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To compare the microbiological profile, clinical course and outcome of acute diarrhoea in children aged <5 years having severe acute malnutrition (SAM) with those of children having normal nutritional status.
Cross-sectional comparative study.
Tertiary-care hospital catering mainly to the urban poor of East Delhi, India.
Children aged <5 years (n 140; seventy with SAM (cases) and seventy with normal anthropometry (controls)) with acute diarrhoea (duration < 14 d). Stool samples were collected for conventional culture, microscopy, acid-fast staining, rotavirus and Cryptosporidium antigen detection, and subtyping of diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli (DEC). We followed-up these children for persistent diarrhoea and subsequent diarrhoeal episode in the next 3 months.
Rotavirus was detected in six (9 %) cases and in fifteen (21 %) controls (P = 0·03; OR = 0·34; 95 % CI 0·12, 0·94). DEC was isolated significantly more in cases compared with controls (93 v. 64 %; P < 0·001; OR = 7·25; 95 % CI 2·57, 20·4). Cryptosporidium was detected in seven (10 %) cases and five (7 %) controls. Total duration of diarrhoea and percentage change in weight after resolution of diarrhoea were comparable between cases and controls. At 3-month follow-up, number of subsequent episodes of diarrhoea and persistent diarrhoea were comparable between the two groups.
Rotavirus was found significantly less frequently, whereas DEC was detected more frequently in children with SAM in comparison to non-malnourished children. To further reduce diarrhoea-related mortality, preventive and therapeutic interventions need to be designed against organisms causing diarrhoea in children with SAM.
Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for problematic hoarding is an effective treatment, but further research in diverse, naturalistic settings is needed to see whether this treatment is effective across settings and in smaller doses. The current study investigated the outcome of a 12-session group CBT for hoarding offered in an outpatient hospital setting. Sixty-four participants completed therapy, and 38 participants completed posttreatment assessments. Results demonstrated statistically significant improvements in hoarding symptom severity, saving cognitions, and self-reported distress tolerance. Effect sizes for changes in saving cognitions were generally large. However, effect sizes were modest for most other outcome variables, and only 4 of 38 participants achieved clinically significant change in hoarding symptom severity. These results suggest that 12 sessions of group CBT for hoarding is associated with significant change in saving cognitions, but less meaningful change in other indicators of symptom severity.
Little is known about the long-term outcome of anorexia nervosa.
To study the 30-year outcome of adolescent-onset anorexia nervosa.
All 4291 individuals born in 1970 and attending eighth grade in 1985 in Gothenburg, Sweden were screened for anorexia nervosa. A total of 24 individuals (age cohort for anorexia nervosa) were pooled with 27 individuals with anorexia nervosa (identified through community screening) who were born in 1969 and 1971–1974. The 51 individuals with anorexia nervosa and 51 school- and gender-matched controls were followed prospectively and examined at mean ages of 16, 21, 24, 32 and 44. Psychiatric disorders, health-related quality of life and general outcome were assessed.
At the 30-year follow-up 96% of participants agreed to participate. There was no mortality. Of the participants, 19% had an eating disorder diagnosis (6% anorexia nervosa, 2% binge-eating disorder, 11% other specified feeding or eating disorder); 38% had other psychiatric diagnoses; and 64% had full eating disorder symptom recovery, i.e. free of all eating disorder criteria for 6 consecutive months. During the elapsed 30 years, participants had an eating disorder for 10 years, on average, and 23% did not receive psychiatric treatment. Good outcome was predicted by later age at onset among individuals with adolescent-onset anorexia nervosa and premorbid perfectionism.
This long-term follow-up study reflects the course of adolescent-onset anorexia nervosa and has shown a favourable outcome regarding mortality and full symptom recovery. However, one in five had a chronic eating disorder.
Reducing hospitalisation and length of stay (LOS) in hospital following first episode psychosis (FEP) is important, yet reliable measures of these outcomes and their moderators are lacking. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the proportion of FEP cases who were hospitalised after their first contact with services and the LOS in a hospital during follow-up.
