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Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with reduced life expectancy in patients with affective disorders, however, whether MetS also plays a role before the onset of affective disorder is unknown. We aimed to investigate whether MetS, inflammatory markers or oxidative stress act as risk factors for affective disorders, and whether MetS is associated with increased inflammation and oxidative stress.
We conducted a high-risk study including 204 monozygotic (MZ) twins with unipolar or bipolar disorder in remission or partial remission (affected), their unaffected co-twins (high-risk) and twins with no personal or family history of affective disorder (low-risk). Metabolic Syndrome was ascertained according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. Inflammatory markers and markers of oxidative stress were analyzed from fasting blood and urine samples, respectively.
The affected and the high-risk group had a significantly higher prevalence of MetS compared to the low-risk group (20% v. 15% v. 2.5%, p = 0.0006), even after adjusting for sex, age, smoking and alcohol consumption. No differences in inflammatory and oxidative markers were seen between the three groups. Further, MetS was associated with alterations in inflammatory markers, and oxidative stress was modestly correlated with inflammation.
Metabolic syndrome is associated with low-grade inflammation and may act as a risk factor and a trait marker for affective disorders. If confirmed in longitudinal studies, this suggests the importance of early intervention and preventive approaches targeted towards unhealthy lifestyle factors that may contribute to later psychopathology.
Bearded sprangletop (Leptochloa fusca spp. fasicularis) is a problematic weed in California rice (Oryza sativa) production. Flooding was thought to suppress bearded sprangletop germination, emergence, and growth; however, after many years of continuous rice production, anecdotal evidence suggests that some bearded sprangletop biotypes can tolerate flood stress. The objective of this research was to determine the response of two bearded sprangletop biotypes [clomazone -susceptible (S) and -resistant (R)] to flooding depth. A study was conducted in 2017 and 2018 at the California Rice Experiment Station in Biggs, CA to test the flooding tolerance of two bearded sprangletop biotypes against 5 cm, 10 cm, and 20 cm continuous flooding depths. Plant emergence, plant height, panicles per plant, seed per panicle, 100 seed weight, and seed per plant data were collected. At the 5 cm flood depth, neither biotype was controlled and the R-biotype had 27% more emergence, produced 78% more panicles per plant, and 29% more seed per plant than the S-biotype. With a 10 cm flood, only the R-biotype survived flooding and produced significantly more panicles per plant and seed per plant than any other treatment-biotype combination tested. There was no emergence of bearded sprangletop in the 20 cm flood depth of either biotype. Continuous flooding can still be used as a management tool to control bearded sprangletop, however, the depth of flooding appears to limit emergence of S- biotypes at 5 cm and 10 cm for R- biotypes and completely inhibits growth for both biotypes at 20 cm. The results of this study indicate that clomazone-resistant bearded sprangletop is more likely to spread throughout the Sacramento Valley because can survive clomazone herbicide applications and is also able to tolerate a standard 10-cm flood.
For over a decade a transdiagnostic clinical staging framework for youth with anxiety, mood and psychotic disorders (linked with measurement of multidimensional outcomes), has been utilised in over 8,000 young people presenting to the enhanced primary (headspace) and secondary care clinics of the Brain and Mind Centre of the University of Sydney. This framework has been evaluated alongside a broad range of other clinical, neurobiological, neuropsychological, brain imaging, circadian, metabolic, longitudinal cohort and controlled intervention studies. This has led to specific tests of its concurrent, discriminant and predictive validity. These extensive data provide strong preliminary evidence that: i) varying stages of illness are associated with predicted differences in a range of independent and objectively measured neuropsychological and other biomarkers (both cross-sectionally and longitudinally); and, ii) that earlier stages of illness progress at variable rates to later and more severe or persistent disorders. Importantly, approximately 15-20% of those young people classed as stage 1b or ‘attenuated’ syndromes at presentation progress to more severe or persistent disorders. Consequently, this cohort should be the focus of active secondary prevention trials. In clinical practice, we are moving to combine the staging framework with likely pathophysiological paths (e.g. neurodevelopmental-psychotic, anxiety-depression, circadian-bipolar) to underpin enhanced treatment selection.
