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Chapter 3 has a dual focus: it describes the law troubles of E. P. Thompson and his research assistant Edward Dodd in investigating eighteenth-century threatening letters for ‘The Crime of Anonymity’, and it explores threatening letters themselves as windows onto popular law consciousness. The research relationship between Thompson and Dodd was conducted by letter, and the chapter raises questions about letter-writing as a social and legal practice.
We prove that the category of (rigidified) Breuil–Kisin–Fargues modules up to isogeny is Tannakian. We then introduce and classify Breuil–Kisin–Fargues modules with complex multiplication mimicking the classical theory for rational Hodge structures. In particular, we compute an avatar of a ‘
-adic Serre group’.
This paper presents three different age domains, obtained by electron microprobe monazite dating, for granulitic gneisses collected from the Shillong-Meghalaya Gneissic Complex in Sonapahar, NE India, which contain radioactive materials, e.g. thorium (3.32–7.20 wt %), uranium (0.133–1.172 wt %) and lead (0.101–0.513 wt %). The microprobe analyses of monazite grains in the rock samples show that the monazites have three different ages ranging from Mesoproterozoic to Neoproterozoic. The oldest age (1571 ± 22 Ma) represents a peak metamorphic event, the youngest dominant age indicates the Pan-African tectonic event (478 ± 7 Ma) and the intermediate age marks the Grenvillian orogeny (1034 ± 91 Ma) or may be a mixing artefact; these ages are located at the cores, rims and intermediate parts of the monazite grains, respectively. The equilibrium mineral phases calculated for the granulitic gneisses from Sonapahar lie in a P–T range from 5.9 kbar/754 °C to 8.3 kbar/829 °C in the NCKFMASH system. Plotting the P–T conditions of the granulitic gneisses reveals a clockwise P–T path. Two major metamorphic events are observed in Sonapahar. The M1 metamorphic stage is represented by peak mineral assemblages of prograde garnet-forming reactions (8.2 kbar/∼713 °C) during Mesoproterozoic time (1571 ± 22 Ma). The M2 metamorphic stage featured decompression (3.9 kbar/∼701 °C) in which garnet–sillimanite broke down to form cordierite along an isothermal decompression path during the Pan-African tectonic event (478 ± 7 Ma).
A field study was conducted in 2015 and 2016 at the H. Rouse Caffey Rice Research Station (RRS) near Crowley, Louisiana to evaluate the interactions of quizalofop and a mixture of propanil plus thiobencarb applied sequentially or mixed for weedy rice and barnyardgrass control. Visual weed control evaluations occurred at 14, 28, and 42 d after treatment (DAT). Quizalofop was applied at 120 g ai ha-1 at 7, 3, and 1 days before and after propanil plus thiobencarb were each applied at 3360 g ai ha-1. In addition, quizalofop was applied alone and in a mixture with propanil plus thiobencarb at d 0. Control of red rice, ‘CL-111’, and ‘CLXL-745’ was greater than 91% for quizalofop applied alone at d 0, similar to control for quizalofop applied 7, 3, and 1 d prior to propanil plus thiobencarb at all evaluation dates. Control for the same weeds treated with quizalofop plus propanil plus thiobencarb applied in a mixture at d 0 was 70% to 76% at each evaluation date, similar to quizalofop applied 1 or 3 d after propanil plus thiobencarb. A similar trend occurred for barnyardgrass control with 88% to 97% control for quizalofop applied alone and 48% to 53% control for the mixture at 14, 28, and 42 DAT. ‘PVL01’ rough rice yield was 4060 kg ha-1 when treated with quizalofop alone; however yield was reduced to 3180 kg ha-1 when treated with quizalofop mixed with propanil plus thiobencarb at d 0, similar to PVL01 rice treated with quizalofop 1 or 3 d following the propanil plus thiobencarb application.