Studies were identified from a systematic search across major electronic databases from inception to October 2017. Random effects meta-analyses and meta-regression analyses were conducted.
81 longitudinal studies encompassing data for 23 280 FEP patients with an average follow-up length of 7 years were included. 55% (95% CI 50.3–60.5%) of FEP cases were hospitalised at least once during follow-up with the pooled average LOS of 116.7 days (95% CI 95.1–138.3). Older age of illness onset and being in a stable relationship were associated with a lower proportion of people who were hospitalised. While the proportion of hospitalised patients has not decreased over time, LOS has, with the sharpest reduction in the latest time period. The proportion of patients hospitalised during follow-up was highest in Australia and New Zealand (78.4%) compared to Europe (58.1%) and North America (48.0%); and lowest in Asia (32.5%). Black ethnicity and longer duration of untreated psychosis were associated with longer LOS; while less severe psychotic symptoms at baseline were associated with shorter LOS.
One in two FEP cases required hospitalisation at least once during a 7-year follow-up with an average length of hospitalisation of 4 months during this period. LOS has declined over time, particularly in those countries in which it was previously longest.
The possible presence of gender-related differences in patients with bipolar disorder (BD) may have diagnostic and therapeutic implications. This multicenter study aimed to investigate gender differences in BD in the largest Italian database collected to date, on behalf of the Italian Chapter of the International Society of Bipolar Disorders.
A total of 1674 patients (males: n = 714; females: n = 960) from different psychiatric departments were compared according to gender on demographic/clinical variables. Owing to the large number of variables statistically related to the dependent variable (gender) at the univariate analyses, preliminary multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. A final multivariable logistic regression was then performed, considering gender as the dependent variable and statistically significant demographic/clinical characteristics as independent variables.
The results of the final multivariable logistic regression analysis with previous statistically significant demographic and clinical variables were the following: female gender was less frequently associated with employment (odds ratio [OR] = 0.7, P < 0.01), lifetime single marital status (OR = 0.45, P < 0.01), and substance abuse in the last year (OR = 0.35, P < 0.01), whereas it was more frequently associated with a major number of lifetime major depressive episodes (OR = 1.78, P < 0.01) and psychiatric visits in the last year (OR = 1.38, P = 0.01).
Few significant differences were found between genders in BD, particularly for those clinical features that are associated with poor prognosis (substance abuse for males and number of depressive episodes for females). Transcultural studies are needed to identify cultural versus illness-related variables possibly explaining the different clinical presentation of BD in relation to gender.
Lower intelligence quotient (IQ) has frequently been reported in patients with schizophrenia. However, it is unclear whether IQ declines (further) after illness onset and what the familial contribution is to this change. Therefore, we investigate IQ changes during the course of illness in patients with non-affective psychosis, their siblings and controls.
Data are part of the longitudinal Genetic Risk and Outcome of Psychosis (GROUP) study in the Netherlands and Belgium. Participants underwent three measurements, each approximately 3 years apart. A total of 1022 patients with non-affective psychosis [illness duration: 4.34 (s.d. = 4.50) years], 977 of their siblings, and 565 controls had at least one measure of IQ (estimated from four subtests of the WAIS-III).
At baseline, IQ was significantly lower in patients (IQ = 97.8) and siblings (IQ = 108.2; p < 0.0001) than in controls (IQ = 113.0; p < 0.0001), and in patients as compared with siblings (p < 0.0001). Over time, IQ increased in all groups. In siblings, improvement in IQ was significantly more pronounced (+0.7 points/year) than in patients (+0.5 points/year; p < 0.0001) and controls (+0.3 points/year; p < 0.0001). IQ increase was not significantly correlated with improvement in (sub)clinical outcome in any of the groups.
During the first 10 years of the illness, IQ increases to a similar (and subtle) extent in a relatively high-functioning group of schizophrenia patients and controls, despite the lower IQ in patients at baseline. In addition, the siblings’ IQ was intermediate at baseline, but over time the increase in IQ was more pronounced.
