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Freshwater habitats in China are potentially suitable for invasive alien turtle species and, consequently, raising turtles in aquaculture facilities and the trade in turtles this supplies pose risks to habitats and native wetland communities when exotic turtles escape or are released deliberately. Online trade (e-commerce) is making an increasing contribution to turtle sales in China, seemingly driving demand and thus potentially exacerbating the risk of release. We document the scale and spatial pattern of online sales of non-native turtles over 90 days on China's Taobao.com e-commerce site. The majority of sales were in the ecologically sensitive middle and lower Yangtze river basin (82.35% of > 840,000 slider turtles Trachemys scripta elegans, and 68.26% of > 100,000 snapping turtles, Chelydridae spp.). These species are native to the Americas. Concurrently, over 2008–2018, we found 104 mentions of feral turtle issues listed on Baidu News where, among the 53 prefectures mentioned, issues with invasive turtle populations also focused predominantly in the middle and lower Yangtze river basin. Although circumstantial, this association suggests that the substantial online sale of alien turtles could be having detrimental effects in China's Yangtze river basin. It is important to safeguard these wetland habitats, which are of global importance, by improving policies for detecting and regulating invasive alien turtle issues and by warning consumers about the ecological hazard of their purchases.
Online marketplaces could help direct-to-consumer (DTC) farms compete for customers making grocery purchases on the internet by reducing the search and transportation costs of in-person DTC transactions. While in-person DTC marketplaces have been conducive for metropolitan farms historically, we explore whether rural DTC farms, with distance-based challenges accessing customers, are more likely to have online platforms. We find that rural farms distant from metropolitan counties that are new to DTC marketing are 7% more likely to have online marketplaces than more experienced rural farms, while new metropolitan farms are less likely to have them.
The field of dispute resolution has long been at the forefront of modernising legal education. Continuing this tradition, this chapter presents findings from an evaluation of an exercise introduced into the core law school curriculum at Monash University in Australia. In our compulsory litigation and dispute resolution units, we built an experiential exercise in which students resolved a dispute using both an online dispute resolution (ODR) platform and more traditional face-to-face mediation role-play. Students completed a short survey about their experience of the portal (n=64, response rate 30 per cent) and provided their reflective journals about the exercise for analysis (n=55). Drawing on the findings, we consider the benefits and limitations of this approach for facilitating students’ exposure to ODR. We explore themes including student understanding of ODR’s impacts on dispute processes and outcomes; appropriate conduct in dispute resolution settings; and the challenges of computer-mediated communication. We also identify means by which experiential activities can draw students’ attention to power disparities and access to justice challenges in ODR to develop their critical thinking about the rapid developments in this field.
Murmurs are abnormal audible heart sounds produced by turbulent blood flow. Therefore, murmurs in a child may be a source of anxiety for family members. Families often use online materials to explore possible reasons for these murmurs, given the accessibility of information on the Internet. In this study, we evaluated the quality, understandability, readability, and popularity of online materials about heart murmur.
An Internet search was performed for “heart murmur” using the Google search engine. The global quality score (on a scale of 1 to 5, corresponding to poor to excellent quality) and Health on the Net code were used to measure the quality of information presented. The understandability of the web pages identified was measured using the Patient Education Materials Assessment Tool (score range from 0 to 100%, scores below 70% reflect poor performance). The readability of each web pages was assessed using four validated indices: the Flesch Reading Ease Score, the Flesch–Kincaid Grade Level, the Gunning Frequency of Gobbledygook, and the Simple Measure of Gobbledygook. The ALEXA traffic tool was used to reference domains’ popularity and visibility.
We identified 230 English-language patient educational materials that discussed heart murmur. After exclusion, a total of 86 web pages were evaluated for this study. The average global quality score was 4.34 (SD = 0.71; range from 3 to 5) indicating that the quality of information of most websites was good. Only 14 (16.3%) websites had Health on the Net certification. The mean understandability score for all Internet-based patient educational materials was 74.6% (SD = 12.8%; range from 31.2 to 93.7%). A score suggesting these Internet-based patient educational materials were “easy to understand”. The mean readability levels of all patient educational materials were higher than the recommended sixth-grade reading level, according to all indices applied. This means that the level of readability is difficult. The average grade level for all web pages was 10.4 ± 1.65 (range from 7.53 to 14.13). The Flesch–Kincaid Grade level was 10 ± 1.81, the Gunning Frequency of Gobbledygook level was 12.1 ± 1.85, and the Simple Measure of Gobbledygook level was 9.1 ± 1.38. The average Flesch Reading Ease Score was 55 ± 9.1 (range from 32.4 to 72.9).
We demonstrated that web pages describing heart murmurs were understandable and high quality. However, the readability level of the websites was above the recommended sixth-grade reading level. Readability of written materials from online sources need to be improved. However, care must be taken to ensure that the information of web pages is of a high quality and understandable.
