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The two-phase flow pattern of a flow mixing nozzle plays an important role in jet breakup and atomization. However, the flow pattern of this nozzle and its transformation characteristics are still unclear. A diesel-air injection simulation model of a flow mixing nozzle is established. Then the two-phase flow pattern and transformation characteristics of the flow mixing nozzle is studied using a numerical simulation method. The effect of the air-diesel velocity ratio, ratio of the distance between the tube orifice and nozzle hole and the tube diameter (H/D), and the diesel inlet velocity was studied in terms of the jet breakup diameter (jet diameter at the breakup position) and jet breakup length (length of the diesel jet from the breakup position to the nozzle outlet). The results show that the jet breakup diameter decreases with the decrease in H/D or the increase in the air-diesel velocity ratio and diesel inlet velocity. The jet breakup length increases first and then decreases with the increase in H/D and air-diesel velocity ratio; the trend of the diesel inlet velocity is complicated. In addition, a change in the working conditions also causes some morphological changes that cannot be quantitatively analyzed in the diesel-air flow pattern. The transition characteristics of the flow pattern are analyzed, and it is found that the main reason for the change in the flow pattern is the change in the inertial force of the air, surface tension force, and viscous force of diesel (non-dimensional Reynolds number and Weber number describe the transition characteristics in this paper). The surface tension force of diesel decreases and the viscous force of diesel and inertial force of air increase when the air-diesel velocity ratio increases or H/D decreases. However, the effects of the diesel surface tension force and viscous force effect are much smaller than that of the air inertial force, which changes the diesel-air flow pattern from a drop pattern to a vibration jet pattern, broken jet pattern, and then a chaotic jet pattern.
Binaries are the most important energy reservoir of star clusters. Via three-body encounters, binaries can reverse the core collapse and prevent a star cluster from reaching equiparition. Moreover, binaries are essential for the formation of stellar exotica, such as blue straggler stars, intermediate-mass black holes and massive black hole binaries.
GH3536 alloy is one of the high-temperature nickel-based alloys and widely applied in aviation and aerospace industries. In this study, a combination of experiment and simulation is proposed to study the effect of processing parameters on the selective laser melting (SLM) of GH3536 powder. It is concluded that the relationship between density and laser input energy during SLM complies with a quadratic function and presents an inverted U-shaped distribution. By fitting density and input power to a quadratic polynomial, the optimal laser input energy during SLM of GH3536 alloy can be obtained. The result shows that using 275 W laser power and 960 mm/s scanning speed, the SLM GH3536 specimens can reach the maximum density. This experimental result is consistent with the simulation result obtained by analyzing molten pool dimension. Furthermore, a full process energy prediction diagram for SLM GH3536 alloy based on the simulated molten pool depth and width is proposed. The result shows that it provides an innovative and efficient method for the selection of processing parameters during SLM of GH3536 powder.
Although the disaster reduction effects of forest braking have long been known empirically, they have not been known in detail down to recent. In this study, we ascertained forest braking effect by numerical simulations using the avalanche dynamics program, TITAN2D, to model large-scale avalanches. One of these avalanches occurred in the Makunosawa valley, Myoko, and damaged a cedar forest; the others occurred on Mt. Iwate and damaged a subalpine forest. All avalanches damaged many trees and terminated within the forests. In our simulations, the resistance of the forests to avalanches is simulated using a larger bed friction angle. Fitting the observations from the Makunosawa avalanche by trial and error, a bed friction angle of 13–14° in the non-forested area and of 25° in the forested area is obtained. We conducted simulations of the Mt. Iwate avalanches using the same method as for the Makunosawa valley avalanche, and obtained good agreement between observations and simulations. Simulations reveal that without the forest, the avalanche would have traveled at least 200 m farther than the forest's actual end in the Makunosawa valley, and at least 200 m and possibly up to 600 m farther on Mt. Iwate. This study therefore clearly shows that forests provide a braking effect for avalanches.
Radiolocation systems for aviation based on Multi-Lateration (MLAT) typically use a set of synchronised ground sensors to receive radio signals broadcast by onboard transmitters. In most cases, the sensor synchronisation in Wide Area Multi-Lateration Systems (WAM) is provided by Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers. However, in the case of synchronisation failure, there is still a possibility to estimate the coordinates of the tracked aircraft by using the measurements of the time of arrival taken by non-synchronised sensors. The article presents the principle of operation and equations for calculating the coordinates of an aircraft in an asynchronous multi-lateration system, together with the results of a computer simulation allowing comparison of the accuracy of position estimation between the asynchronous and the typical, synchronous MLAT. This paper contains also some comments on the required stability of the clock source for the sensors working in an asynchronous MLAT system.