Working in neurological rehabilitation brings with it numerous opportunities to gain an understanding of the factors that contribute to shaping meaningful living and wellbeing for those tackling the major life changes encountered following acquired brain injury (ABI). These opportunities come in many forms: challenging and brave clients, wise and worrying families, questioning and inspiring colleagues, empowering and limiting work environments and rigid and advancing policy and legislative contexts.
Our personal and collective understanding of the things that help and the things that get in the way of effective rehabilitation continuously emerges from the convergence of the experience and knowledge afforded by these opportunities. The aim of this paper is to consider the things that help and the things that get in the way as they have been identified by people with ABI, their families and those who work with them and have been further evidenced through research targeted towards improving short, medium and long-term outcomes for those living with the consequences of ABI. These things as discussed in this paper capture the essential role of the self, the importance of rights and access to rehabilitation, the impact of the family and the contribution of social connection.
Aim: Cavernous sinus tumours represent 1% of all intracranial neoplasms, and 41% of them are cavernous sinus meningiomas (CSM). The disappointing results of the microsurgical approach in the treatment of CSM have led to the evaluation of a more conservative strategy, such as conformal radiotherapy (CR) and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Here we report our experience with CR in the treatment of CSM, aiming to evaluate local control, clinical response and radiation-induced toxicity. Methods: A total of 18 patients with CSM, treated from 2011 to 2017, were retrospectively reviewed. Results: Patient median age was 59 years [31–74]. Clinical presentation included impaired vision, cranial nerve deficit, headache, ocular signs. Median tumour size was 35 mm [13–56]. Six patients were operated before the radiation. Twelve patients were treated with definitive radiotherapy. Dose of radiation varied from 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions, to 54 Gy in 30 fractions. Median follow-up was 33 months [6–84]. Among the 18 patients, patient’s signs and symptoms of disease remained unchanged in three cases (16.66%), 12 (66.66%) were improved and 1 patient (5.55%) exhibited tumour progression (exophthalmia). Two patients (11.11%) were lost to follow-up after the end of the treatment with radiotherapy. Findings: Based on our study findings, CR has proved to be a relatively safe and effective therapeutic option in the treatment of CSM, whether used as first-line or as an adjuvant treatment. CR may be particularly effective for tumours that are not amenable to SRS, owing to lesion size (> 30-35 mm) and/or proximity to the optic apparatus (<3 mm).
Dogs left behind in the restricted area by the Great East Japan Earthquakes of 2011 (Fukushima Prefecture, Japan) were initially rescued at a temporary first response shelter under chaotic conditions: poor housing and husbandry was maintained by unfamiliar/untrained staff, and lack of exercise was associated with deterioration of the mental and physical health of the impounded dogs. The objectives of this study were to report characteristics, disposition, and health status of dogs rescued in the Fukushima Prefecture, and to perform a retrospective epidemiological evaluation of factors associated with disposition and disease incidence at shelters.
The problems addressed in this study were shelter-related health issues at the first response shelter and reasons for retained adoption at the secondary shelter that caused delayed closure of the shelter.
A retrospective cohort study was performed with all dogs that were rescued from the restricted area in the Fukushima Prefecture. Kaplan-Meier time-to-event analysis was performed to estimate the median days to outcomes. A chi-square test of homogeneity was used to determine whether ownership status was associated with breed. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to assess the association between time-to-adoption with ownership status, age, sex, and breed, the association between time to onset of diarrhea with age and breed, and between duration of diarrheic symptoms with the number of antibiotics and the number of medications.
Five-hundred and twenty-nine dogs were admitted to the Ihno and Miharu shelters (Fukushima Prefecture), including 179 that had detailed medical records. Seventy-six percent of dogs were mixed breed. Twenty-six percent of dogs had verified ownership, and almost 16% of dogs were reclaimed by their owners. Sixty-six percent of dogs developed diarrhea, and 17 different antibiotics were used to treat it. Using three or more different antibiotics was associated with prolonged signs of diarrhea. Dogs with verified ownership took longer for adoption than those without verified ownership. Breed and sex were not significantly associated with time to adoption. Age was associated with prolonged time to adoption.
