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There is a high rate of psychiatric comorbidity in patients with epilepsy. However, the impact of surgical treatment of refractory epilepsy on psychopathology remains under investigation. We aimed to examine the impact of epilepsy surgery on psychopathology and quality of life at 1-year post-surgery in a population of patients with epilepsy refractory to medication.
This study initially assessed 48 patients with refractory epilepsy using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Quality of Life in Epilepsy Inventory 89 (QOLIE-89) on admission to an Epilepsy Monitoring Unit (EMU) as part of their pre-surgical assessment. These patients were again assessed using the SCID-I, QOLIE-89 and HADS at 1-year follow-up post-surgery.
There was a significant reduction in psychopathology, particularly psychosis, following surgery at 1-year follow-up (p < 0.021). There were no new cases of de novo psychosis and surgery was also associated with a significant improvement in the quality of life scores (p < 0.001).
This study demonstrates the impact of epilepsy surgery on psychopathology and quality of life in a patient population with refractory surgery. The presence of a psychiatric illness should not be a barrier to access surgical treatment.
We aimed to determine the early and midterm outcomes of ductal stenting in neonates with ductal-dependent pulmonary blood flow.
Between January, 2014 and July, 2018, 102 patients who underwent 115 cardiac catheterisation procedures for ductal stent implantation in our department were retrospectively reviewed. The age of the neonates ranged from 3 to 30 days (median: 11 days) and their weights ranged from 1.8 to 5.8 kg (mean, 2.8 ± 0.53 kg). Fifty-two patients had functional single ventricle and 50 had biventricular physiology. Thirty-one patients’ weights were <2,500 g (30.3%). The patent ductus arteriosus was vertical in 60 patients (58.8%). The mean ductal length was 12.4 ± 4.1 mm (range, 7.8–23 mm), and the mean narrowest ductal diameter was 2.1 ± 0.7 mm (range, 1.2–3.4 mm).
The technical success rate was 85.2%. Procedure-related mortality occurred in three patients (2.9%). After the procedure, the aortic oxygen saturation increased from a mean of 73.1 ± 6.2% to a mean of 90.4 ± 4.3% (p < 0.001), and the ductus diameter increased from a mean of 2.1 ± 0.7 mm to a mean of 4.2 ± 0.9 mm (p < 0.001). Either transcatheter or surgical reinterventions were required in 35 patients (34.3%) during the follow-up period after a median of 101 days (2–356 days). Thirty-three patients (32.3%) were bridged to surgical repair after a median of 288 days (163–650 days). The median duration of palliation with ductal stents was 210 days (range, 2–525 days).
Ductus arteriosus stenting may be a reasonable and effective alternative to surgery for the initial palliation procedure in neonates with ductus-dependent pulmonary flow.
Donor-conceived neonates have poorer birth outcomes, including low birth weight and preterm delivery that are associated with poorer long-term health in adulthood through the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) theory. The aim of this study was to conduct the first investigation of the adult health outcomes of donor-conceived people. An online health survey was completed by 272 donor sperm-conceived adults and 877 spontaneously conceived adults from around the world. Donor and spontaneously conceived groups were matched for age, sex, height, smoking, alcohol consumption, exercise, own fertility and maternal smoking. Donor sperm-conceived adults had significantly higher reports of being diagnosed with type 1 diabetes (P = 0.031), thyroid disease (P = 0.031), acute bronchitis (P = 0.008), environmental allergies (P = 0.046), sleep apnoea (P = 0.037) and having ear tubes/grommets surgically implanted (P = 0.046). This is the first study to investigate the health outcomes of adult donor sperm-conceived people. Donor sperm-conceived adults self-reported elevated frequencies of various health conditions. The outcomes are consistent with birth defect data from donor sperm treatment and are consistent with the DOHaD linking perturbed early growth and chronic disease in adulthood.
Cerebral glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels might predict clinical outcome in individuals at ultrahigh risk (UHR) for psychosis but have previously primarily been investigated in smaller cohorts. We aimed to study whether baseline levels of glutamate and GABA in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and glutamate in thalamus could predict remission status and whether baseline metabolites differed in the remission versus the nonremission group. We also investigated the relationship between baseline metabolite levels and severity of clinical symptoms, functional outcome, and cognitive deficits at follow-up.