The staging model of mental illness is developing beyond the clinical level aiming to include biological processes and markers that may reflect the dynamic biological processes of stages of mental illness. The neurobiology of inflammation in mental illness has gained much attention in recent years. Since neuroinflammation has been shown to be an important possible feature of psychosis, schizophrenia and depression, in this chapter it is attempted to map changes and dysregulation of the immune system and inflammation to the different clinical stages of severe mental illness. The literature suggests that an increased inflammatory response may define a subgroup of individuals in ultra-high-risk states, in acute disease episodes and in those with severe mental illness. In addition, the literature clearly points to the dynamic nature of the immune response in mental illness and shows an involvement of both the innate and adaptive immune system in mental illness. A focus on inflammation only might be insufficient and a broader understanding of the interaction between innate and adaptive immune systems and the complex neuroimmune interaction is required.
We performed the exposure of bovine oocytes to anethole during in vitro maturation (0 or 300 µg/ml), during in vitro embryo production (0, 30, 300 or 2000 µg/ml), or during both periods to determine the rates of 2−4 cells embryos, blastocysts rates and cells numbers, as well as the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Bovine ovaries (n = 240) were collected from a local abattoir after slaughter and cumulus–oocyte complexes (COCs) with homogeneous and non-dark cytoplasm, surrounded by two or more compact layers of cumulus cells, and an intact zona pellucida were selected for in vitro maturatuion (IVM). Mature oocytes were then submitted to in vitro fertilization (IVF) and in vitro embryo production (IVP) in culture medium supplemented or not with different concentrations of anethole, as described above. Although IVM medium supplementation with 300 µg/ml anethole improved the rates of bovine blastocysts formation, we demonstrated that IVP medium supplementation with 30 µg/ml anethole, regardless of IVM medium enrichment, considerably enhanced blastocysts rates. Furthermore, ROS levels were decreased only when anethole was added to the IVP medium without previous IVM medium supplementation.
Long-term heat stress (HS) induced by testicular insulation generates oxidative stress (OS) on the testicular environment; consequently activating antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). The aim of this work was to immunolocalize antioxidant enzymes present in different cells within the seminiferous tubule when rams were submitted to HS. Rams were divided into control (n = 6) and treated group (n = 6), comprising rams subjected to testicular insulation for 240 h. After the testicular insulation period, rams were subjected to orchiectomy. Testicular fragments were submitted to immunohistochemistry for staining against SOD, GR and GPx enzymes. We observed immunolocalization of GPx in more cell types of the testis after HS and when compared with other enzymes. In conclusion, GPx is the main antioxidant enzyme identified in testicular cells in an attempt to maintain oxidative balance when HS occurs.
Macular pigment (MP) confers potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects at the macula, and may therefore protect retinal tissue from the oxidative stress and inflammation associated with ocular disease and ageing. There is a body of evidence implicating oxidative damage and inflammation as underlying pathological processes in diabetic retinopathy. MP has therefore become a focus of research in diabetes, with recent evidence suggesting that individuals with diabetes, particularly type 2 diabetes, have lower MP relative to healthy controls. The present review explores the currently available evidence to illuminate the metabolic perturbations that may possibly be involved in MP’s depletion. Metabolic co-morbidities commonly associated with type 2 diabetes, such as overweight/obesity, dyslipidaemia, hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance, may have related and independent relationships with MP. Increased adiposity and dyslipidaemia may adversely affect MP by compromising the availability, transport and assimilation of these dietary carotenoids in the retina. Furthermore, carotenoid intake may be compromised by the dietary deficiencies characteristic of type 2 diabetes, thereby further compromising redox homeostasis. Candidate causal mechanisms to explain the lower MP levels reported in diabetes include increased oxidative stress, inflammation, hyperglycaemia, insulin resistance, overweight/obesity and dyslipidaemia; factors that may negatively affect redox status, and the availability, transport and stabilisation of carotenoids in the retina. Further study in diabetic populations is warranted to fully elucidate these relationships.