This paper attempts to solve a challenge in online relative optimal path planning of unmanned surface vehicles (USVs) caused by current and wave disturbance in the practical marine environment. The asymptotically optimal rapidly extending random tree (RRT*) method for local path optimisation is improved. Based on that, an online path planning (OPP) scheme is proposed according to the USV's kinematic and dynamic model. The execution efficiency of RRT* is improved by reduction of the sampling space that is used for randomly learning environmental knowledge. A heuristic sampling scheme is proposed based on the proportional navigation guidance (PNG) method that is used to enable the OPP procedure to utilise the reference information of the global path. Meanwhile, PNG is used to guide RRT* in generating feasible paths with a small amount of gentle turns. The dynamic obstacle avoidance problem is also investigated based on the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea. Case studies demonstrate that the proposed method efficiently plans paths that are relatively easier to execute and lower in fuel expenditure than traditional schemes. The dynamic obstacle avoidance ability of the proposed scheme is also attested.
Starting from 2015, the Russian-speaking residents in Germany have expressed their anti-refugee position in the form of rallies and rising voting support for the right-wing populist party, Alternative für Deutschland (AfD). Due to the absence of social cues, unlimited space, immediate responses, and minimal censorship online, platforms for communication have reflected the offline mobilization and became the major platforms for the spreadability of discriminatory discourse. This article sets out to investigate why Russian-speaking internet users residing in Germany justify anti-refugee discourse and how they construct the notion of “others.” Based on the netnographic analysis of the chosen online discussions and conducted interviews with its members, this article argues that, with the appearance of new “others,” Russian-speaking migrants have redefined their symbolic boundaries in order to draw the line between the incoming migrants and themselves—people with a migrant background. In many ways, participants of the analyzed discussions employed the politicized civilizational rhetoric that allowed them to redefine existing categorizations. This research explores, for the first time, the reasons lying behind the online populist activity of the Russian-speaking residents in Germany.
Laser ablation (LA) accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is a novel method for rapid online radiocarbon (14C) analysis of carbonates. The quasi-continuous 14C profiles obtained with this technique demand a customized data evaluation protocol to relate the acquired 14C data to the analyzed sample. We take into account the mixing effects due to the minimal counting (integration) time of the AMS, the finite width of the laser beam and the gas washout of the ablation volume. Thereby we mathematically describe our LA setup with a system function that acts on the produced CO/CO2 (COX) from the sample resulting in a mixing of the 14C profiles obtained by AMS analysis. Furthermore, we analyze the long-term target memory effect in the gas ion source and establish a routine for correction. The correction routine is tested with a stalagmite comprising a growth stop that is analyzed at different scanning velocities indicating that only the slow scanning velocity can provide the necessary resolution to determine the width of the growth stop of 365 μm.
The online public sphere, and the ways in which its digital media platforms influence discourse, is a crucial but understudied area of research in the six Arab monarchies of the Persian Gulf. Through a case study of the ongoing Gulf diplomatic crisis, which began in June 2017, this essay draws on the disciplines of political science, communication, and digital media studies to analyze qualitative examples of digital discourse: the role of women, territorial boundaries, and the FIFA World Cup 2022. Linking these flash points to historical struggles between the countries, this essay suggests that the politicization of the online public sphere in the region does not represent a fundamental change in the diplomacy of the region but rather a new battleground for old regional rivalries.
“Social media,” Saudi artist Abdullah al-Shehri (known as Shaweesh) observes, is the “best tool we have available to showcase and express our art,” because it allows millions of Saudis to share and comment on a given work of art simultaneously. Building on this insight, this essay argues that Saudi artists, who have among the largest followings on the country's social media, have used the online public sphere to build a new social movement. They have adopted a role akin to Antonio Gramsci's concept of organic intellectuals – namely, men and women who are not part of the traditional intellectual elite, but who, through the language of culture, articulate feelings and experiences the masses cannot easily express. To paraphrase Ezra Pound, Saudi artists are the “antennae” of the kingdom's society, whose work is not “mere self-expression,” but, in the words of Marshall McLuhan, the “distant early warning system that can always be relied upon to tell the old culture what is beginning to happen to it.” As a leading Saudi artist Abdulnasser Gharem observed in June 2019, “people need to listen to the artist.”
The rise of the sharing economy and destabilization of property are embedded in social, economic and technological developments. This chapter describes the decline of stability in the new millennium. It reviews the processes that inspire or trigger the move to flexibility and mobility in property use. Four developments are analyzed: The Great Recession, technological advances (including online work, intellectual property, and online relationships), generational attitudes, and consumers' distrust of big corporations.
As the impact of the internet has rippled in ever larger circles over the past twenty-seven years, Pound’s presence on the web has slowly made itself felt: as web aggregators starting anthologizing poetry, selections from his work, particularly the shorter poems, were showcased on websites like Poetry Foundation, Bartleby.com or Poetry Archive. Universities, in their turn, began hosting modernist literature projects, such as PennSound in Philadelphia, where parts of Pound’s work are presented and commented on next to that of other modernist writers. Online libraries or book clubs hold scanned versions of the New Directions edition of The Cantos in closed access. Commentators publish their own work with extensive quotations in blogs or digital magazines, and artists upload artwork inspired by Pound and his poem. Wikipedia now boasts a long article on Pound himself, one on The Cantos and one on a ‘List of Cultural References in The Cantos’.