About 124 UHR individuals were recruited at baseline. In this, 74 UHR individuals were clinically and cognitively assessed after 12 months, while remission status was available for 81 (25 remission/56 nonremission). Glutamate and GABA levels were assessed at baseline using 3 T proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Psychopathology, symptom severity, and remission were assessed with the Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental States and Clinical Global Impression and functional outcome with the Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale. Cognitive function was estimated with the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery.
There were no differences between baseline glutamate and GABA levels in subjects in the nonremission group compared with the remission group, and baseline metabolites could not predict remission status. However, higher baseline levels of GABA in ACC were associated with clinical global improvement (r = −0.34, N = 51, p = 0.01) in an explorative analysis.
The variety in findings across studies suggests a probable multifactorial influence on clinical outcome in UHR individuals. Future studies should combine multimodal approaches to attempt prediction of long-term outcome.
This study describes short-term and long-term outcome after treatment of critical valvular aortic stenosis in neonates in a national cohort, with surgical valvotomy as first choice intervention.
All neonates in Sweden treated for critical aortic stenosis between 1994 and 2016 were included. Patient files were analysed and cross-checked against the Swedish National Population Registry as of December 2017, giving complete survival data. Diagnosis was confirmed by reviewing echo studies. Critical aortic stenosis was defined as valvular stenosis with duct-dependent systemic circulation or depressed left ventricular function. Primary outcome was all-cause mortality and secondary outcomes were reintervention and aortic valve replacement.
Sixty-one patients were identified (50 boys, 11 girls). Primary treatment was surgical valvotomy in 52 neonates and balloon valvotomy in 6. Median age at initial treatment was 5 days (0–26), and median follow-up time was 10.8 years (0.14–22.6). There was no 30-day mortality but four late deaths. Freedom from reintervention was 66%, 61%, 54%, 49%, and 46% at 1, 5, 10, 15, and 20 years, respectively. Median time to reintervention was 3.4 months (4 days to 17.3 years). Valve replacement was performed in 23 patients (38%).
Surgical valvotomy is a safe and reliable treatment in these critically ill neonates, with no 30-day mortality and long-term survival of 93% in this national study. At 10 years of age, reintervention was performed in 54% and at end of follow-up 38% had had an aortic valve replacement.
This is a report of a joint World Psychiatric Association/International College of Neuropsychopharmacology (WPA/CINP) workgroup concerning the risk/benefit ratio of antipsychotics in the treatment of schizophrenia. It utilized a selective but, within topic, comprehensive review of the literature, taking into consideration all the recently discussed arguments on the matter and avoiding taking sides when the results in the literature were equivocal. The workgroup’s conclusions suggested that antipsychotics are efficacious both during the acute and the maintenance phase, and that the current data do not support the existence of a supersensitivity rebound psychosis. Long-term treated patients have better overall outcome and lower mortality than those not taking antipsychotics. Longer duration of untreated psychosis and relapses are modestly related to worse outcome. Loss of brain volume is evident already at first episode and concerns loss of neuropil volume rather than cell loss. Progression of volume loss probably happens in a subgroup of patients with worse prognosis. In humans, antipsychotic treatment neither causes nor worsens volume loss, while there are some data in favor for a protective effect. Schizophrenia manifests 2 to 3 times higher mortality vs the general population, and treatment with antipsychotics includes a number of dangers, including tardive dyskinesia and metabolic syndrome; however, antipsychotic treatment is related to lower mortality, including cardiovascular mortality. In conclusion, the literature strongly supports the use of antipsychotics both during the acute and the maintenance phase without suggesting that it is wise to discontinue antipsychotics after a certain period of time. Antipsychotic treatment improves long-term outcomes and lowers overall and specific-cause mortality.
Giant coronary aneurysms are the most severe complications of Kawasaki disease. There are few reports of outcomes from China. Most previous studies were based only on absolute aneurysmal dimensions. The aim of the present study was to catalog the outcomes of Kawasaki disease with giant coronary aneurysms in southwest China based on absolute dimensions and the z-score adjusted for body surface area.
Methods and results:
All patients diagnosed with giant coronary aneurysms (z-score ≥ 10 or absolute dimension ≥ 8 mm) between December, 2002 and December, 2018 were included. We retrospectively analysed patient characteristics and clinical data from 38 patients with giant coronary aneurysms. Over a median follow-up period of 30.5 months (range from 1.7 months to 22.3 years), including patients in chronic phase who had been diagnosed prior to 2002, eight patients had myocardial infarction, including two deaths and one patient with coronary artery bypass grafting. The 1-, 2-, and 5-year event-free rates were 0.63, 0.63, and 0.53 for thrombosis, respectively, and 0.86, 0.81, and 0.81 for major adverse cardiac events, respectively. The 1-, 2-, and 5-year regression-free rates were 0.94, 0.85, and 0.67, respectively. A total of 73.7% of patients remained active.
