions and individual interviews were synthesized and summarized using descriptive statistics. Indigenous cattle in the study area provide multiple functions, are well adapted to their production environments, and managed under traditional and subsistent modes of production. Farmers' cattle trait preferences slightly differ across highland and lowland sites. Whereas lowland farmers prefer carcass yield and traction capacity, cattle farmers in highland areas give more weight to adaptation, milk production and manure contributions. Common breeding system in all sites was pure breeding, although very few farmers residing in mid and highland areas exercise crossbreeding with introduced Holstein Friesian bulls for dairy improvement. The main reported selection criteria of farmers for breeding their animals were body size and conformation, milk production, fertility and breeding history of animals. Cattle breeding and management practices of the study area are traditional and low input.
Through the lens of individualization, aging families demonstrate changes both in family composition and in meanings of family and support. So, also, do low-income families that – in order to survive – choose flexible, sometimes novel, social-support relations, including kin and non-kin: these are aging families by choice. Applying the concept of liminality (transitional states of being) created through individualization, we explored the experiences of close relations in low-income families consisting of aging kin and non-kin members. Qualitative interviews with respondents representing two or three generations of aging families of choice illustrated how these families perceive the meanings of family and social support. We find that reciprocity is less vital to relationships of older with younger members in familial networks than may be expected. Liminality contours meanings and exchanges in low-income aging families of choice such that no matter how tenuous relations may be, they provide a sense of belonging and meaning.
This study compared the correlates of burden for spouse and adult child caregivers at two points in time and assessed whether correlates at T1 predicted burden at T2. The sample consisted of 878 caregivers to older adults throughout British Columbia who were prescribed cholinesterase inhibitors. Burden was measured six months after the older adult was prescribed the medication and one year later (n = 759). Findings suggest that adult children experience more burden than spouses at both T1 and T2 with adult children but not spouses decreasing their burden over time. Correlates of T1 burden explained significant amounts of variance, revealing differential correlates for the two groups and the importance of caregiver characteristics over patient characteristics. Burden at T2 is explained mostly by T2 factors, plus T1 burden, suggesting the importance of relatively immediate factors for direct effects on caregiver burden. Indirect effects operated through T1 burden.
Considering about 13.9 percent of total surface under pastures and meadows and big demand for milk and meat, sheep are considered as an important livestock species in Kosovo. Hence, the overall objective of this study was to provide the characterization of autochthonous sheep breeds and sheep production systems in Kosovo. Breed characterization and proper economic management schemes, selection for most economically important traits and best animals in the flock will assist farmers in increasing the feeding efficiency, reproduction and productive traits and thus profit. Including Bardhoka (BAR), Balusha (BAL), Sharri (SHA) and Kosva (KOS) sheep breeds, for a period of 1 year (September 2009–August 2010) the study was concentrated in 20 sheep farms in different regions of Kosovo. The least-squares means show that for milk yield and milk content, breed differences were significant (P < 0.05). The highest average daily milk yield for BAR (0.63 kg) exceeded the milk yield of BAL, KOS and SHA with 0.09, 0.14 and 0.18 kg milk per day, respectively. For milk butterfat and protein SHA ewes obtained the highest rate compared with other three breeds for 9.4–19.9 percent. Milk dry matter among different breeds ranged between 18.4 and 19.3 percent. Voluntary disposal of ewes mainly occurred at lactation 4 and 5. Considering a standard yield at 1st lactation specific to the breeds, the highest production is reached at 3rd lactation.
Introduction. Detarium senegalense J.F. Gmel is
a forest tree found in Senegal whose fruits are locally called ditax in Wolof. It is eaten
fresh but it is widely used as nectar, which is one of the most popular beverages in
Senegal. However, the chemical characterization of ditax pulp remains incomplete. This
paper describes the volatile compounds of ditax to assess its organoleptic qualities.
