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In their account of Romantic poetry as a medium, Celeste Langan and Maureen McLane argue that poetry, unlike the novel, ‘had a stronger claim to be considered a supermedial transhistorical venture’. However, the fiction of Austen and Edgeworth suggests that the novel too had aspirations to be a ‘supermedium’ by incorporating and aestheticising the experience of ‘common life’. The society novel in particular achieved this by assimilating the printed ephemera of polite sociability: it remediated the paper filters that facilitated social life in the eighteenth century in order to make the interstices or hyphenations of sociable life, spaces occupied by women in particular, more visible as an appropriate object of fiction. As I suggested previously, the affect of the ephemeral social encounter, the transience of events that flicker to life and disappear, were the common subject of Sarah Sophia Banks and Jane Austen, the former’s assemblages of tickets for balls and assemblies and the latter’s novels textualising the same phenomenon. The evocation in ephemeral print of ‘common life’ as a kind of diurnal historiography was the context in which the novel became central to the affective rhythms and routines of human activity, establishing an idea of the everyday as intimate, familiar, and reassuring rather than as something that was estranging in its absolute anonymity or carelessness, something to ‘fear’ in Blanchot’s terms. The materiality of the codex form of the novel, its solidity and tendency to take the reader’s time while being portable and adaptable to both private and social life, allowed the novel to remediate the specificity of social and affective experience but also to defend both itself and the reader from the abyss of entropic ephemerality. The novel thus capitalises upon an idea of the everyday that it simultaneously resists. Arguably, however, as a literary form most closely linked with the second printing revolution, with which its ‘rise’ coincided, the novel never completely escaped its affiliation with ephemera, as indicated by the enduring association of the novel and novel-reading with trashy, ‘ephemeral productions’, with that which wastes time rather than redeems it.
Since the outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus infection (2019-nCoV) in Wuhan City, China, pediatric cases have gradually increase. It is very important to prevent cross-infection in pediatric fever clinics, how identify children with fever in pediatric fever clinics, and strengthen the management of pediatric fever clinics. According to prevention and control programs, we propose the guidance on the management of pediatric fever clinics during the novel coronavirus pneumonia epidemic period, which outlines in detail optimizes processes, prevents cross-infection, health protection and disinfection of medical staff. The present consideration statement summarizes current strategies on pre-diagnosis, triage, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of 2019-nCoV infection, which provide practical suggestions on strengthening the management of pediatric fever clinics during the novel coronavirus pneumonia epidemic period.
This chapter addresses the privileged but vilified position of Germany and its Schauerroman in Germany and Britain around 1800. German Gothic was discussed almost from the outset in material terms, and one notable medium in this regard was pharmacological discourse. In British and German political rhetoric and literary criticism, German Gothic itself was considered a poisonous instance destroying the readers’ health. Using this guiding pharmacological rhetoric of horror, this chapter provides an introduction to the German ‘School’ of horrors in its late-Enlightenment and Romantic contexts, paying particular attention to the often overlooked but immensely important role of dramatic adaptation as a medium for the productive interactions between Germany and Britain. Drawing on writers and directors such as Johann Karl August Musäus, Benedikte Naubert, Heinrich Zschokke, James Boaden, Samuel Taylor Coleridge and Matthew Gregory Lewis, this chapter locates the aesthetic models of the Gothic within emergent anthropological paradigms of the imagination and affective patterns of literary reception in the expanding popular literary market around 1800.
Was there an indigenous Gothic in nineteenth-century Italy, a local reworking of English (and perhaps Continental) forms and models’? This chapter addresses this much-debated issue by making a case for the clear presence of Gothic motifs and structures in several Italian novels, from Alessandro Manzoni’s I promessi sposi (1827) (particularly in its earliest version, Fermo e Lucia, c. 1821–3) to Carlo Lorenzini’s Le avventure di Pinocchio (1883). The chapter discusses the contribution of the so-called ‘Scapigliati’ authors to the Italian Gothic and offers a survey of later writers from the verista and naturalista literary schools. Later in the century, Italian realist writers seem to veer into the realm of the supernatural. The chapter thus closes with looking at the anti-rationalist discourses that flourished at the close of the century, and at such hermeneutical modalities as spiritualism, mesmerism and occultism that became increasingly fashionable in the popular press. Vampire literature and the Italian legacy of German and English Gothic are also addressed, with references to, among others, Francesco Domenico Guerrazzi and the national novelists of the first half of the century.