Evolution of kochia resistance to glyphosate and dicamba is a concern for growers in the U.S. Great Plains. An increasing use of glyphosate and dicamba with the widespread adoption of glyphosate/dicamba-resistant soybean in recent years may warrant greater attention. For long-term stewardship of this new stacked trait technology, diverse weed control strategies, including the use of soil residual herbicides (PRE) aimed at effective control of glyphosate/dicamba-resistant (GDR) kochia need to be implemented. Field experiments were conducted in Huntley, MT in 2017 and 2018 and Hays, KS in 2018 to determine the effectiveness of various PRE herbicides applied alone or followed by (fb) a POST treatment of glyphosate plus dicamba for controlling GDR kochia in glyphosate/dicamba-resistant soybean. Among PRE herbicides tested, sulfentrazone provided complete (100%), season-long control of GDR kochia at both sites. In addition, PRE fb POST programs tested in this study had 71 to 100% control of GDR kochia throughout the season at both sites. Pyroxasulfone applied PRE resulted in 57 to 70% control across sites at 9 to 10 wk after PRE (WAPRE). However, mixing dicamba with pyroxasulfone improved control up to 25% at both sites. Kochia plants surviving pyroxasulfone applied PRE alone produced 2,533 seeds m─2 compared with pyroxasulfone + dicamba (227 seeds m–2) at Montana site. No differences in soybean grain yields were observed with PRE alone or PRE fb POST treatments at Montana site; however, dicamba, pyroxasulfone, and pendimethalin + dimethenamid applied PRE had lower grain yield (1150 kg ha–1) compared to all other tested programs at Kansas site. In conclusions, effective PRE or PRE fb POST (two pass) programs tested in this research should be proactively utilized by the growers to manage GDR kochia in glyphosate/dicamba-resistant soybean.
be an odd prime. We construct a
of nilpotency class two, rank seven and exponent
, such that
on the Frattini quotient
. The constructed group
is the smallest
-group with these properties, having order
, and when
our construction gives two nonisomorphic
-groups. To show that
satisfies the specified properties, we study the action of
on the octonion algebra over
, for each power
, and explore the reducibility of the exterior square of each irreducible seven-dimensional
Rice with enhanced tolerance to herbicides that inhibit acetyl coA carboxylase (ACCase) allows POST applications of quizalofop, an ACCase-inhibiting herbicide. Two concurrent field studies were conducted in 2017 and 2018 at Stoneville, MS, to evaluate control of grass (Grass Study) and broadleaf (Broadleaf Study) weeds with sequential applications of quizalofop alone and in mixtures with auxinic herbicides applied in the first or second application. Sequential treatments of quizalofop were applied at 119 g ai ha-1 alone and in mixtures with labeled rates of auxinic herbicides to rice at the two- to three-leaf (EPOST) or four-leaf to one-tiller (LPOST) growth stages. In the Grass Study, no differences in rice injury or control of volunteer rice (‘CL151’ and ‘Rex’) were detected 14 and 28 d after last application (DA-LPOST). Barnyardgrass control at 14 and 28 DA-LPOST with quizalofop applied alone or with auxinic herbicides EPOST was ≥93% for all auxinic herbicide treatments except penoxsulam plus triclopyr. Barnyardgrass control was ≥96% with quizalofop applied alone and with auxinic herbicides LPOST. In the Broadleaf Study, quizalofop plus florpyrauxifen-benzyl controlled more Palmer amaranth 14 DA-LPOST than other mixtures with auxinic herbicides, and control with this treatment was greater EPOST compared with LPOST. Hemp sesbania control 14 DA-LPOST was ≤90% with quizalofop plus quinclorac LPOST, orthosulfamuron plus quinclorac LPOST, and triclopyr EPOST or LPOST. All mixtures controlled ivyleaf morningglory ≥ 91% 14 DA-LPOST except quinclorac and orthosulfamuron plus quinclorac LPOST. Florpyrauxifen-benzyl or triclopyr were required for volunteer soybean control >63% 14 DA-LPOST. To optimize barnyardgrass control and rice yield, penoxsulam plus triclopyr and orthosulfamuron plus quinclorac should not be mixed with quizalofop. Quizalofop mixtures with auxinic herbicides are safe and effective for control of barnyardgrass, volunteer rice, and broadleaf weeds in ACCase-resistant rice, and the choice of herbicide mixture could be adjusted based on weed spectrum in the treated field.
Atrial dysrhythmia is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with atrial septal defect. Increased P wave duration can predict the risk of atrial dysrhythmia. The aim of this study is to evaluate the risk of atrial dysrhythmia by measuring P wave dispersion, and to observe the effect of surgical and transcatheter closure. Sixty-one patients and 30 controls were investigated. In patient group, before and after closure and in control group at the time of presentation, 12-lead electrocardiography records were evaluated. P wave duration and amplitude, P wave axis, PR interval, P wave dispersion, QRS axis, corrected QT interval, and QT dispersion were calculated. The measurements in patient and control groups, measurements before and after closure, and measurements of surgical and transcatheter group were compared. There were 27 patients in surgical group and 34 patients in transcatheter group. In patient group, signs of right heart volume overload were apparent but there was no significant difference in terms of P wave dispersion between two groups. We compared patient group in itself and found that while the use of medication, cardiothoracic index, ratio of right ventricular dilation, and paradoxical movement in interventricular septum were increased, mean age of closure was younger in surgical group. While P wave dispersion decreased in transcatheter group after closure, it increased in surgical group (p = 0.021). In conclusion, atrial septal defects may cause atrial repolarisation abnormalities and this effect persists even after surgical closure. Transcatheter closure in childhood may decrease dysrhythmia risk in long-term follow-up.