In the early stages of Kawasaki disease, patients with giant coronary aneurysms often experience major cardiovascular events; however, they are also likely to have normalisation of the coronary internal luminal diameter. With long-term anticoagulation, close cardiologic monitoring, and prompt thrombolytic therapy, most patients can achieve disease-free periods.
In a long-term follow-up of anorexia nervosa (AN) patients, somatic, psychological and social variables at clinical presentation should be investigated using a multilevel approach.
This study isolated predictors known from the literature over longer time periods and carried out a separate investigation of predictors in a sample of 81 AN patients of the Heidelberg–Mannheim study over a mean period of 12 years (range 9–19 years). Separate hierarchic regression analyses on the basis of the course of the Morgan–Russell categories were calculated for four individually recorded areas: anamnestic, psychological, somatic and social data sets.
Age at the onset of the disease, purging behavior, low serum albumin, high glutamic-oxalo acetic transaminase (GOT) psychopathology (ANSS) and social pathology had the highest predictive value qualities. In survival analysis overall assessment of all six main predictors at clinical presentation could differentiate all patients who recovered from those who remained ill (log-rank test P = 0.019).
A small number of variables were important for detecting a good or poor long-term course of AN. At onset of the disease, it seems necessary to evaluate these psychological, somatic and social predictors.
Many studies have enlightened the relevance of deepening our knowledge of suicidal ideation among adolescents. However, research has given insufficient attention to the impact of time perspective on suicidal ideation: the present study confirms this relationship in a large sample of adolescents.
A survey was conducted on a sample of 3700 Italian adolescents. We obtained data using a structured questionnaire addressing suicidal ideation, mental health status, self-esteem, individual and family characteristics, and time perspective (ZTPI) in three temporal frames: the past, present and future, and the attitude related to each one of them. Data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate analyses.
Overall, 9.2% of the sample reported severe suicidal ideation during the past two weeks; 7.6% reported moderate suicidal ideation. Female adolescents were more likely to report severe suicidal ideation when compared to males (χ(2)2 = 13.38, P = .001). There were no differences regarding age (χ(1)2 = 2.81, P = .245) and SES (χ(2)2 = 8.67, P = .08).
The first discriminant function was mostly explained by psychopathological symptoms (General Global Index), self-esteem and two dimensions of the ZTPI (Negative Past and Fatalistic Present).
Differences in time perspective dimensions between moderate and severe ideators suggest that these groups should be considered and analyzed as two discrete groups in further research.
To describe symptom expression and functional outcome in psychotic disorders in relation with temperament traits assessed with the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) in a population-based sample.
As part of the 31-year follow-up survey of the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort, TCI temperament items were filled in by 4349 members of the cohort. In individuals with psychotic disorders, also positive and negative symptoms and outcome variables were assessed in a 35-year follow-up. Information of TCI and outcomes were available for altogether 41 individuals with psychosis.
Reward dependence (RD) (rho = −0.45) and Persistence (P) (rho = −0.52) were significantly correlated with Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) negative symptoms. Higher P scores predicted higher social and occupational functioning (as measured by Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale [SOFAS]), and higher Harm avoidance (HA) predicted a higher likelihood of being on a disability pension.
Results indicate that understanding of personality dimensions support better understanding of outcome and symptom expressions in psychotic disorders.
Comorbid personality disorders (PDs) are discussed as risk factors for a negative treatment outcome in obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). However, studies published so far have produced conflicting results. The present study examined whether PDs affect treatment outcome in patients with OCD.
The treatment sample consisted of 55 patients with OCD who were consecutively referred to a Behaviour Therapy Unit for an in-patient or day-clinic treatment. Treatment consisted of an individualised and multimodal cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT, with or without antidepressive medication). Measurements were taken prior and after treatment and 6-month after admission.
A large percentage of patients benefited from treatment irrespective of the presence of a PD and were able to maintain their improvement at follow-up. Duration of treatment was not prolonged in OCD patients with concomitant Axis II disorders. However, some specific personality traits (schizotypal, passive–aggressive) were baseline determinants for later treatment failure at trend level.