This chapter considers nineteenth-century Irish Gothic literary production, beginning with the Romantic-era ‘trade Gothic’ and culminating in the ghost stories of the fin de siècle. Acknowledging the significance of the texts that have now become synonymous with ‘the Irish Gothic’, the argument nevertheless probes the primary position they have been accorded in Irish literary historiography, questioning the process of literary canonisation that has marginalised large swathes of Irish Gothic writing. It thus offers an analysis of lesser-known texts that highlight the diverse range and scope of Irish engagement with the Gothic mode, from the ‘first wave’ Gothics (1790s to early 1800s) that were often condemned as mere imitations of Ann Radcliffe, to mid-century periodical publications that demonstrate the continued influence of the Gothic mode in Ireland even after the demise of ‘the Gothic novel’. It furthermore queries the understanding of Irish Gothic as a predominantly Protestant literary mode written almost exclusively by men, exploring the rich body of Catholic Gothic texts as well as the central contribution made by women writers to the mode’s development.
Chest CT evaluation is often vital to determine patients suspected of COVID-19 pneumonia. The aim of this study was to determine the evolution of lung abnormalities evaluated by quantitative CT techniques in patients with COVID-19 infection from initial diagnosis to recovery. This retrospective study included 16 patients with COVID-19 infection from 30 January 2020 through 11 March 2020. Repeat chest CT examinations were obtained for three or more scans per patient. We measured total volume and mean CT value of lung lesions in each patient per scan, and then calculated the mass, which equals to volume × (CT value + 1000). Dynamic evolution of chest CT imaging as a function of time was fitted by non-linear regression model in terms of mass, volume and CT value, respectively. According to the fitting curves, we redefined the evolution of lung abnormalities: progressive stage (0–5 days), infection emerged and rapidly aggravated; peak stage (5–15 days), the greatest severity at approximate 7–8 days after onset; and absorption stage (15–30 days), the lesions slowly and gradually resolved.
The purpose of this research was to investigate coronavirus disease (COVID-19) susceptibility in districts of Bangladesh using multicriteria evaluation techniques.
Secondary data were collected from different government organizations, 120 primary surveys were conducted for calculating weights, and results were validated through 12 key people’s interviews. Pairwise comparison matrixes were calculated for 9 factors and subfactors. The analytic hierarchy process used for calculating the susceptibility index and map was prepared based on the results.
According to the results, multiple causal factors might be responsible for COVID-19 spreading in Bangladesh. Dhaka might be vulnerable to COVID-19 due to a higher population, population density, and international collaboration. According to the pairwise comparison matrix, the consistency ratio for subfactors and factors was in the permissible limit (ie, less than 0.10). The highest factor weight of 0.2907 was found for the factors type of port. The maximum value for the susceptibility index was 0.435219362 for Chittagong, and the minimum value was 0.076174 for Naogaon.
The findings of this research might help the communities and government agencies with effective decision-making.
This introductory chapter provides an overview of the handbook and provides a foundation that makes a case for why this handbook is both timely and essential to advance the study of the imagination. It orients the reader to the unique opportunities afforded by applying a cross-disciplinary approach in order to significantly improve our understanding of the imagination. The chapter introduces different definitions and conceptions of the imagination before outlining the sections of the handbook and the themes that will be covered within the chapters of each section.
This chapter summarizes the implications that can be derived from the forty–six feature chapters. In doing so, it weaves a common thread between the many manifestations of the imagination and argues for the usefulness of the concept of water to capture the imagination.
Mood disorders, i.e. major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorders, are leading sources of disability worldwide. Currently available treatments do not yield remission in approximately a third of patients with a mood disorder. This is in part because these treatments do not target a specific core pathology underlying these heterogeneous disorders. In recent years, abnormal inflammatory processes have been identified as putative pathophysiological mechanisms and treatment targets in mood disorders, particularly among individuals with treatment-resistant conditions.
