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There is an increased use of vegetable oils containing n-6 fatty acids (FA) in aquafeeds, and several trials indicate that there might be an increased requirement of EPA and DHA for Atlantic salmon when they are fed higher dietary n-6 FA. With a limited supply of EPA and DHA for production of aquafeeds, it is important to know how to efficiently use these FA to maintain growth and health of the fish. In the present trial, three diets containing equal amounts of n-3 FA (about 7·7 % of total FA) and different n-6:n-3 FA ratios (about 1, 2 and 6), as well as one diet with n-6:n-3 FA ratio at about 1 but twice as much n-3 FA, were fed to Atlantic salmon. Despite constant dietary n-3, increasing dietary n-6 led to significantly reduced n-3 in tissue polar lipids. Interestingly, EPA was significantly reduced while DHA was not. Maintaining a stable n-3 content in the polar lipids when increasing dietary n-6 FA was only obtained by simultaneously increasing the dietary n-3 content and with this maintaining the same n-6:n-3 FA ratio. Polar lipid n-6 FA in tissues thus primarily reflected the dietary n-6:n-3 FA ratio and not the absolute dietary n-6 FA content. Neutral lipids, on the other hand, reflected the dietary absolute levels of both n-3 and n-6 FA. This study indicates that a better use of dietary EPA is achieved by keeping the dietary n-6:n-3 FA ratio low.
The author reflects on the Norwegian inpatient service descriptions contained in Wilkinson's article, considering the challenges laid out in his piece from the perspective of a child and adolescent psychiatrist working in a hospital crisis setting, as well as within the context of child and adolescent mental healthcare staffing across the UK.
The Danish onshore subsurface contains very large geothermal resources that have the potential to make a significant contribution to transforming Danish energy consumption toward a more sustainable energy mix. Presently, only a minor fraction of this green energy is exploited in three small plants. The main factors that have hampered and delayed larger-scale deployment are related to uncertainties in the geological models, which inevitably lead to high economic risks that are difficult for smaller district heating companies to mitigate without support from a compensation scheme. To facilitate and stimulate much wider use of the Danish geothermal resources, the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) and other research institutes have conducted several regional research projects focusing on the geological and geochemical obstacles with the principal objective of reducing the exploration risks by selecting the best geological reservoirs.
One of the most important geological factors causing uncertainty is the quality of the reservoirs and their ability to produce the expected volume of warm geothermal brine. Thus, great emphasis has been placed on investigating and understanding the relationships between reservoir sandstone, porosity, permeability, petrography, diagenetic processes and alterations related to variable sediment sources, basin entry points, depositional systems and climate, burial and thermal history. Mesozoic sandstones comprise the most important geothermal reservoirs in Denmark. Details concerning the reservoir quality are compiled and compared for the Lower Triassic Bunter Sandstone, Triassic Skagerrak, Upper Triassic – Lower Jurassic Gassum and Middle Jurassic Haldager Sand formations. The Bunter Sandstone Formation contains extensive aeolian and more confined fluvial sandstones with high porosity and permeability. However, highly saline formation water could be unfavourable. The Skagerrak Formation comprises well-sorted braided stream sandstones in the centre of the basin, and is otherwise characterised by muddy sandstones and alluvial fan conglomerates. An immature mineralogical composition has caused intensive diagenetic changes in the deepest buried parts of the basin. The Gassum Formation consists of shoreface, fluvial and estuarine sandstones interbedded with marine and lacustrine mudstones. In the upper part of the formation, the sandstone beds pinch out into mudstones towards the basin centre. Pervasive siderite- and calcite cement occurs locally in shallowly buried sandstones, and with burial depth the maximum abundances of quartz and ankerite cement increase. Sandstones of shallow burial represent excellent reservoirs. The relatively coarse grain size of the Haldager Sand Formation results in high porosity and permeability even at deep burial, so the formation comprises a high-quality geothermal reservoir.
Substantial progress has been made, and a well-established regional geological model combined with reservoir quality is now available for areas with cored wells. This has enabled an improved estimation of reservoir quality between wells for exploration of geothermal reservoirs.
This chapter provides a typological overview of segmental quantity in Germanic languages. It begins with an overview of basic terminology, different ways of representing quantity, and the effects of different diachronic processes (e.g., open syllable lengthening and degemination) on the occurrence of contrastive segmental quantity. After a presentation of Riad’s (1995) typology of quantity, the chapter describes North and West Germanic language varieties that preserve both vowel and consonant quantity, varieties that retain only consonant quantity and varieties that retain only vowel quantity. Also included are discussions of complementary quantity, syllable cut and evidence that some Germanic varieties no longer have contrastive segmental quantity.