Vitamin C (VC) is a vital micronutrient for humans and some other mammals and also has antioxidant activity. Stress-induced elevation of glucocorticoid production is well known to cause immunosuppression. This study evaluated the effect of high VC intake on glucocorticoid-induced immune changes in mice. Senescence marker protein 30 knockout (SMP30-KO) mice with genetic VC deficiency were fed a diet containing the recommended VC content (20 mg/kg/day; 0·2%VC group) or a high VC content (200 mg/kg/day; 0·2%VC group) for 2 months, then dexamethasone was given by intraperitoneal injection. After administration of dexamethasone, the plasma ascorbic acid concentration decreased significantly in the 0·02%VC group and was unchanged in wild-type C57BL/6 mice on a VC-deficient diet (wild-type group), while it was significantly higher in the 0·2%VC group than in the other two groups. In the 0·02%VC and wild-type groups, dexamethasone caused a significant decrease of cluster of differentiation (CD) 4+ and CD 8+ T cells among splenocytes, as well as a significant decrease of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-12p40, and interferon-gamma protein production by splenocytes and a significant decrease of T cell proliferation among splenocytes. In the 0·2%VC group, these dexamethasone-induced immunosuppressions were improved when compared with the other two groups. In addition, reduction of the intracellular levels of ascorbic acid, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione in splenocytes by dexamethasone, as well as elevation of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, were significantly suppressed in the 0·2%VC group. These findings suggest that high dietary VC intake reduces glucocorticoid-induced T cell dysfunction by maintaining intracellular antioxidant activity.
Oxidative stress is implicated in the aetiology of schizophrenia, and the antioxidant defence system (AODS) may be protective in this illness. We examined the major antioxidant glutathione (GSH) in prefrontal brain and its correlates with clinical and demographic variables in schizophrenia.
GSH levels were measured in the dorsolateral prefrontal region of 28 patients with chronic schizophrenia using a magnetic resonance spectroscopy sequence specifically adapted for GSH. We examined correlations of GSH levels with age, age at onset of illness, duration of illness, and clinical symptoms.
We found a negative correlation between GSH levels and age at onset (r = −0.46, p = 0.015), and a trend-level positive relationship between GSH and duration of illness (r = 0.34, p = 0.076).
Our findings are consistent with a possible compensatory upregulation of the AODS with longer duration of illness and suggest that the AODS may play a role in schizophrenia.
Considering a potential exercise-drug interaction, we investigated whether exercise training could improve the efficacy of specific antiparasitic chemotherapy in a rodent model of Chagas disease. Wistar rats were randomized into five groups: sedentary and uninfected (CT); sedentary and infected (SI); sedentary, infected and treated (SIT); trained and infected (TI); trained, infected and treated (TIT). After 9-weeks running training, the animals were infected with T. cruzi and followed up for 4 weeks, receiving 100 mg kg−1 day−1 benznidazole. No evidence of myocarditis was observed in CT animals. TI animals exhibited reduced parasitemia, myocarditis, and reactive tissue damage compared to SI animals, in addition to increased IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-10, heart non-protein antioxidant (NPA) levels and glutathione-s transferase activity (P < 0.05). The CT, SIT and TIT groups presented similar reductions in parasitemia, cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-4, IL-10, IL-17 and MCP-1), inflammatory infiltrate, oxidative heart damage and antioxidant enzymes activity compared to SI and TI animals, as well as reduced heart microstructural remodeling (P < 0.05). By modulating heart inflammation and redox metabolism, exercise training exerts a protective effect against T. cruzi infection in rats. However, the antiparasitic and cardioprotective effects of benznidazole chemotherapy are more pronounced, determining similar endpoints in sedentary and trained T. cruzi-infected rats.
The present study investigated if the presence of encircling granulosa cells protected against di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP)-induced oxidative stress in rat oocytes cultured in vitro. Denuded oocytes and cumulus–oocyte complexes (COCs) were treated with or without various doses of DEHP (0.0, 25.0, 50.0, 100, 200, 400 and 800 μM) in vitro. Morphological apoptotic changes, levels of oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential, and expression levels of apoptotic markers (Bcl2, Bax, cytochrome c) were analyzed. Our results showed that DEHP induced morphological apoptotic changes in a dose-dependent manner in denuded oocytes cultured in vitro. The effective dose of DEHP (400 µg) significantly (P>0.05) increased oxidative stress by elevating ROS levels and the mitochondrial membrane potential with higher mRNA expression and protein levels of apoptotic markers (Bax, cytochrome c). Encircling granulosa cells protected oocytes from DEHP-induced morphological changes, increased oxidative stress and ROS levels, as well as increased expression of apoptotic markers. Taken together our data suggested that encircling granulosa cells protected oocytes against DEHP-induced apoptosis and that the presence of granulosa cells could act positively towards the survival of oocytes under in vitro culture conditions and may be helpful during assisted reproductive technique programmes.