Outpatient interventions for adult anorexia nervosa typically have a modest impact on weight and eating disorder symptomatology. This study examined whether adding a brief online intervention focused on enhancing motivation to change and the development of a recovery identity (RecoveryMANTRA) would improve outcomes in adults with anorexia nervosa.
Participants with anorexia nervosa (n = 187) were recruited from 22 eating disorder outpatient services throughout the UK. They were randomised to receiving RecoveryMANTRA in addition to treatment as usual (TAU) (n = 99; experimental group) or TAU only (n = 88; control group). Outcomes were measured at end-of-intervention (6 weeks), 6 and 12 months.
Adherence rates to RecoveryMANTRA were 83% for the online guidance sessions and 77% for the use of self-help materials (workbook and/or short video clips). Group differences in body mass index at 6 weeks (primary outcome) were not significant. Group differences in eating disorder symptoms, psychological wellbeing and work and social adjustment (at 6 weeks and at follow-up) were not significant, except for a trend-level greater reduction in anxiety at 6 weeks in the RecoveryMANTRA group (p = 0.06). However, the RecoveryMANTRA group had significantly higher levels of confidence in own ability to change (p = 0.02) and alliance with the therapist at the outpatient service (p = 0.005) compared to the control group at 6 weeks.
Augmenting outpatient treatment for adult anorexia nervosa with a focus on recovery and motivation produced short-term reductions in anxiety and increased confidence to change and therapeutic alliance.
This chapter seeks to discredit the popular belief that blockchains will revolutionize or disrupt commerce. More specifically, it aims to clarify that blockchains as such cannot serve as a technology or ideology for the decentralization of online marketplaces. To this end, the chapter examines the interrelated concepts of decentralization, disintermediation, trustlessness, and immutability. It is necessary to understand what those terms actually mean and how they affect actual, commercial practices. The chapter commences with a broad description of blockchains and introduces the important division between public and private blockchains, to demonstrate that only the latter could potentially serve as a technology that could provide a user-friendly and secure transacting environment. It confronts the practical implications of decentralization, focusing on the fact that the absence of formalized control usually translates into an absence of formalized governance processes.
China’s contract law is examined to determine if there are legal ambiguities with regard to formation, performance, and modification of smart contracts and the problems relating to the enforcement, remedies, and dispute resolution. It is important to Chinese law not to act prematurely to change existing legal frameworks in response to a still evolving technology (blockchain-based smart contracts). On the other hand, the regulatory framework for platform operators needs be adjusted carefully to incentivize them to diligently check and verify the information of vendors who conduct business on the platform.
Advances in digital technology have a profound impact on conventional healthcare systems. We examine the trailblazing use of online interventions to enable autonomous psychological care which can greatly enhance individual- and population-level access to services. There is strong evidence supporting online cognitive–behavioural therapy and more engaging programmes are now appearing so as to reduce user ‘attrition’. The next generation of autonomous psychotherapy programmes will implement adaptive and personalised responses, moving beyond impersonalised advice on cognitive and behavioural techniques. This will be a more authentic form of psychotherapy that integrates therapy with the actual relationship experiences of the individual user.
Whilst Saudi government decision-making remains ‘top-down’, the dynamic within this approach has shifted as the top-down system incorporates a consultation process that includes newly established civil society institutions alongside recognition that public opinion cannot always be ignored in the new/social media age. Indeed, of particular significance in Saudi Arabia is growing public awareness, particularly amongst young educated Saudis, of the need for government accountability, transparency and best practices. In addition, there have been indications that the Al Saud leadership – to a degree – recognizes the necessity of being answerable to society on domestic policy-making issues that affect citizens’ lives. Therefore, the aim of this chapter is to assess perceptions of new media usage, most specifically social media, as well as the importance of public opinion, government transparency and awareness of political issues, and the impact these have on daily life as linked to politico-economic and socio-cultural change in Saudi Arabia.
Through in-depth analysis of the use of det ‘it, that’ and så ‘then’ occupying the first clausal position (the prefield) in Danish talk-in-interaction, this paper investigates how speakers use highly flexible linguistic elements to their advantage when commencing clauses in real time. These particular words are useful when occupying the prefield, because their flexible nature means that they can be used even when speakers do not have a full format ready for the carrier clause, as long as they have some idea of the interactional purpose of the clause and its information structural prerequisites. The dominating frequency of the most frequent clause openers goes largely unmentioned in previous accounts of the prefield, and the use of det ‘it, that’ and så ‘then’ challenges the popular notion that the textually unmarked prefield is also the grammatical subject of the carrier clause.