Norway was the first European country to be introduced to the American diagnostic system DSM III. In this paper the author presents some of the main results of the Norwegian studies of the DSM III personality disorders with particular emphasis on validity, comorbidity and treatment.
The empirical focus of this chapter are heritage Germanic languages spoken in North America. Heritage languages are the first language of individuals who speak a language at home that is not the dominant language of the larger society (pace Rothman 2009). Unlike minority languages (see Louden, Chapter 34), speakers of heritage varieties of Germanic are not tied to a particular religious group. Additionally, the majority of these heritage speakers speak moribund vernaculars. Here we review the general properties of the phonology, morphology and morpho-syntax, syntax, and semantics and pragmatics of heritage German and Norwegian. We discuss the impact that these empirical findings have on theoretical analyses, include language attrition and the potential of incomplete mastery of elements of the heritage language.
The modern North Germanic languages family consists of mutually intelligible languages spoken in mainland Scandinavia (Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish) and the insular languages Faroese and Icelandic. The languages have a common origin but have now diverged to such an extent that there are three different language continua with a large number of dialects. This chapter provides an overview of the history of the North Germanic languages leading to the present-day situation. Results of research are presented that quantify the linguistic differences between the languages and dialects in the language area and the consequences of these differences for mutual intelligibility. Finally, some directions for future research are suggested.
Following a typological classification of metrical systems, word stress in most Germanic languages can be described as characterized by trochaic rhythm, rightmost main stress, left-oriented secondary stress, and quantity-sensitivity. Most Germanic languages, after contact with languages of the Romance type and incorporation of vast amounts of loanwords into their lexicon, place main stress on one of the last three syllables of the word. For most of them it has furthermore been observed that heavy syllables influence the assignment of stress, even though not necessarily in all phonological contexts. Exceptions are Icelandic and Faroese, where main stress falls consistently on the leftmost syllable of the word and syllable weight does not play any role in stress assignment. For those Germanic languages for which secondary stress has been described, parsing of left-aligning secondary stress feet can be assumed.
There is an urgent need to find alternative feed resources that can further substitute fishmeal in Atlantic salmon diets without compromising health and food quality, in particular during the finishing feeding period when the feed demand is highest and flesh quality effects are most significant. This study investigates efficacy of substituting a isoprotein (35 %) and isolipid (35 %) low fishmeal diet (FM, 15 %) with Antarctic krill meal (KM, 12 %) during 3 months with growing finishing 2·3 kg salmon (quadruplicate sea cages/diet). Final body weight (3·9 (se 0·04) kg) was similar in the dietary groups, but the KM group had more voluminous body shape, leaner hearts and improved fillet integrity, firmness and colour. Ectopic epithelial cells and focal Ca deposits in intestine were only detected in the FM group. Transcriptome profiling by microarray of livers showed dietary effects on several immune genes, and a panel of structural genes were up-regulated in the KM group, including cadherin and connexin. Up-regulation of genes encoding myosin heavy chain proteins was the main finding in skeletal muscle. Morphology examination by scanning electron microscopy and secondary structure by Fourier transform IR spectroscopy revealed more ordered and stable collagen architecture of the KM group. NEFA composition of skeletal muscle indicated altered metabolism of n-3, n-6 and SFA of the KM group. The results demonstrated that improved health and meat quality in Atlantic salmon fed krill meal were associated with up-regulation of immune genes, proteins defining muscle properties and genes involved in cell contacts and adhesion, altered fatty acid metabolism and fat deposition, and improved gut health and collagen structure.
With increased lexical influence and general English competence among Norwegian language users, the association of the suffix -s with the category of plural appears to be expanding. This article explores the occurrence and productivity of non-possessive -s in contemporary Norwegian, a feature which incorporates several phenomena. Our aim is to chart the lexico-grammatical categories instantiated by this morpho-phonological segment in light of the previous literature on Anglicisms in Norwegian and on the basis of empirical evidence from present-day language use. The article presents a corpus-based survey of categories where non-possessive -s occurs (i) as the plural marker of Anglicisms, e.g. drinks; (ii) in colloquialisms such as dritings ‘dead drunk’ – a combination of a domestic noun and English (or Norwegian) -ing + non-possessive -s reanalysed into an adjectival stem; (iii) in nouns like en caps ‘a (baseball) cap’, where it has lost its plurality marking function and become part of the lexical stem; and (iv) sporadically as a plurality marker of domestic or non-English words, e.g. temas. The variability in presence vs. absence of -s is further explored in four case studies dedicated to different stages of borrowing.