A new simple mathematical method has been proposed to predict rock stress around a noncircular tunnel and the method is calibrated and validated with a numerical model. It can be found that the tunnel shapes and polar angles affect the applicable zone of the theoretical model significantly and the applicable zone of a rectangular tunnel was obtained using this method. The method can be used to predict the values of the concentrated stress, and to analyze the change rate of rock stress and back to calculate the mechanical boundary condition in the applicable zone. The results of the stress change rate indicate that the horizontal stress is negatively related to the vertical boundary load and positively related to the horizontal boundary load. The vertical stress is negatively related to the horizontal boundary load and positively related to the vertical boundary load. These findings can be used to explain the evolution of the vertical increment in stress obtained with field-based borehole stress monitoring.
Material mechanical behavior of tube has an essential influence on cross-sectional deformation of rectangular waveguide tube in rotary draw bending (RDB) process. Thus, taking widely used 3A21 aluminum alloy and H96 brass rectangular tubes as research objects, the cross-sectional deformation of these tubes in RDB with and without mandrel was investigated using the reliable three-dimensional finite element models. The results show that when no mandrel is used, compared with 3A21 tube, the position of wrinkle initiation for H96 tube is closer to the final bending section, and the cross-sectional deformation of H96 tube along bending direction is more homogeneous. When a mandrel is used, in bending process, the cross-sectional deformation of 3A21 tube in mandrel support zone (MSZ) is in coincidence with that of H96 tube, and the deformation of 3A21 tube is larger in transition zone (TZ) while smaller in no mandrel affect zone (NMAZ) than that of H96 tube. In retracting mandrel or springback process, the cross-sectional deformation of 3A21 tube in MSZ and TZ is constantly larger than that of H96 tube, while in NMAZ, the deformation of both tubes reverses.
A Lean Premixed Prevaporised (LPP) low-emission combustor with a staged lean combustion technology was developed. In order to study cold-flow dynamics in the LPP combustor, both experimental tests using the particle image velocimetry (PIV) to quantify the flow dynamics and numerical simulation using the commercial software (FLUENT) were conducted, respectively. Numerical results were in good agreement with the experimental data. It is shown from the observation of the results that: there is a Primary Recirculation Zone (PRZ), a Corner Recirculation Zone (CRZ) and a Lip Recirculation Zone (LRZ) in the LPP combustor, and the exchanges of mass, momentum and energy between pilot swirling flow and primary swirling flow are contributed by the velocity gradients, and the shear flow is transformed into a mixing layer exhibiting the higher Reynolds stresses, which suggests the mixing process is strictly affected by the Reynolds stresses.
To investigate the recrystallization behavior of large sized Nb–V microalloyed steel rods during thermomechanical controlled processing (TMCP), a series of isothermal hot compression tests were conducted on a Gleeble 1500 thermomechanical simulator. The kinetics and microstructure evolution models of dynamic recrystallization, static recrystallization, metadynamic recrystallization and the grain growth model of the tested steel were developed. Based on the developed models, a finite element (FE) model coupled with the recrystallization behavior of large sized Nb–V microalloyed steel rods during TMCP was established. Then, the distributions and evolutions of recrystallization fraction and grain size during the whole deformation process are obtained and analyzed. Finally, the predicted results were compared with experimental ones, and they show good agreement. This illustrates that the recrystallization models of the tested steel are valid and the developed FE model of large sized Nb–V microalloyed steel rods during TMCP is effective.
In this paper, numerical simulations of solid particle erosion phenomena on H-type finned circular/elliptic tube surface, which is of great significance to the antiwear design of heat exchanger, are presented. The Eulerian-Lagrangian approach is applied to simulate the dilute gas-solid flow through H-type finned circular/elliptic tubes. A semi-empirical model is adopted to predict the erosion rate. The dynamics behavior of the entrained solid particles in the flow is presented. The geometry of eroded tube surface is changed with the predicted erosion which is taken into account by a UDF and the flow field is re-solved for the eroded tube surface at every time step. The influences of ten parameters (the tube bundle arrangement, particle size, particle concentration, fluid Reynolds number, fin thickness, fin pitch, fin length, fin width, slit width and the transverse tube pitch) on the maximum erosion depth of the H-type circular/elliptic finned tube surface are investigated. Using H-type finned elliptic tube surface can effectively reduce the erosion rate of tube surface comparedwith that using H-type finned circular tube surface. The erosion in in-line arrangement is less severe than that in staggered arrangement. With the increase of particle size, particle concentration and the fluid Reynolds number, the erosion rate of the tube surface rises. The numerically predicted effect of Reynolds number is in good agreement with previous test data. Among the six geometry parameters, the most influential parameter is the transverse tube pitch.