For positive weight functions a and b satisfying appropriate integrability and boundedness assumptions, we show that, for all p>1, the eigenvalue set consists of an isolated null eigenvalue plus a continuous family of eigenvalues located away from zero.
We carry Sprindžuk’s classification of the complex numbers to the field
-adic numbers. We establish several estimates for the
-adic distance between
-adic roots of integer polynomials, which we apply to show that almost all
-adic numbers, with respect to the Haar measure, are
-numbers of order 1.
This report updates the incidence of herbicide-resistant (HR) weeds across western Canada from the last report covering 2007 to 2011. This third round of pre-harvest surveys was conducted in Saskatchewan in 2014/2015, Manitoba in 2016, and Alberta in 2017, totaling 798 randomly selected cropped fields across 28 million ha. In addition, we screened 1,108 weed seed samples submitted by prairie growers or industry between 2012 and 2016. Of 578 fields where wild oat seed was collected, 398 (69%) had an HR biotype: 62% acetyl-CoA carboxylase inhibitor (WSSA Group 1)-HR, 34% acetolactate synthase inhibitor (Group 2)-HR, and 27% Group 1+2-HR (vs. 41, 12, and 8%, respectively, in the previous second-round surveys from 2007 to 2009). The sharp increase in Group 2 resistance is the result of reliance on this site of action to manage Group 1 resistance and the resultant increased selection pressure. There are no POST options to control Group 1+2-HR wild oat in wheat or barley. The rise of Group 2 resistance in green foxtail (11% of sampled fields) and yellow foxtail (17% of Manitoba fields), which was not detected in the previous survey round, parallels the results for wild oat resistance. Various Group 2-HR populations of broadleaf weeds were confirmed, with cleavers and field pennycress being most abundant. Results of submission sample testing reflected survey results. Although not included in this study, a post-harvest survey in Alberta in 2017 indicated widespread Group 2, 4 (dicamba), and 9 (glyphosate) resistance in kochia and Group 2 resistance in Russian thistle. These surveys bring greater awareness of HR weeds to growers and land managers at a local and regional level, and highlight the urgency to preserve herbicide susceptibility in our key economic weed species.
A field study was conducted during the 2016 and 2017 crop seasons at the LSU AgCenter H. Rouse Caffey Rice Research Station to evaluate weed control and rice yield after quizalofop-p-ethyl applications in water-seeded coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase)–resistant ‘PVLO1’ long-grain rice production utilizing different flood systems, application timings, and quizalofop rates. The initial application of quizalofop was applied at five timings beginning when ‘PVLO1’ rice was at the coleoptile stage (PEG) through the one- to two-tiller stage. A total quizalofop rate of 240 g ai ha–1 was split into two applications: 97 followed by 143 g ha–1 or 120 followed by 120 g ai ha–1 in both pinpoint and delayed flood water-seeded management systems. A second quizalofop application was applied 14 d after initial treatment (DAIT). At 14 DAIT, a reduction in control of barnyardgrass and red rice was observed by delaying the initial quizalofop application to the two- to four-tiller stage compared with rice treated at earlier growth stages. At 42 DAIT, control of barnyardgrass was 94% to 96%, and red rice was 98% following the second application of quizalofop, regardless of initial application timing. Rice treated with quizalofop at the PEG and two- and three-leaf stage resulted in a rice height of 104 cm at harvest compared with 96 to 100 cm when the initial application of quizalofop was delayed to later growth stages. Applying the initial application of quizalofop to rice at the PEG timing in the pinpoint or the delayed flood system resulted in a total gross value per hectare of $450 and $590, respectively. Within each flood system, delaying the initial application of quizalofop to the one- to two-tiller stage resulted in a gross per-hectare value reduction of $100 ha-1 in the pinpoint flood and $110 ha-1 in the delayed flood.