Foamy, whitish appearance of the pyloric caeca, reflecting elevated lipid content, histologically visible as hypervacuolation, is frequently observed in Atlantic salmon fed high-plant diets. Lipid malabsorption syndrome (LMS) is suggested as term for the phenomenon. Earlier studies have shown that insufficient supply of phospholipids may cause similar symptoms. The objective of the present study was to strengthen knowledge on the role of choline, the key component of phosphatidylcholine, in development of LMS as well as finding the dietary required choline level in Atlantic salmon. A regression design was chosen to be able to estimate the dietary requirement level of choline, if found essential for the prevention of LMS. Atlantic salmon (456 g) were fed diets supplemented with 0, 392, 785, 1177, 1569, 1962, 2354, 2746 and 3139 mg/kg choline chloride. Fish fed the lowest-choline diet had pyloric caeca with whitish foamy surface, elevated relative weight, and the enterocytes were hypervacuolated. These characteristics diminished with increasing choline level and levelled off at levels of 2850, 3593 and 2310 mg/kg, respectively. The concomitant alterations in expression of genes related to phosphatidylcholine synthesis, cholesterol biosynthesis, lipid transport and storage confirmed the importance of choline in lipid turnover in the intestine and ability to prevent LMS. Based on the observations of the present study, the lowest level of choline which prevents LMS and intestinal lipid hypervacuolation in post-smolt Atlantic salmon is 3·4 g/kg. However, the optimal level most likely depends on the feed intake and dietary lipid level.
The first positive genome-wide association study on gestational length and preterm delivery showed the involvement of an Se metabolism gene. In the present study, we examine the association between maternal intake of Se and Se status with gestational length and preterm delivery in 72 025 women with singleton live births from the population-based, prospective Norwegian Mother, Father and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). A self-reported, semi-quantitative FFQ answered in pregnancy week 22 was used to estimate Se intake during the first half of pregnancy. Associations were analysed with adjusted linear and Cox regressions. Se status was assessed in whole blood collected in gestational week 17 (n 2637). Median dietary Se intake was 53 (interquartile range (IQR) 44–62) µg/d, supplements provided additionally 50 (IQR 30–75) µg/d for supplement users (n 23 409). Maternal dietary Se intake was significantly associated with prolonged gestational length (β per sd = 0·25, 95 % CI, 0·07, 0·43) and decreased risk of preterm delivery (n 3618, hazard ratio per sd = 0·92, 95 % CI, 0·87, 0·98). Neither Se intake from supplements nor maternal blood Se status was associated with gestational length or preterm delivery. Hence, the present study showed that maternal dietary Se intake but not intake of Se-containing supplements, during the first half of pregnancy was significantly associated with decreased risk of preterm delivery. Further investigations, preferably in the form of a large randomised controlled trial, are needed to elucidate the impact of Se on pregnancy duration.
Although maternal depressive symptoms are robustly associated with offspring early-life psychopathology symptoms, it is not clear which potential mechanisms are at play. We aimed to estimate the relative importance of genetic transmission and direct environmental exposure in these associations on three occasions in early childhood.
Biometric modeling of maternal sisters and their offspring from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. The analyzed sample comprised 22 316 mothers and 35 589 offspring. Mothers reported their own depressive symptoms using the Symptom checklist, and offspring's concurrent symptoms of psychopathology using the Child Behavior Checklist at 1.5, 3, and 5 years postpartum.
Associations between maternal symptoms of depression and offspring emotional problems were predominantly explained by passive genetic transmission at 1.5 and 3 years postpartum. At age 5, associations were more due to direct environmental exposure. For offspring behavioral problems, there was no net increase in the importance of direct environmental exposure across occasions.
Associations between maternal depressive symptoms and offspring psychopathology symptoms remained after accounting for shared genes, consistent with a small, causal effect. For offspring emotional problems, this effect appeared to increase in importance over time. Our findings imply that treatment of maternal depressive symptoms could also benefit the offspring, and that genetic confounding should be considered in future studies of such mother–offspring associations.