In this selective review, we aimed to summarise recent advances in the field of immunopsychiatry, including emerging pathophysiological models and findings from treatment ttrials of immunomodulatory agents for both MDD and bipolar disorders.
We performed a literature review by searching Medline for clinical trials of immunomodulating agents as monotherapy or adjunctive treatments in MDD and bipolar disorders. Included studies are randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cluster RCTs or cross-over trials of immunomodulating agents that had an active comparator or a placebo-arm.
Current evidence shows an association between inflammation and mood symptoms. However, there is conflicting evidence on whether this link is causal.
Future studies should focus on identifying specific neurobiological underpinnings for the putative causal association between an activated inflammatory response and mood disorders. Results of these studies are needed before further treatment trials of immunomodulatory agents can be justified.
The COVID-19 outbreak required the significantly increased working time and intensity for health professionals in China, which may cause stress signs.
From March 2–13 of 2020, 4,618 health professionals in China were included in an anonymous, self-rated online survey regarding their concerns on exposure to the COVID-19 outbreak. The questionnaires consisted of five parts: basic demographic information and epidemiological exposure; occupational and psychological impact; concerns during the episode; coping strategies; and the Huaxi Emotional-Distress Index (HEI).
About 24.2% of respondents experienced high levels of anxiety or/and depressive symptoms since the COVID-19 outbreak. Respondents who worried about their physical health and those who had COVID-19 infected friends or close relatives were more likely to have high HEI levels, than those without these characteristics. Further, family relationship was found to have an independent protective effect against high HEI levels. Their main concerns were that their families would not be cared for and that they would not be able to work properly. Compared to respondents with clear emotional problems, those with somewhat hidden emotional issues adopted more positive coping measures.
About a quarter of medical staff experienced psychological problems during the pandemic of COVID-19. The psychological impact of stressful events was related to worrying about their physical health, having close COVID-19 infected acquaintances and family relationship issues. Therefore, the psychological supprot for medical staff fighting in the COVID-19 pandemic may be needed.
Since December 2019, a number of new infectious diseases, mainly lung diseases caused by novel coronavirus infections, have been discovered in Wuhan, Hubei province. With the spread of the epidemic, cases in other regions of China and abroad have been confirmed. This sudden outbreak of a new type of infectious disease has seriously threatened people’s health and safety, and China has adopted strong prevention and control measures in response. To provide a reference for international health emergency management workers, this article summarizes, from an academic perspective, the main prevention and control measures taken in China.
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a form of an infectious respiratory disease, discovered in November 2012 in Saudi Arabia. According to the World Health Organization (WHO; Geneva, Switzerland) reports, a total of 2,519 laboratory-confirmed cases and 866 MERS-CoV-related deaths were recorded as of March 5, 2016.1 The majority of reported cases originated from Saudi Arabia (2,121 cases). Also, MERS-CoV is believed to be of zoonotic origin and has been linked to camels in the Arabian area.1,2 In this report, the authors discuss the lessons learned from the MERS-CoV outbreak at King Abdul-Aziz Medical City-Riyadh (KAMC-R) from August through September 2015 from the Emergency Medical Services (EMS) perspective. The discussion includes the changes in policies and paramedic’s practice, the training and education in infection control procedures, and the process of transportation of these cases. The authors hope to share their experience in this unique situation and highlight the preparedness and response efforts that took place by the division of EMS during the outbreak.
The first case of 2019-nCoV pneumonia infection occurred in Wuhan, Hubei Province, South China Seafood Market in December 2019. As a group with a high probability of infection, health workers are faced with a certain degree of psychological challenges in the process of facing the epidemic. This study attempts to evaluate the impact of 2019-nCoV outbreak on the psychological state of Chinese health workers and to explore the influencing factors. During the period from 31 January 2020 to 4 February 2020, the ‘Questionnaire Star’ electronic questionnaire system was used to collect data. The 2019-nCoV impact questionnaire and The Impact of Event Scale (IES) were used to check the psychological status of health workers in China. A total of 442 valid data were collected in this study. Seventy-four (16.7%) male and 368 (83.3%) female individuals participated in this study. The average score of high arousal dimension was 5.15 (s.d. = 4.71), and the median score was 4.0 (IQR 2.0, 7.0). The average score of IES was 15.26 (s.d. = 11.23), and the median score was 13.5 (IQR 7.0, 21.0). Multiple regression analysis showed that there were critical statistical differences in high arousal scores among different gender groups (male 3.0 vs. female 5.0, P = 0.075). Whether being quarantined had significant statistical differences of IES scores (being quarantined 16.0 vs. not being quarantined 13.0, P = 0.021). The overall impact of the 2019-nCoV outbreak on health workers is at a mild level. Chinese health workers have good psychological coping ability in the face of public health emergencies.