Materials and methods. Free volatile compounds of fresh ditax pulp were
isolated by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation and analysis by GC-MS. Results and
discussion. Among the 53 compounds tentatively identified, 49 are reported for
the first time in this fruit. In total, 17 aldehydes, 11 aliphatic alcohols, 1 terpene
alcohol, 7 free fatty acids, 3 unsaturated hydrocarbons, 1 terpene hydrocarbon, 7
sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, 1 phenol, 2 ketones, 2 esters and 1 organic acid compound were
tentatively identified in ditax fresh pulp. The main volatiles identified in fresh ditax
pulp were trans, cis-2,6-nonadienal (2.47 mg×kg–1),
cis-2-heptenal (1.93 mg×kg–1), trans-a-bergamotene
(1.11 mg×kg–1), bicyclo [2,2,0] hexane-1-carboxaldehyde (0.80 mg×kg–1), butyl
octadecanoate (0.55 mg×kg–1) and trans-2-nonenal (0.47 mg×kg–1 fresh
pulp). Conclusion. Among the volatile compounds identified, aldehyde
compounds were widely predominant. To assess the aromatic qualities of ditax pulp, the
primary impact aromas should be determined by identifying the aroma-active compounds by
This article presents an analysis of a Montreal French corpus of text messages and considers the link between text messaging, and both spoken and written language. This corpus is part of a larger corpus of text messages sent by mobile phone (Texto4-Science). Our study focuses on two morphosyntactic variables for which an important sociostylistic variation has been reported in Montreal French: the alternation between the strong pronouns nous/nous autres ‘we/us’ (as non clitics), and between the subject clitics on/nous ‘we’. Their comparison in the text messages corpus and in spoken corpora shows that while text messages tend to approximate spoken language, they are not a perfect reflection of it. Generally, the hybridity of text messages can be conceived in the following manner: text messages obey a double standard (spoken and orthographic) and allow for occasional transgressions (formal markers associated with the written language and nonstandard spelling reflecting the spoken language).
Bio-archaeological studies can contribute significantly to understanding the economic interactions between cities and their hinterland. In Pompeii, where research has often been intramurally focussed, analysis of biological remains is often confined to bones and macro-botanicals consumed as foodstuffs. Charcoal, if collected, often remains unexamined, and yet this material is key to understanding the fuel economy of a city. This study has two goals: first, to describe an efficient method for charcoal sampling and analysis in a dense urban environment using only dry-sieved charcoals above 5 mm; and, second, in doing so, to demonstrate the dependent relationship between Pompeii and its hinterland for the provision of fuel in a case study from the House of the Vestals. A pilot study of 25 contexts from six ‘rooms’ and 750 charcoal fragments was followed by an extended study of 62 contexts over 14 rooms (a total of 1579 charcoal fragments). The extended results identified only two further (minor) taxa (represented by only three fragments). The most important wood identified was beech (Fagus sylvatica), which constituted 50–75 per cent of the fuel supply, depending on the time period. Beech grows preferentially above about 900 m in central and southern Italy. Pompeii lies at 30 m altitude with the nearest mountain areas at least 15 km away. The study suggests that a methodology that relies on collection of charcoal from routine dry sieving (5 mm grid), in soils where this is possible, can provide robust results in a cost effective manner in an urban setting.
The capability approach has been developed by Amartya Sen, Martha Nussbaum and others as a human-centred normative framework for the evaluation of individual and group well-being, quality of life and social justice. Sen and Nussbaum’s ideas have influenced global, national and local policy and have been further developed in a number of academic disciplines, but so far have remained largely unnoticed in sociology. This article examines recent capability-informed theories and empirical applications in the sociology of human rights and other academic fields adjacent to sociology, focussing on examples of social policy studies in the fields of welfare, the labour market, health and disability, and education. The article outlines several potential areas in which capability-informed frameworks are relevant for critical social theory, public sociology and global sociology.