Results are encouraging for therapists working with patients co-diagnosed with Axis II disorders since these patients are not necessarily non-responders. The results stress the importance of a specifically tailored treatment approach based on an individual case formulation in OCD patients with complex symptomatology and comorbid Axis II disorders.
To test the hypothesis that recent onset psychotic patients who use cannabis will have psychotic symptoms that are more severe and more persistent than those who do not use cannabis.
Subjects and methods
We carried out a 4-year follow-up study of a cohort of 119 patients with recent onset of psychosis. The patients were divided into four groups according to duration of cannabis use, taking index admission and follow-up as reference points.
Those subjects who persisted in the use of cannabis had more positive (but not negative) symptoms and a more continuous illness at follow-up.
The main limitations of the study were: the relatively small sample size, and that the excess of male subjects and the presence of cannabis induced psychosis could have a confusing impact on the interpretation of the results.
It is possible that psychotic patients who use cannabis are at a greater risk of a more continuous illness with more positive symptoms than those who do not.
Cognitive dysfunction is increasingly considered to be the strongest clinical predictor of poor long-term outcome in schizophrenia. Associations have been found between the severity of cognitive deficits and social dysfunction, impairments in independent living, occupational limitations, and disturbances in quality of life (QOL).
In this cross-sectional study, the relationships of cognitive deficits and treatment outcomes in terms of QOL, needs, and psychosocial functioning were examined in 60 outpatients with schizophrenia who had a duration of illness over 2 years and had been treated with either clozapine or olanzapine for at least 6 months.
The present study suggests that cognitive functioning might be a predictor of work functioning/independent living outcome in stabilized patients with schizophrenia: deficits of visual memory and working memory were negatively associated with occupational functioning, and older patients lived independently and/or in a stable partnership more often. The patients' assessments of QOL and needs for care did not show any significant associations with cognitive functioning.
These findings suggest that cognitive functioning is a key determinant of work functioning/independent living for stable outpatients with schizophrenia.
As panic disorder (PD) has a chronic course, it is important to identify predictors that might be related to non-remission. The aim of this study is to verify whether history of trauma and defense style are predictors to pharmacological treatment response in PD patients.
The sample was composed by 47 PD patients according to DSM-IV who were treated with sertraline for 16 weeks. Evaluations were assessed by the C.G.I. (Clinical Global Impression), the Hamilton-Anxiety Scale, the Hamilton-Depression Scale, the Panic Inventory and the DSQ-40 (Defense Style Questionnaire) at baseline and after treatment.
Full remission was observed in 61.7% of the sample. The predictors significantly associated with non-remission were: severity of PD (p = 0.012), age of onset (p = 0.02) and immature defenses (p = 0.032). In addition, the history of trauma was associated with early onset of PD (p = 0.043).
Panic patients had as predictors of worse response to pharmacological treatment the early onset and the severity of PD symptoms as well as the use of immature defenses at baseline. This finding corroborates the relevance of the evaluation of factors that might affect the response so as to enable the development of appropriate treatment for each patient.
Little information is available on the use of brief psychotherapy among subjects with generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) within community mental health services. This study compared results among subjects treated with brief Adlerian psychodynamic psychotherapy (B-APP), those treated with medication (MED), or those who experienced combined treatment (COM). Symptomatology and occupational functioning were assessed using the Hamilton Anxiety and Depression scales (HAM-A; HAM-D), Clinical Global Impression (CGI), and Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale (SOFAS) at intake (T1) and at 3, 6, and 12 months later (T3, T6, T12). The study sample included 87 patients with GAD (B-APP 34; MED 33; COM 20), and an ANOVA was applied for analysing repeated measures while controlling for personality disorder. After 6 months, CGI, HAM-A, HAM-D, and SOFAS scores significantly improved independently from the type of treatment. Subjects with personality disorders treated with B-APP exhibited superior results to those treated using other methods only in SOFAS scores at T6. These results were generally maintained at T12. Remission rates among subjects (HAM-A scores <7) varied between 55% (MED) and 74% (B-APP) at T6 and between 63% (MED) and 78% (COM) at T12; no significant differences appeared between the three treatment groups. A logistic regression model predicted anxiety remission only by CGI at T1. This paper discusses these results in relation to the use of brief psychotherapy within community mental health services.
The present cross-sectional study examined the relationships of psychopathology, side effects, and sociodemographic factors with treatment outcomes in terms of patients' quality of life (QOL), functioning, and needs for care.
Sixty outpatients with chronic schizophrenia who had been treated with either clozapine or olanzapine for at least 6 months were investigated.