Weed seeds with mechanical damage are more susceptible to mortality in soil than non-damaged seeds. In this study we introduce a colorimetric assay to distinguish mechanically damaged weed seeds from non-damaged weed seeds. Our objectives were to (1) compare steepates from mechanically damaged seeds against steepates from non-damaged seeds for their capacities to reduce resazurin — a non-toxic, water soluble dye that changes color and light absorbance properties in response to pH, and (2) use light absorbance data from steepate-resazurin solutions to create classification trees for distinguishing damaged from non-damaged weed seeds. Species in this study included barnyardgrass, curly dock, junglerice, kochia, oakleaf datura, Palmer amaranth, spurred anoda, stinkgrass, tall morningglory and yellow foxtail. Seeds of each species were subjected to mechanical damage treatments that collectively represented a range of damage severities. Damaged and non-damaged seeds were individually soaked in water to produce steepates that were combined with resazurin. Light absorbance properties of steepate-resazurin solutions indicated that, for all species except kochia, damaged seeds reduced resazurin to greater extents than non-damaged seeds. Prediction accuracy rates for classification trees that used absorbance values as predictor variables were conditioned by species and damage type. Prediction accuracy rates were relatively low (66 to 86% accurate) for lightly damaged seeds, especially grass weed seeds. Prediction accuracy rates were high (91 to 99% accurate) for severely damaged seeds of specific broadleaf and grass weeds. Steepate-resazurin solutions that successfully separated seeds took no more than 32 h to produce. The results of this study indicate that the resazurin assay is a method for quickly distinguishing damaged from non-damaged weed seeds. Because rapid assessments of seed intactness may accelerate the development of tactics for reducing the number of weed seeds in soil, we advocate further development of resazurin assays by laboratories studying methods for weed seedbank depletion.
Provisia™ rice was developed recently by the BASF Corporation for control of grass weeds and is complementary to existing Clearfield® technology. Our previous research showed that resistance of Provisia™ rice to the ACCase herbicide quizalofop-p-ethyl (QPE) in laboratory and greenhouse environments is governed by a single dominant Mendelian gene. However, these results may not be consistent in different populations or field environments. Therefore, the first objective of the current research is to determine the inheritance of resistance to QPE in rice using different segregating populations evaluated under U.S. field environments. The second objective is to evaluate response of QPE resistant breeding lines to various herbicide concentrations at two U.S. (Louisiana) locations. Chi-square tests of 12 F2 populations evaluated in Louisiana environments during 2014 and 2015 indicated that QPE seedling resistance at 240 g ai ha−1 was governed by a single dominant Mendelian gene with no observable maternal effects. Similar results were obtained in 5 F3 populations derived from the aforementioned F2 populations. Allele-specific SNP markers for QPE resistance also followed Mendelian segregation in the five F2 populations. For the second objective, six QPE resistant inbred lines showed transient leaf injury at 1X (120 g ai ha−1) or 2X (240 g ai ha−1) field rates, 7 and 21 d after treatment (DAT). However, a trend of reduced injury (recovery) from 7 through 33 DAT was observed for all breeding material. No differences in grain yield were found between untreated QPE resistant lines and those treated with 1X or 2X QPE field rate. Single gene inheritance and good levels of QPE herbicide field resistance in different genetic populations suggest feasibility for rapid and effective development of new QPE resistant varieties and effective stewardship of the Provisia™ technology.
We present Tointon’s proof of Freiman’s theorem in an arbitrary nilpotent group. More specifically, we show that a finite K-approximate subgroup of a nilpotent group of bounded step is contained in a relatively small coset progression of rank bounded by a polynomial in K. We start by treating the torsion-free case, where the details are easiest. As part of our proof of the general case we show that if X is a union of subgroups in an abelian p-group of rank r then the subgroup generated by X has diameter at most r with respect to X. We also show that if H is a subgroup of a nilpotent group G generated by a K-approximate group A, and H is contained in a bounded power of A, then the normal closure of H in G is also contained in a bounded power of A.