Mainland Scandinavian displays a main clause phenomenon (MCP), where some embedded clauses allow the word order V(erb)–Neg(ation), in addition to the canonical Neg–V. Much has been written on the licensing conditions for embedded V–Neg, but formulating the exact conditions has proven difficult. This may be due to the fact that research has typically focussed on selected sets of clauses allowing this phenomenon and much of it has been based on the authors’ grammaticality judgements. Drawing conclusions about the licensing conditions for embedded V–Neg requires examining all types of environments that allow it in natural speech as well as the types of environments that disallow it. Therefore, the primary goal of this paper is to map out the full distribution of embedded V–Neg. This paper examines embedded V–Neg collected from five corpora of spontaneous Norwegian speech. The data provide information on the relative frequency of V–Neg in various constructions and identify hitherto unattested contexts for this word order. The paper shows that V–Neg is productive in adjunct clauses, a fact difficult to accommodate under accounts claiming it is licensed under selection of specific predicates. The data support a more discourse-oriented approach to embedded V–Neg.
The Norwegian Twin Registry (NTR) is maintained as a research resource that was compiled by merging several panels of twin data that were established for research into physical and mental health, wellbeing and development. NTR is a consent-based registry. Where possible, data that were collected in previous studies are curated for secondary research use. A particularly valuable potential benefit associated with the Norwegian twin data lies in the opportunities to expand and enhance the data through record linkage to nationwide registries that cover a wide array of health data and other information, including socioeconomic factors. This article provides a brief description of the current NTR sample and data collections, information about data access procedures and an overview of the national registries that can be linked to the NTR for research projects.
This chapter covers his business during the first period of his entrepreneurial activity, from 1924 to 1946, when he set up his trading and tramp shipping company. During these first 22 years, he was unknown to the public. The aim is to investigate Onassis’s activities in America as well as in Europe and to reveal the significance of the beginnings of his business. During this period Onassis advanced his career within the Greek maritime tradition established by the Vaglianos, but also led the way to break this tradition, re-invent it, and advance it further. He created the foundations of his Empire, with Buenos Aires as the basis of his entrepreneurial activities. In the 1920s based on his family business know-how and network he collaborated with his father and uncle in Greece, and with his first cousins in Argentina, to found a sound business of tobacco imports. In the 1930s, Onassis devoted himself into learning about Greek and Norwegian shipping methods and techniques and was able to expand and re-invent them. By 1940, he had made the choices that marked his path to global shipping: specialization in tanker shipping, offshore companies and flags of convenience
Jary and Kissine examine the meaning of imperative sentences, taking the existing relevance-theoretic semantic analysis, in terms of the desirability and potentiality of the described state of affairs, as their point of departure. In their view, a complete account of the interpretation of imperatives has to explain how they can result in the addressee forming an intention to perform an action, and this requires the theory to make room for ‘action representations’ (in addition to factual representations, such as assumptions). They claim that the imperative form is uniquely specified to interface with such action representations.
In this chapter, Thorstein Fretheim discusses a Norwegian modal adverb, gjerne, which he maintains is polysemous, in that it has two related meanings, both of which are conventionalised and stored in the lexicon. This case of polysemy seems to be different from the polysemy of open-class words (nouns, verbs, adjectives), which is typically explained in relevance-theoretic terms as involving pragmatic adjustments of an encoded concept. Fretheim argues that the two meanings of gjerne are better analysed as encoded procedures, so as constraining the hearer’s interpretation process rather than contributing a concept to that interpretation.
Pseudocoordination with posture verbs in Mainland Scandinavian (e.g. the Norwegian Han sitter og arbeider ‘he sits and works’) is traditionally considered a grammaticalized progressive construction. The posture verb is said to have a bleached meaning, and to have the grammatical status of an auxiliary or a light verb. In recent years, some researchers have expressed doubt about this view. In this article, I argue that the traditional arguments for grammaticalization do not hold. However, I also give new evidence for early grammaticalization. Posture verbs can to some extent be used as light verbs in sentences such as Kebab må sittes og nytes ‘kebab must sit.pass and enjoy.pass’, which have never been discussed in connection with grammaticalization. Finally, I argue that pseudocoordination with posture verbs should not be seen as progressive, but rather as a locational (or situative) construction.
In this article, we discuss the ei litta construction in Norwegian, a construction that involves the use of feminine morphology combined with non-feminine nouns, and expresses evaluation. Through corpus analyses and an online survey, we investigate the form and function of the construction, synchronically and diachronically. We discuss the emergence of the ei litta construction in the light of a larger restructuring of the Norwegian gender system, possibly allowing for greater flexibility in the assignment of gender. We also describe the ei litta construction as an example of gender shift, a previously unattested morphological strategy in Norwegian to express evaluative meaning.