To improve the welfare of dogs in disasters, responsible owner education, a well-organized registered volunteer training program for care of animals at shelters, proper disease management protocols, and enrichment strategies to prevent stress and disease in shelter setting are essential.
TanakaA, Martinez-LopezB, KassP.Epidemiological Evaluation of Dogs Rescued in the Fukushima Prefecture Following the Great East Japan Earthquakes of 2011. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018;33(5):478–583.
This study aim to derive and validate a simple and well-performing risk calculator (RC) for predicting psychosis in individual patients at clinical high risk (CHR).
From the ongoing ShangHai-At-Risk-for-Psychosis (SHARP) program, 417 CHR cases were identified based on the Structured Interview for Prodromal Symptoms (SIPS), of whom 349 had at least 1-year follow-up assessment. Of these 349 cases, 83 converted to psychosis. Logistic regression was used to build a multivariate model to predict conversion. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) was used to test the effectiveness of the SIPS-RC. Second, an independent sample of 100 CHR subjects was recruited based on an identical baseline and follow-up procedures to validate the performance of the SIPS-RC.
Four predictors (each based on a subset of SIPS-based items) were used to construct the SIPS-RC: (1) functional decline; (2) positive symptoms (unusual thoughts, suspiciousness); (3) negative symptoms (social anhedonia, expression of emotion, ideational richness); and (4) general symptoms (dysphoric mood). The SIPS-RC showed moderate discrimination of subsequent transition to psychosis with an AUC of 0.744 (p < 0.001). A risk estimate of 25% or higher had around 75% accuracy for predicting psychosis. The personalized risk generated by the SIPS-RC provided a solid estimate of conversion outcomes in the independent validation sample, with an AUC of 0.804 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.662–0.951].
The SIPS-RC, which is simple and easy to use, can perform in the same manner as the NAPLS-2 RC in the Chinese clinical population. Such a tool may be used by clinicians to counsel appropriately their patients about clinical monitor v. potential treatment options.
Psychosocial disability affects a number of individuals with psychosis and often begins years before the formal onset of disorder. This suggests that for many, their psychosocial disability is enduring, and targeted interventions are therefore needed earlier in their developmental trajectories to ensure that psychosocial disability does not become entrenched. Poor psychosocial functioning also affects individuals with a range of different emerging mental health problems, putting these young people at risk of long-term social marginalisation and economic disadvantage; all of which are known risk factors for the development of psychosis. Identification of the markers of poor psychosocial functioning will help to inform effective treatments. This editorial will discern the early trajectories and markers of poor psychosocial outcome in psychosis, and highlight which individuals are most at risk of having a poor outcome. This editorial will also discuss whether early interventions are currently being targeted appropriately and will propose how intervention and preventative strategies can be implemented, to restore psychosocial trajectories in a way that enables young people to maximise their life chances.
We investigated the clinical predictors of methicillin-resistance and their impact on mortality in 371 patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia identified from two prospective multi-centre studies. Methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) accounted for 42.2% of community-onset and 74.5% of hospital-onset cases. No significant clinical difference was found between patients infected with MRSA vs. methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA), except that the former were more likely to have had hospital-onset bacteraemia and received antibiotics in the preceding 90 days. After stratifying according to the acquisition site, prior antibiotic use was the only independent predictor of having MRSA in both community-onset and hospital-onset cases. The frequency of inappropriate empirical antibiotic therapy was higher in patients with MRSA than in those with MSSA bacteraemia. However, methicillin resistance was not a predictor of mortality in patients and the clinical characteristics and outcomes of both MRSA and MSSA bacteraemia were similar. This study indicates that there are no definitive clinical or epidemiological risk factors which could distinguish MRSA from MSSA cases with the exception of the previous use of antibiotics for having MRSA bacteraemia, which emphasises the prudent use of glycopeptide treatment of patients at risk for invasive MRSA infections.
The objective of this study was to compare the preoperative management and outcome of neonates with duct-dependent critical CHD with fetal versus postnatal diagnosis.