Nonnative annual brome invasion is a major problem in many ecosystems throughout the semiarid Intermountain West, decreasing production and biodiversity. Herbicides are the most widely used control technique but can have negative effects on co-occurring species. Graminicides, or grass-specific herbicides, may be able to control annual bromes without harming forbs and shrubs in restoration settings, but limited studies have addressed this potential. This study focused on evaluating the efficacy of glyphosate and four graminicides to control annual bromes, specifically downy brome and Japanese brome. In a greenhouse, glyphosate and four graminicides (clethodim, sethoxydim, fluazifop-P-butyl, and quizalofop-P-ethyl) were applied at two rates to downy brome plants of different heights (Experiment 1) and to three accessions of downy brome and Japanese brome of one height (Experiment 2). All herbicides reduced downy brome biomass, with most effective control on plants of less than 11 cm and with less than 12 leaves. Overall, quizalofop-P-ethyl and fluazifop-P-butyl treatments were most effective, and glyphosate and sethoxydim treatments least effective. Accessions demonstrated variable response to herbicides: the downy brome accession from the undisturbed site was more susceptible to herbicides than downy brome from the disturbed accession and Japanese brome accessions. These results demonstrate the potential for graminicides to target these annual bromes in ecosystems where they are growing intermixed with desired forbs and shrubs.
The high-silica rhyolitic Joe Lott Tuff was erupted at 19.2 ± 0.4 Ma from the Mount Belknap caldera, SW Utah. Certain units in the tuff contain two species of wakefieldite, the Nd- and Y-dominant types. They occur in disseminated streaks and patches in association with rhodochrosite, calcite, Fe oxide, cerite-(Ce), and a Mn silicate (caryopilite?), thought to have been deposited from hydrothermal fluids. The wakefieldites contain the highest levels of As (≤15.34 wt.% As2O5) and P (≤5.7 wt.% P2O5) yet recorded in this mineral, indicating significant solid solution towards chernovite-(Y) and xenotime-(Y). Thorium levels are also unusually high (≤14.2 wt.% ThO2). The source of the hydrothermal fluid(s) is unknown but might be related to uranium mineralisation in the region, in that As, V and U are commonly associated in such deposits.
This chapter describes the influence of the Gaelic Revival on the creation of a Protestant nationalist counterculture during the first decade of the twentieth century. It discusses the manner in which cultural activism, by means of literature, the theatre, and learning the Irish language, tended to radicalise Protestants, and led them to convert to nationalism. It charts the development of a largely Dublin-based network of Protestant activists, whose development towards nationalism was largely actuated by means of immersion in the Abbey Theatre, the Gaelic League and various literary societies. Irish nationalist opposition to the Second Boer War, which radicalised some Protestant Gaelic Leaguers, is discussed. This chapter describes the attitude of two prominent Catholic newspaper editors, Arthur Griffith and D. P. Moran, towards Protestant nationalists, with Griffith seeking to incorporate Protestants into the nationalist movement, and Moran seeking their exclusion. The final section analyses Protestant Gaelic Leaguers’ attempts to form their own associational culture, which led to tensions within the movement. Ultimately, this chapter shows how Protestant involvement in the Gaelic League sometimes led to conversion to nationalism, but could cause unease among other Protestants, who sought an apolitical organisation.
A Heron triangle is a triangle that has three rational sides
and a rational area, whereas a perfect triangle is a Heron triangle that has three rational medians
. Finding a perfect triangle was stated as an open problem by Richard Guy [Unsolved Problems in Number Theory (Springer, New York, 1981)]. Heron triangles with two rational medians are parametrized by the eight curves
mentioned in Buchholz and Rathbun [‘An infinite set of heron triangles with two rational medians’, Amer. Math. Monthly104(2) (1997), 106–115; ‘Heron triangles and elliptic curves’, Bull. Aust. Math.Soc.58 (1998), 411–421] and Bácskái et al. [Symmetries of triangles with two rational medians, http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.65.6533, 2003]. In this paper, we reveal results on the curve
which has the property of satisfying conditions such that six of seven parameters given by three sides, two medians and area are rational. Our aim is to perform an extensive search to prove the nonexistence of a perfect triangle arising from this curve.
We use statistical analyses to test our predictions using the measures we collect for our sample. Like all aspects of study design, we need to think carefully about our choice of analytical approach. Planning our data analysis in detail, before we collect your data, helps to determine what data we need to collect. It is very common to rush past the analysis plan and dive straight into collecting data. This is partly because statistics are not intuitive and can be intimidating. However, statistical analysis is an integral part of study design. We must understand statistics to understand the strengths, limitations, and potential biases of any research. This may seem daunting, but our understanding of statistics determines the quality of a study. The more we think about this now, the better our study will be. I begin this chapter with how to determine what sort of analyses we need and the need to consult a statistician when we design a study. Next, I cover problems associated with multiple testing and assessing multiple predictor variables. I explain how to prepare an analysis plan and suggest pre-registration.