Oxidative stress occurs when oxidant production exceeds the antioxidant capacity to detoxify the reactive intermediates or to repair the resulting damage. Feed efficiency has been associated with mitochondrial function due to its impact on cell energy metabolism. However, mitochondria are also recognized as a major source of oxidants. The aim of this study was to determine lipid and protein oxidative stress markers, and gene and protein expression as well as activity of antioxidant enzymes in the liver of steers of divergent residual feed intake (RFI) phenotypes. Hereford steers (n = 111) were evaluated in post-weaning 70 days standard test for RFI. Eighteen steers exhibiting the greatest (n = 9; high-RFI) and the lowest (n = 9; low-RFI) RFI values were selected for this study. After the test, steers were managed together under grazing conditions until slaughter when they reached the slaughter body weight. At slaughter, hepatic samples were obtained, were snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at −80°C until analyses. Hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive species and protein carbonyls were greater (P = 0.05) and hepatic 4-hydroxynonenal protein adducts tended (P = 0.10) to be greater for high- than low-RFI steers. Hepatic gene expression glutathione peroxidase 4, glutamate–cysteine ligase catalytic subunit and peroxiredoxin 5 mRNA was greater (P ≤ 0.05) and glutathione peroxidase 3 mRNA tended (P = 0.10) to be greater in low- than high-RFI steers. Hepatic protein expression and enzyme activity of manganese superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase enzyme activity tended (P ≤ 0.10) to be greater for low- than high-RFI steers. High-efficiency steers (low-RFI) probably had better hepatic oxidative status which was strongly associated with greater antioxidant ability near to the oxidant production site and, therefore, reduced oxidative stress of the liver. Decreased hepatic oxidative stress would reduce maintenance requirements due to a lower protein and lipid turnover and better efficiency in the use of energy.
Oxidative stress is closely related to metabolic disorders, which can lead to various diseases. Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a central regulator of oxidative stress. Sodium butyrate (NaB) has been shown to alleviate oxidative stress and insulin resistance, yet how Nrf2 is involved in the action of NaB remains unclear. In the present study, rats were rendered obese by feeding a high-fat diet for 9 weeks. NaB (300 mg/kg), which was gavaged every 2 d for 7 weeks, significantly alleviated high-fat diet-induced oxidative stress and insulin resistance. Additionally, the insulin signalling pathway in the liver was activated by NaB, associated with significant activation of Nrf2, superoxide dismutase and glutathione. Furthermore, hepatic up-regulation of Nrf2 in NaB-treated rats was associated with reduced protein content of histone deacetylase 1 and increased histone H3 acetyl K9 (H3K9Ac) modification on the Nrf2 promoter. The actions of NaB were completely abolished when Nrf2 was knocked down in vitro. Taken together, NaB acts as a histone deacetylase inhibitor to up-regulate Nrf2 expression with enhanced H3K9Ac modification on its promoter. NaB-induced Nrf2 activation stimulates transcription of downstream antioxidant enzymes, thus contributing to the amelioration of high-fat diet-induced oxidative stress and insulin resistance.
(-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major phenolic compound of green tea, and hydroxytyrosol (HTyr), a phenol found in olive oil, have received attention due to their wide-ranging health benefits. To date, there are no studies that report their effect in bovine mammary gland. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of EGCG and HTyr in bovine mammary epithelial cell line (BME-UV1) and to compare their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory in vitro efficacy. Sample of EGCG was obtained from a commercially available green tea extract while pure HTyr was synthetized in our laboratories. The mammary oxidative stress and inflammatory responses were assessed by measuring the oxidative stress biomarkers and the gene expression of inflammatory cytokines. To evaluate the cellular antioxidant response, glutathione (GSH/GSSH), γ-glutamylcysteine ligase activity, reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde (MDA) production were measured after 48-h incubation of 50 µM EGCG or 50 µM of HTyr. Reactive oxygen species production after 3 h of hydrogen peroxide (50 µM H2O2) or lipopolysaccharide (20 µM LPS) exposure was quantified to evaluate and to compare the potential protection of EGCG and HTyr against H2O2-induced oxidative stress and LPS-induced inflammation. The anti-inflammatory activity of EGCG and HTyr was investigated by the evaluation of pro and anti-inflammatory interleukins (tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and IL-10) messenger RNA abundance after treatment of cells for 3 h with 20 µM of LPS. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate or HTyr treatments induced higher concentrations of intracellular GSH compared to control cells, matched by an increase of γ-glutamylcysteine ligase activity mainly in cells treated with HTyr. Interestingly, EGCG and HTyr prevented oxidative lipid damage in the BME-UV1 cells by a reduction of intracellular MDA levels. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate and HTyr were able to enhance cell resistance against H2O2-induced oxidative stress. It was found that EGCG and HTyr elicited a reduction of the three inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and an increase of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Hydroxytyrosol has proved to be a strong antioxidant compound, and EGCG has shown mainly an anti-inflammatory profile. These results indicated that EGCG and HTyr may provide dual protection because they were able to attenuate oxidative stress and inflammatory responses, suggesting that these phenolic compounds are potential natural alternatives to be used in dairy cattle as feed supplement for reducing the development of oxidative and inflammatory processes related to parturition or as topical treatments for the control of bovine intramammary inflammation.