Patients referred with CHD to our centre from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2010 were enrolled prospectively. Live births with a critical form of CHD, a gestational age ⩾36 weeks and a weight ⩾2 kg at birth, and the intention-to-treat were included in this sub-study. Excluded were neonates with lethal non-cardiac and/or genetic anomalies.
In total, 129, 63 fetal and 66 postnatal, cases met the study inclusion criteria. All had received appropriate antenatal care, including a routine fetal anatomy scan. Both cohorts were comparable in weight, gestational age, and APGAR scores at birth. Unlike the postnatal cases, there were no deaths (0/63 versus 5/66; p=0.06) and no cardiac arrests (0/63 versus 9/63; p=0.003) before surgery or catheter intervention in those cases with a prenatal diagnosis of critical CHD. Moreover, newborns with fetal diagnoses were admitted earlier (median 0 (range 0–3) versus 2 (0–25) days; p<0.001) and were less likely to require preoperative ventilation (19/63 versus 31/61, p=0.03) and vasoactive medication (4/63 versus 15/61, p=0.006) than the postnatal cases.
Prenatal diagnosis of critical CHD in this study was associated with significantly shorter time intervals from birth to neonatal admission and the absence of life-threatening or fatal preoperative cardiac events. Increased efforts should be made to improve rates of prenatal diagnosis.
Childhood adversity is associated with cognitive impairments in schizophrenia. However, findings to date are inconsistent and little is known about the relationship between social cognition and childhood trauma. We investigated the relationship between childhood abuse and neglect and cognitive function in patients with a first-episode of schizophrenia or schizophreniform disorder (n = 56) and matched healthy controls (n = 52). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study assessing this relationship in patients and controls exposed to similarly high levels of trauma.
Pearson correlational coefficients were used to assess correlations between Childhood Trauma Questionnaire abuse and neglect scores and cognition. For the MCCB domains displaying significant (p < 0.05) correlations, within group hierarchical linear regression, was done to assess whether abuse and neglect were significant predictors of cognition after controlling for the effect of education.
Patients and controls reported similarly high levels of abuse and neglect. Cognitive performance was poorer for patients compared with controls for all cognitive domains except working memory and social cognition. After controlling for education, exposure to childhood neglect remained a significant predictor of impairment in social cognition in both patients and controls. Neglect was also a significant predictor of poorer verbal learning in patients and of attention/vigilance in controls. However, childhood abuse did not significantly predict cognitive impairments in either patients or controls.
These findings are cross sectional and do not infer causality. Nonetheless, they indicate that associations between one type of childhood adversity (i.e. neglect) and social cognition are present and are not illness-specific.
For the first time in 2017 adults with CHD was included in the World Congress of Pediatric Cardiology & Cardiac Surgery. With growing numbers and more complex patients reaching adulthood, there is a growing need for more attention to this subspecialty. Although survival is excellent and now over 90% of patients reach adulthood, many have residual problems and complications. Heart failure and arrhythmias are most commonly encountered. Life-expectancy is nearly normal for mild lesions, but remains reduced in moderate-complex lesions and re-interventions are often needed. As most patients want to live a normal life, sports participation and pregnancy become very important issues. Finally, although innovative treatments are being developed, including for end-stage heart failure, we have to refine strategies for optimal care, including during the end-stage lives of our patients. This article provides an overview of a selection of topics in the field of adults with CHD presented during the 2017 Seventh World Congress of Pediatric Cardiology & Cardiac Surgery (WCPCCS) in Barcelona.
Background: Understanding successful and unsuccessful behavioural treatment for pain is essential. Aims: We carried out a retrospective survey of 130 people who had undergone pain rehabilitation based on acceptance and commitment therapy, aiming to identify factors associated with non-response. Method: The sample was selected using the reliable change index to define ‘responders’ and ‘non-responders’ to key outcome measures. We surveyed a range of treatment-related, systemic, practical and personal factors that may have affected their treatment, and then compared ‘non-responders’ with ‘responders’, controlling for factors that might not be causal or specific to non-response. Results: Logistic regression analysis showed two themes that distinguished the groups, ‘people outside programme’ and ‘emotional state’. Conclusions: These data have clinical implications, as such factors can be addressed directly or incorporated into an assessment of treatment ‘readiness’. This study introduced a novel methodology for the investigation of pain treatment response, which allowed a broad study of clinically relevant variables, but with greater rigour than conventional self-reports of ‘helpful factors’ in treatment.