Most psychopathological symptoms as well as psychic side effects, weight gain, and female sex were associated with lower QOL, while cognitive symptoms correlated with better QOL. Female sex, cognitive symptoms, and parkinsonism negatively influenced occupational functioning, and negative symptoms determined a lesser likelihood of living independently. Age, education, depression/anxiety, negative symptoms, and psychic side effects were predictors of patients' needs for care.
Our results highlight the complex nature of patient outcomes in schizophrenia. They reemphasize the need of targeting effectiveness, i.e. both symptomatic improvement as well as drug safety, in such patients.
There is convincing evidence that schizophrenia is characterized by abnormalities in brain volume. At the Department of Psychiatry of the University Medical Centre Utrecht, Netherlands, we have been carrying out neuroimaging studies in schizophrenia since 1995. We focused our research on three main questions. First, are brain volume abnormalities static or progressive in nature? Secondly, can brain volume abnormalities in schizophrenia be explained (in part) by genetic influences? Finally, what environmental factors are associated with the brain volume abnormalities in schizophrenia?
Based on our findings we suggest that schizophrenia is a progressive brain disease. We showed different age-related trajectories of brain tissue loss suggesting that brain maturation that occurs in the third and fourth decade of life is abnormal in schizophrenia. Moreover, brain volume has been shown to be a useful phenotype for studying schizophrenia. Brain volume is highly heritable and twin and family studies show that unaffected relatives show abnormalities that are similar, but usually present to a lesser extent, to those found in the patients. However, also environmental factors play a role. Medication intake is indeed a confounding factor when interpreting brain volume (change) abnormalities, while independent of antipsychotic medication intake brain volume abnormalities appear influenced by the outcome of the illness.
In conclusion, schizophrenia can be considered as a progressive brain disease with brain volume abnormalities that are for a large part influenced by genetic factors. Whether the progressive volume change is also mediated by genes awaits the results of longitudinal twin analyses. One of the main challenges for the coming years, however, will be the search for gene-by-environment interactions on the progressive brain changes in schizophrenia.
We report clinical and social outcomes of schizophrenia in the longitudinal, population-based Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort, and describe associated demographic, developmental and illness-related factors.
Subjects and methods
Subjects with DSM-III-R schizophrenia (n = 59) were followed prospectively from mid-gestation up to age 35 years. Outcome measures included positive and negative symptoms, psychiatric hospitalisations, social and occupational functioning. Several definitions of good and poor outcome were explored, and developmental, socio-demographic and clinical predictors of outcomes were analysed.
Good clinical outcome varied from 10% to 59%, and good social outcome 15–46%, depending on definition. Poor clinical outcome varied 41–77% and poor social 37–54%. Lack of friends in childhood, father's high social class, lower school performance and earlier age of illness onset predicted poor outcomes.
The outcomes of schizophrenia in this study depended on definitions used but were relatively poor. The age of illness onset, father's social class, school performance and poor social contacts in childhood were only statistically significant predictors.
Definitions of outcome have a major effect on estimates for proportions of good and bad outcomes and on the predictors of outcomes. However, regardless of which definitions were used, the outcome of schizophrenia in this population-based sample was generally bleak.
Presence of A1 allele of the DRD2 gene has been associated with a predisposition for alcoholism although there are limited data about its phenotypic expression in alcoholism.
To determine the importance of the A1 allele in clinical variables of alcohol dependence.
A sample of 103 alcohol-dependent males was studied. All patients were recruited consecutively from the general hospital and community settings. The diagnostics were made with the structured clinical interview for DSM-III-R (SCID); and the International Personality Disorder Examination (IPDE). Diagnosis of family alcoholism was made by direct interview or with the Research Diagnostic Criteria-Family History (RDC-FH). The Addiction Severity Index (ASI) and the Severity of Alcohol Dependence Scale (SADS) were used to assess alcohol dependence severity. Genotyping was done by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) methods.
Approximately 39% of the sample carried the A1 allele (A1+ group). This group had higher prevalences of antisocial personality disorder (60% vs. 15.9%); and alcoholism family history (72.5% vs. 52.4%). Also A1+ had early onset alcohol abuse and more drinking problems. The presence of A1+ was the main factor to explain the diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder, but the weight of this factor was not sufficient to explain the complications assessed by the ASI.
Our results support the existence of an association between the A1 allele and factors resulting from dopaminergic deficiency, otherwise denominated reward deficiency syndrome.