Training in neuroscience is vital to the future of psychiatry as a medical specialty. Trainees and trainers alike demonstrate a desire to keep up to date with developments in the associated scientific fields. Neuroscience increasingly underpins clinical assessments, treatment options and patients’ expectations. Psychiatry training in the UK can embrace neuroscience at many levels, from discussing patient presentations with supervisors, to teaching programmes supported by the Royal College of Psychiatrists’ activities. Although challenges remain, neuroscience literacy enhances the specialty and will improve patient care.
The past 20 years have seen major public health emergencies and natural disasters, including the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome outbreak caused by the SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in 2003; the Wenchuan earthquake in 2008; and the novel coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) of 2019, which caused mass casualties, infections, and panic. These also resulted in complex demands for medical resources and information, and a shortage of human resources for emergency responses. To address the shortage of human resources required for these emergency responses, Chinese dental professionals made useful contributions. From this work, deficiencies in emergency response training and opportunities for the expansion of rescue capabilities were identified, and relevant recommendations made.
Coetzee’s interest in, and ability to exploit, the conventions and expectations of genre is evident throughout his career; this chapter focuses on three examples in which the relation between fiction and non-fiction is put in question, Elizabeth Costello, Diary of a Bad Year, and Summertime. In the case of the first of these works, the chapter examines Coetzee’s conversion of lectures into a fiction, and asks how we are to take the opinions expressed by the eponymous individual. In the case of Diary of a Bad Year, it discusses Coetzee’s framing of diary entries within a fictional narrative, and considers the degree of authorial endorsement of the resulting ‘opinions’ and the effect of the story unfolding at the foot of the page. In Summertime, the generic challenge of a memoir supposedly written after the author’s death is explored, and attention is paid to the work’s status as autobiography and as comic self-interrogation.
Following the reintroduction of clozapine, several atypical antipsychotics have become available for the treatment of schizophrenia. These drugs are at least as effective as conventional treatment. Although each has an individual pattern of affinities, new work suggests that the hallmark of atypicality is fast dissociation at the dopamine-2 receptor. Numerous novel drugs are in development, but it is not clear how these conform to this theory of therapeutic effect. Atypical antipsychotics cause less extrapyramidal side effects than conventional treatment, but other effects such as hyperprolactinaemia, weight gain, glucose dysregulation and prolonged QTc interval remain problematic for some. Current antipsychotic prescribing practice is far from ideal: the NICE guidance stresses that atypical treatments should be considered unless symptoms are well controlled and side effects are acceptable, or depot formulation is indicated. There is a welcome emphasis on drug treatment as part of an integrated package of care negotiated with patients and their carers.
This chapter examines the antagonistic relationship with Nietzsche’s Greeks that was managed by one of the main writers of modernism, D. H. Lawrence. By thinking about the position of Nietzsche in the British intellectual climate of the early twentieth century, and in particular his association to the anti-Germanic feeling surrounding the First World War, this chapter contextualises the tension between Lawrence’s antipathy towards Nietzsche and the clear resonances between the two authors’ attitudes towards the irrational nature of ancient Greece. The chapter examines the differing attitudes towards tragedy that Lawrence puts forward across his voluminous writings, including especially his 1920 novel Women in Love, his critical-theoretical essay ‘Study of Thomas Hardy’ (written 1914/1915, published posthumously in 1946), and his travel writings about his visits to Etruscan tombs. It uses the idea of the ‘gay science’, which Lawrence took from Nietzsche’s work of the same name from 1882, to situate Lawrence’s desire to establish an anti-tragic form of art and literature with a genealogy that stretches back to antiquity.