Oxidative stress and dysregulated antioxidant defence may be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. In the present study, we investigated changes in antioxidants and oxidative stress from an acute to a later stable phase. We hypothesised that the levels of oxidative markers are increased in schizophrenia compared with healthy controls; change from the acute to the stable phase; and are associated with the levels of membrane polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and symptom severity.
Fifty-five patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, assessed during an acute phase and 5 years later during a stable phase, and 51 healthy controls were included. We measured antioxidants (α-tocopherol, uric acid, albumin and bilirubin), markers of oxidative stress (F2-isoprostane and reactive oxygen metabolites) and membrane fatty acids. Antioxidants and oxidative stress markers were compared in schizophrenia versus healthy controls, adjusting for differences in sex, age and smoking, and changes over time. Associations between symptoms and PUFA were also investigated.
In the acute phase, α-tocopherol was significantly higher (p < 0.001), while albumin was lower (p < 0.001) compared with the stable phase. Changes in α-tocopherol were associated with PUFA levels in the acute phase. In the stable phase, schizophrenia patients had higher uric acid (p = 0.009) and lower bilirubin (p = 0.046) than healthy controls. CRP was higher in patients in the stable phase (p < 0.001), and there was no significant change from the acute phase.
The present findings of change in antioxidant levels in the acute versus stable phase of schizophrenia the present findings suggest that redox regulation is dynamic and changes during different phases of the disorder.
Consumption of certain berries appears to slow postprandial glucose absorption, attributable to polyphenols, which may benefit exercise and cognition, reduce appetite and/or oxidative stress. This randomised, crossover, placebo-controlled study determined whether polyphenol-rich fruits added to carbohydrate-based foods produce a dose-dependent moderation of postprandial glycaemic, glucoregulatory hormone, appetite and ex vivo oxidative stress responses. Twenty participants (eighteen males/two females; 24 (sd 5) years; BMI: 27 (sd 3) kg/m2) consumed one of five cereal bars (approximately 88 % carbohydrate) containing no fruit ingredients (reference), freeze-dried black raspberries (10 or 20 % total weight; LOW-Rasp and HIGH-Rasp, respectively) and cranberry extract (0·5 or 1 % total weight; LOW-Cran and HIGH-Cran), on trials separated by ≥5 d. Postprandial peak/nadir from baseline (Δmax) and incremental postprandial AUC over 60 and 180 min for glucose and other biochemistries were measured to examine the dose-dependent effects. Glucose AUC0–180 min trended towards being higher (43 %) after HIGH-Rasp v. LOW-Rasp (P=0·06), with no glucose differences between the raspberry and reference bars. Relative to reference, HIGH-Rasp resulted in a 17 % lower Δmax insulin, 3 % lower C-peptide (AUC0–60 min and 3 % lower glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (AUC0–180 min) P<0·05. No treatment effects were observed for the cranberry bars regarding glucose and glucoregulatory hormones, nor were there any treatment effects for either berry type regarding ex vivo oxidation, appetite-mediating hormones or appetite. Fortification with freeze-dried black raspberries (approximately 25 g, containing 1·2 g of polyphenols) seems to slightly improve the glucoregulatory hormone and glycaemic responses to a high-carbohydrate food item in young adults but did not affect appetite or oxidative stress responses at doses or with methods studied herein.