Studies indicate that DSM-5 criteria for delirium are relatively restrictive, and identify different cases of delirium compared with previous systems. We evaluate four outcomes of delirium (mortality, length of hospital stay, institutionalization, and cognitive improvement) in relation to delirium defined by different DSM classification systems.
Prospective, longitudinal study of patients aged 70+ admitted to medical wards of a general hospital. Participants were assessed up to a maximum of four times during two weeks, using DSM-5 and DSM-IV criteria, DRS-R98 and CAM scales as proxies for DSM III-R and DSM III.
Of the 200 assessed patients (mean age 81.1, SD = 6.5; and 50% female) during hospitalization, delirium was identified in 41 (20.5%) using DSM-5, 45 (22.5%) according to DSM-IV, 46 (23%) with CAM positive, and 37 (18.5%) with DRS-R98 severity score >15. Mortality was significantly associated with delirium according to any classification system, but those identified with DSM-5 were at greater risk. Length of stay was significantly longer for those with DSM-IV delirium. Discharge to a care home was associated only with DRS-R98 defined delirium. Cognitive improvement was only associated with CAM and DSM-IV. Different classification systems for delirium identify populations with different outcomes.
Large amount of data have been published on non-psychotic depression (NPD), schizophrenia (SZ), and bipolar disorder, while psychotic depression (PD) as an own entity has received much smaller attention. We performed a systematic review and meta-analyses on epidemiology, especially incidence and prevalence, risk factors, and outcomes of PD. A systematic search to identify potentially relevant studies was conducted using four electronic databases and a manual search. The search identified 1764 unique potentially relevant articles, the final study included 99 articles. We found that the lifetime prevalence of PD varies between 0.35% and 1%, with higher rates in older age. Onset age of PD was earlier than that of NPD in younger samples, but later in older samples. There were no differences in gender distribution in PD v. NPD, but higher proportion of females was found in PD than in SZ or in psychotic bipolar disorder (PBD). Risk factors have rarely been studied, the main finding being that family history of psychosis and bipolar disorder increases the risk of PD. Outcomes of PD were mostly worse when compared with NPD, but better compared with SZ and schizoaffective disorder. The outcome compared with PBD was relatively similar, and somewhat varied depending on the measure of the outcome. Based on this review, the amount of research on PD is far from that of NPD, SZ, and bipolar disorder. Based on our findings, PD seems distinguishable from related disorders and needs more scientific attention.
Purpose: Clients with an acquired brain injury (ABI) are at risk of mental health problems and it has been argued that transitions throughout the rehabilitation process are a challenge for rehabilitation practice; however, the link between transitions and psychosocial outcome has been under-researched. Therefore, this study aims to (1) investigate the status of clients with moderate or severe ABI two-year post-discharge on the following outcomes variables: Physical and cognitive function, depression, quality of life, civil and work status, (2) examine correlations between these outcomes and (3) explore through qualitative interviews the subjective experiences of individuals with ABI in order to increase our understanding of clients’ perspectives on this outcome and its relation to life transitions in a two-year period.
Method: 37 individuals aged 18–66 with moderate or severe ABI were interviewed two years after discharge. At this time, they also completed standard measures of depression (MDI), quality of life (WHOQOL-bref) and functional independence (FIM™). Historical data of their FIM™ status at discharge were obtained for comparison.
Results: We found psychological problems two years post-hospitalization, especially depression (35.1%) and decreased psychological QOL (61%). Analysis of interviews found six main factors perceived as important for psychosocial outcome: family relations, return to work, waiting lists, psychological support, fatigue and personal competences.
Conclusions: Clients’ status two years post-hospitalization is often characterized by psychological problems. Based on clients’ accounts, we found a connection between psychosocial outcome and life transition experiences and developed a model of factors that are perceived as helping and hindering positive outcome.