A Deep Hot Zone develops when numerous mafic sills are repeatedly injected at Moho depth or are scattered in the lower crust. The melt generation is numerically modelled for mafic sill emplacement geometries by overaccretion, underaccretion or random emplacement, and for intrusion rates of 2, 5 and 10mm/yr. After an incubation period, melts are generated by incomplete crystallisation of the mafic magma and by partial melting of the crust. The first melts generated are residual from the mafic magmas that have low solidi due to concentration of H20 in the residual liquids. Once the solidus of the crust is reached, the ratio of crustal partial melt to residual melt increases to a maximum. If wet mafic magma, typical of arc environments, is injected in an amphibolitic crust, the residual melt is dominant over the partial melt, which implies that the generation of I-type granites is dominated by the crystallisation of mafic magma originated from the mantle and not by the partial melting of earlier underplated material. High ratios of crustal partial melt over residual melt are reached when sills are scattered in a metasedimentary crust, allowing the generation of S-type granites. The partial melting of a refractory granulitic crust intruded by dry, high-T mafic magma is limited and subordinate to the production of larger amount of residual melt in the mafic sills. Thus the generation of A-type granites by partial melting of a refractory crust would require a mechanism of selective extraction of the A-type melt.
This article is devoted to the study of the finite element approximation for a nonlocal nonlinear parabolic problem. Using a linearised Crank-Nicolson Galerkin finite element method for a nonlinear reaction-diffusion equation, we establish the convergence and error bound for the fully discrete scheme. Moreover, important results on exponential decay and vanishing of the solutions in finite time are presented. Finally, some numerical simulations are presented to illustrate our theoretical analysis.
The gas dynamic laser is numerically studied using quasi-1D and 2D simulations to investigate the effect of diamond pattern of the supersonic flow field (inhomogeneities in density field) on the laser's performance. The system of governing equations is solved with a finite volume approach using a structured grid in which the AUSM+ scheme is used to calculate the convective fluxes. Vibrational temperature of different modes, population inversion and the small signal gain are studied, and the effect of the divergent nozzle's geometry at the maximum gain is analysed.
This paper deals with numerical solution to the multi-term time fractional diffusion equation in a finite domain. An implicit finite difference scheme is established based on Caputo's definition to the fractional derivatives, and the upper and lower bounds to the spectral radius of the coefficient matrix of the difference scheme are estimated, with which the unconditional stability and convergence are proved. The numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of the theoretical analysis, and the method and technique can also be applied to other kinds of time/space fractional diffusion equations.
A method based on the Eulerian two-phase flow theory to numerically simulate three-dimensional rime ice accretions on an aircraft wing is presented in this paper. The governing equations for supercooled droplet motion under Eulerian framework are established using the droplet pseudo-fluid model. A permeable wall boundary condition is proposed to simulate the phenomenon of droplets impinging on the wing in solving the governing equations for droplets. The local droplet collection efficiency is readily obtained from the droplet flowfield solution in the control volume adjacent to the wing surface. The rime ice accretion can be simulated under the assumption that the droplets freeze immediately as they impinge on the wing surface since the environment temperature is low enough (typically below –15°C). A method to build the ice shape is proposed based on the assumption that ice grows in the direction normal to the wing surface. The rime ice accretion on a GLC-305 swept wing model under some specific conditions has been simulated to validate the present method. Furthermore, different flight conditions, namely, different angles of attack and different angles of sideslip, have been dealt with to investigate their effects on rime ice accretion as well as the corresponding aerodynamic effects.