Melatonin plays a critical role in several types of cells as an antioxidant to protect intracellular molecules from oxidative stress. The anti-oxidation effect of melatonin in yak embryos is largely unknown. We report that melatonin can protect the development of yak preimplantation embryos against oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Therefore, the quality of blastocysts developed from zygotes exposed to H2O2 was promoted. In addition, we observed that melatonin reduced H2O2-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and prevented mitochondrial dysfunction in zygotes. These phenomena revealed the effective antioxidant activity of melatonin to prevent oxidative stress in yak embryos. To determine the underlying mechanism, we further demonstrated that melatonin protected preimplantation embryos from oxidative damage by preserving antioxidative enzymes. Collectively, these results confirmed the anti-oxidation effect of melatonin in yak embryos that significantly improved the quantity and quality of blastocysts in the in vitro production of embryos in yaks.
Complications of pregnancy remain key drivers of morbidity and mortality, affecting the health of both the mother and her offspring in the short and long term. There is lack of detailed understanding of the pathways involved in the pathology and pathogenesis of compromised pregnancy, as well as a shortfall of effective prognostic, diagnostic and treatment options. In many complications of pregnancy, such as in preeclampsia, there is an increase in uteroplacental vascular resistance. However, the cause and effect relationship between placental dysfunction and adverse outcomes in the mother and her offspring remains uncertain. In this review, we aim to highlight the value of gestational hypoxia-induced complications of pregnancy in elucidating underlying molecular pathways and in assessing candidate therapeutic options for these complex disorders. Chronic maternal hypoxia not only mimics the placental pathology associated with obstetric syndromes like gestational hypertension at morphological, molecular and functional levels, but also recapitulates key symptoms that occur as maternal and fetal clinical manifestations of these pregnancy disorders. We propose that gestational hypoxia provides a useful model to study the inter-relationship between placental dysfunction and adverse outcomes in the mother and her offspring in a wide array of examples of complicated pregnancy, such as in preeclampsia.
Oxidative stress may contribute to the pathogenesis of congenital heart defects, but the role of dynamic thiol/disulphide homeostasis has not been evaluated. The objective of this study was to assess whether there are changes in thiol/disulphide homeostasis and nitric oxide levels in children with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) and ventricular septal defect (VSD). A total of 47 children with congenital heart defects (24 TOF and 23 VSD) and 47 healthy age- and sex-matched controls were included in this study. Serum total thiol and native thiol levels were measured using a novel automatic spectrophotometric method. The amount of dynamic disulphide bonds and related ratios were calculated from these values. Serum nitric oxide levels were detected using a chemiluminescence assay. We found that the average native thiol, total thiol, and disulphide levels were decreased in patients with VSD when compared with healthy individuals (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, and p < 0.01, respectively). While native thiol levels were decreased (p < 0.01), disulphide levels were elevated in the TOF group (p < 0.05). We observed marked augmentation of disulphide/native thiol (p < 0.001) and disulphide/total thiol ratios (p < 0.01) in the TOF group. However, there was a significant decrease in native thiol/total thiol ratio in patients with TOF. No significant changes in these ratios were noted in the VSD group. We detected significant elevations in serum nitric oxide levels in children with TOF and VSD (p < 0.001 for all). These results are the first to demonstrate that thiol/disulphide homeostasis and nitric oxide are associated with TOF and VSD in children.
Oxidative stress has been suggested to increase after electroconvulsive therapy (ECT); a treatment which continues to be the most effective for severe depression. Oxidative stress could potentially be mechanistically involved in both the therapeutic effects and side-effects of ECT.
We measured sensitive markers of systemic and CNS oxidative stress on DNA and RNA (urinary 8-oxodG/8-oxoGuo, cerebrospinal fluid 8-oxoGuo, and brain oxoguanine glycosylase mRNA expression) in male rats subjected to electroconvulsive stimulations (ECS); an animal model of ECT. Due to previous observations that link hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis activity and age to DNA/RNA damage from oxidation, groups of young and middle-aged male animals were included, and markers of HPA-axis activity were measured.
ECS induced weight loss, corticosterone increases (only in middle-aged animals), and decreased cerebral glucocorticoid receptor mRNA expression, while largely leaving the markers of systemic and CNS DNA/RNA damage from oxidation unaltered.
These results suggest that ECS is not associated with any lasting effects on oxidative stress on nucleic acids neither in young or middle-aged rats.