In order to continuously monitor the phytoplankton growth in Antarctic coastal waters, an online mooring system was deployed in Great Wall Bay (unofficial name), King George Island, and both chlorophyll a (chl a) concentrations and environmental variables were monitored in a period between December 2010 and March 2011. Water temperatures showed a significant increasing trend (0.27–2.52°C), whereas the salinities displayed a decreasing trend (34.19–33.86). In general, phytoplankton biomass accumulated from mid-December and two significant blooms developed in January (3.18 μg l-1 and 4.75 μg l-1) and were then maintained at a relatively high level, with a transient bloom in late February (4.93 μg l-1). Sea-ice meltwater and terrestrial freshwater input caused by the increase of temperature played an important role in inducing phytoplankton blooms in early summer. The variation and stratification of temperature and salinity signals in different water layers, without total mixing, suggested lateral intrusion of oceanic waters with alternating levels of temperature and salinity and, presumably, phytoplankton as well. Meanwhile, chl a concentrations initially decreased with an increase in irradiance, indicating the shade-adapted characteristic of phytoplankton in early summer, and then gradually adapted to the increasing irradiance. Our results demonstrated the effectiveness and reliability of the online coastal mooring system for the monitoring of Antarctic coastal phytoplankton bloom and environmental conditions.
There are two main approaches to the syntax of Korean relative clauses: the operator-movement analysis and the operator-binding analysis. Although the predictions made by the two analyses are clear, no consensus is found in the literature regarding the two approaches, as there is disagreement on what the facts are. This situation thus calls for adopting a controlled experimental methodology to obtain the relevant data. In this article, I present findings from two magnitude estimation task experiments that support the operator-movement analysis. Experiment 1 tested whether a subject gap can occur in islands in relative clauses and whether it can be replaced with an overt pronoun, and Experiment 2 tested whether an object gap can occur in islands in relative clauses and whether it can be replaced with an overt pronoun. In both experiments, a gap could not occur in an island and could not be replaced with an overt pronoun. According to these findings, relativization into islands is ruled out in Korean, and thus the operator-movement analysis is supported.
Introduction. Camu-camu is
a native Amazonian fruit mainly known for its high vitamin C content.
Its composition confers high antioxidant capacity on this fruit
and makes it a potential source of antioxidant products. The use
of spray-drying with the aid of a carrier agent is a technique that
has been applied for the preservation of important components of
foods and drugs. The objective of our work was to evaluate the influence
of those agents used as shell material on the vitamin content and
total phenolic compounds of camu-camu powder juice obtained by spray-drying.
Materials and methods. A commercial frozen camu-camu
pulp was the raw material; maltodextrin and gum arabic were the selected
carrier agents. Processes were performed in a mini-spray-dryer with
inlet and outlet air temperatures of 180 °C and 85 °C, respectively,
and a drying air flow rate of 700 L·h–1. Laser diffraction was used
to determine the particle size distribution of the samples, and sorption
isotherms of spray-dried camu-camu were measured using a static
gravimetric method. Total phenolic compounds and vitamin C were determined
in the raw pulp and in the powders obtained. Results.
When using gum arabic and maltodextrin as the carrier agents, the moisture
results obtained for the spray-dried camu-camu powders were 2.8%
and 3.2%, respectively; the process yield was 84% and 72%, respectively.
The spray-dried powder produced using gum arabic presented higher contents
of vitamin C [(15,363 ± 226) mg·100 g–1] and phenolic compounds
[(6,654 ± 596) mg GAE·100 g–1] than the powder obtained with maltodextrin, respectively
(11,258 ± 298) mg·100 g–1 and (5,912 ± 582) mg GAE·100 g–1. Conclusions.
The concentration factors for the vitamin C and phenolic compounds
in camu-camu powder reveal the effectiveness of spray-drying to
preserve the antioxidant capacity of this fruit. Gum arabic was
a more effective barrier than maltodextrin for bioactive compound
Cette étude expérimentale présente de nouveaux matériaux composites développés récemment
pour le brasage de pièces en cuivre. Il s’agit de compositions à base d’agarose qui
peuvent être mises en forme par moulage par injection de poudres. Cette facilité de mise
en œuvre ouvre comme possibilité d’application la fabrication de préformes de brasage de
formes complexes. Deux exemples d’utilisations sont présentés, l’un porte sur le brasage
tendre et l’autre concerne le brasage fort. Les brasures finales obtenues permettent
d’obtenir une résistance mécanique et une qualité métallurgique similaires à celles
obtenues à partir des matériaux conventionnels (bases SnPb ou CuP) utilisés pour le
brasage manuel de tubes en cuivre.