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been used by numerous researchers for the simulation of flows around wind turbines. Since the 2000s, the experiments of NREL phase VI blades for blind comparison have been a de-facto standard for numerical software on the prediction of full scale horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWT) performance. However, the characteristics of vortex structures in the wake, whether for modeling the wake or for understanding the aerodynamic mechanisms inside, are still not thoroughly investigated. In the present study, the flow around N-REL phase VI blades was numerically simulated, and the results of the wake field were compared with the experimental ones of a one-to-eight scaled model in a low-speed wind tunnel. A good agreement between simulation and experimental results was achieved for the evaluation of overall performances. The simulation captured the complete formation procedure of tip vortex structure from the blade. Quantitative analysis showed the streamwise translation movement of vortex cores. Both the initial formation and the damping of vorticity in near wake field were predicted. These numerical results showed good agreements with the measurements. Moreover, wind tunnel wall effects were also investigated on these vortex structures, and it revealed further radial expansion of the helical vortical structures in comparison with the free-stream case.
In the first part, we study the convergence of discrete solutions to splitting schemes for two-phase flow with different mass densities suggested in [Guillen-Gonzalez, Tierra, J.Comput.Math. (6)2014]. They have been formulated for the diffuse interface model in [Abels, Garcke, Grün, M3AS, 2012, DOI:10.1142/S0218202511500138] which is consistent with thermodynamics. Our technique covers various discretization methods for phase-field energies, ranging from convex-concave splitting to difference quotient approaches for the double-well potential. In the second part of the paper, numerical experiments are presented in two space dimensions to identify discretizations of Cahn-Hilliard energies which are ϕ-stable and which do not reduce the acceleration of falling droplets. Finally, 3d simulations in axial symmetric geometries are shown to underline even more the full practicality of the approach.
This article presents a unified approach to solve steady-state conjugate heat-transfer problem including simultaneously gas, liquid and solid regions in just one 3D domain, distinguished by their particular properties. This approach reduces approximation errors and the time to solve the problem, which characterise iterative methods based on separated domains. The formulation employs RANS equations, realisable k-ε turbulence model and near-wall treatment model. A commercial CFD code solves the pressure-based segregated algorithm combined with spatial discretisation of second order upwind. The problem consists of a convergent-divergent metallic nozzle that contains cooling channels divided in two segments along the wall. The nozzle wall insulates the high-speed hot air flow, dealt as perfect gas, from the two low-speed cold water flows, dealt as compressed liquid, both influenced by transport properties dependent of the local temperature. The verification process uses three meshes with increasing resolutions to demonstrate the independence of the results. The validation process compares the simulation results with experimental data obtained in high-enthalpy wind tunnel, demonstrating good compliance between them. Results for the bulk temperature rise of the water in the second cooling segment of the nozzle showed good agreement with available experimental data. Numerical simulations also provided wall temperature and heat flux for the gas and liquid sides. Besides, distribution of temperature, pressure, density and Mach number were plotted along the nozzle centerline showing a little disturbance downstream the throat. This phenomenon has been better visualised by means of 2D maps of those variables. The analysis of results indicates that the unified approach herein presented can make easier the task of simulating the conjugate convection-conduction heat-transfer in a class of problems related to regeneratively cooled thrust chambers.
Nanosecond pulse discharges can provide high reduced electric field for exciting high-energy electrons, and the ultrafast rising time of the applied pulse can effectively suppress the generation of spark streamer and produce homogeneous discharges preionized by runaway electrons in atmospheric-pressure air. In this paper, the electrostatic field in a tube-plate electrodes gap is calculated using a calculation software. Furthermore, a simple physical model of nanosecond pulse discharges is established to investigate the behavior of the runaway electrons during the nanosecond pulse discharges with a rise time of 1.6 ns and a full-width at half-maximum of 3–5 ns in air. The physical model is coded by a numerical software, and then the runaway electrons and electron avalanche are investigated under different conditions. The simulated results show that the applied voltage, voltage polarity, and gas pressure can significantly affect the formation of the avalanche and the behavior of the runaway electrons. The inception time of runaway breakdown decreases when the applied voltage increases. In addition, the threshold voltage of runaway breakdown has a minimum value (10 kPa) with the variation of gas pressure.
Solar flares produce radiations in very broad wavelengths. Spectra can supply us abundant information about the local plasma, such as temperature, density, mass motion and so on. Strong chromospheric lines, like the most studied Hα and Ca II 8542 Å lines are formed under conditions of departures from local thermodynamic equilibrium in the lower atmosphere subject to flare heating. Understanding how these lines are formed is very useful for us to correctly interpret the observations. In this paper, we try to figure out the response of chromospheric lines heated by different periodic non-thermal electron beams. Our results are based on radiative hydrodynamic simulations. We vary the periods of electron beam injection from 1.25 s to 20 s. We compare the response times to different heating parameters. Possible explanations are discussed.