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This article discusses the largely forgotten anti-whaling protests in Norway and Japan at the beginning of the twentieth century. It shows that fishing communities around the world protested almost simultaneously against the introduction of Norwegian-style industrial whaling, even though the protesting fishermen did not compete for the same marine resources as the whalers. Analysing Norwegian and Japanese fishermen’s knowledge reveals that whales played a crucial part in pre-industrial coastal fishing, as they were partly responsible for bringing fish closer to the shore. The article argues that fishing communities around the world had developed ‘coeval moral ecologies’, believing that the killing and flensing of whales caused environmental pollution, hurting coastal flora and fauna, and thus ultimately diminishing the coastal ecosystem on which the fishing communities depended. Fisheries scientists, politicians, and whalers have, however, downplayed this fishermen’s knowledge by presenting allegedly unbiased scientific data that did not indicate a relationship between whaling and fishing.
The Nuremberg trials largely focused on foreign forced labour brought to the Reich, and Norway was a large net receiver as well (whereas most other occupied countries were net suppliers). Therefore, the overall question guiding this chapter is why the nexus between excessive war profits and exploitation of forced labour was so weak during the Norwegian legal settlement. The answer takes account of the fact that the focus on exploitation of forced labour at Nuremberg and subsequent tribunals corresponded to norms inherent in international law (war crimes, crimes against humanity) whereas the Norwegian neglect followed from a strict framing of national law. Cases related to criminal commercial collaboration were pursued from the perspective of national treason. Because the Allies had agreed that each country should prosecute war crimes against its nationals, Norwegian jurisprudence was allowed to sustain its bias towards national treason. This meant that Norwegian businesses which had in various ways been involved in the Nazi slave labour program were never properly investigated for possible exploitation of foreign forced labour. Consequently, whereas German historiography has elaborated the nexus between forced labour and war profits, the Norwegian counterpart has not.
College students constitute a significant proportion of the young adult population in Norway. They are in their reproductive years, which is of interest regarding diet and preconception health. Our objective was to assess young college students’ diet and nutrient intake in relation to national dietary recommendations and assess the probability of inadequate micronutrient intake for both genders using the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations, and also to evaluate its consequences on preconception health and create a groundwork for future interventions on this group. At the University of Agder (UiA), we enrolled 622 students aged 18–40 years for a cross-sectional study of student's diet, StudentKost. The students completed a food frequency questionnaire, including questions of supplement use, over the past 4 weeks. Intake of fruits, vegetables, oily fish, and whole grain was lower than recommended, as were mean intake of folate, iron, and iodine. Our main findings are that students have a somewhat suboptimal diet compared to the Norwegian dietary guidelines. Male students had generally lower diet quality than females. Compared to the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR), we also saw a relatively high probability of inadequate intake of several micronutrients and a very high probability for some micronutrients in a significant portion of the sample. Public health effort should be directed towards improving students and young adults’ diet in general, and interventions towards improving preconception health should be explored. The low participation rate limits the generalizability of our findings. Our findings encourage further investigation into young adults’ diet.
The seventh chapter starts with an analysis of the different sources narrating Roger II of Sicily’s ritual coronation, performed on 25 December 1130. Roger sought for his monarchy the appearance of a legitimate kingdom, supported by the weight of tradition, that the Pope had restored with the consent of the princes and the people. The second part of the chapter moves to the interpretation of the image of Roger II being crowned by Christ, as depicted in the mosaic in the Martorana Church in Palermo, one of the strongest indications of the Christocentric evolution outlined in the previous chapters of the book, and a formidable example of symbolic self-coronation. Roger II’s respect for his Muslim Arab subjects, as well as his attempt to assimilate Arab and Byzantine cultural traditions, are at the root of his iconographic programme: the visual language could be understood by Arabs, Normans, Greeks and Latins. This supra-linguistic, multinational, multiethnic and multicultural form is a typical inheritance of the kingdom of Sicily, and would without doubt have inspired the universalist and imperial politics of Roger II’s grandson Frederick II, specifically at his majestic self-coronation in Jerusalem.
Results of in situ U–Pb dating of calcite spherulites, cone-in-cone (CIC) calcite and calcite fibres from a calcareous concretion of the upper Ediacaran of Finnmark, Arctic Norway, are reported. Calcite spherulites from the innermost layers of the concretion yielded a lower intercept age of 563 ± 70 Ma, which, although imprecise, is within uncertainty of the age of sedimentation based on fossil assemblages. Non-deformed CIC calcite from the bottom part of the concretion yielded an age of 475 ± 25 Ma, which is interpreted as the age of CIC calcite formation during a period of fluid overpressure induced during burial of the sediments. Deformed CIC calcite from the top part of the concretion yielded an age of 418 ± 23 Ma, which overlaps with a known Caledonian tectono-metamorphic event, and indicates a potential post-depositional overprint at this time. Calcite fibres that grew in small fissures along spherulite rims, which are interpreted as a recrystallization feature during deformation and formation of a cleavage, gave an imprecise age of 486 ± 161 Ma. Our results show that U–Pb dating of calcite can provide age constraints for ancient carbonates and syn- to post-depositional processes that operated during burial and metamorphic overprinting.
In Norway it is normal for even devoted Christians to skip Sunday church in favor of a nature walk or cross-country skiing, as the nation’s spiritual life takes place outdoors in scenic environments rather than inside buildings. The Deep Ecologists were instrumental in giving the Church of Norway the eco-theological focus it has today. How and why environmentalists came to adapt religious language, and how theologians responded, reflected deep seated pietist traditions. For the Church, environmentalism represented an opportunity to revive the Church’s pietist Lutheran doctrine among the young and thereby mobilize a new audience.
New information on acritarchs from the Duolbagáisá Formation, Digermulen Peninsula, Arctic Norway, enable recognition of the three Cambrian Series 2 acritarch-based zones: the Skiagia ornata–Fimbriaglomerella membranacea, Heliosphaeridium dissimilare–Skiagia ciliosa and Volkovia dentifera–Liepaina plana Assemblage zones. Acritarchs of the Skiagia ornata–Fimbriaglomerella membranacea Zone (Cambrian Stage 3) appear near the base of the unit, close to an undetermined trilobite. In the Upper Member of the Duolbagáisá Formation, in levels with Kjerulfia n. sp. and Elliptocephala n. sp., appears an assemblage with abundant Skiagia ciliosa, indicative of the Heliosphaeridium dissimilare–Skiagia ciliosa Zone. A few metres higher appear Liepaina plana, Heliosphaeridium notatum and Retisphaeridium dichamerum, which indicate the Volkovia dentifera–Liepaina plana Zone (Cambrian Stage 4). The transition between the Duolbagáisá Formation and the overlying Kistedalen Formation is marked by the appearance of Comasphaeridium longispinosum, Multiplicisphaeridium llynense and Eliasum llaniscum, diagnostic of the Miaolingian Series. This coincides with the disappearance of Skiagia; occurrences of Skiagia in Miaolingian strata consist of reworked material related to the Hawke Bay regression at the Cambrian Stage 4–Wuliuan transition. The absence of Skiagia in higher levels of the Duolbagáisá Formation and Kistedalen Formation suggests that no unconformity formed during the Hawke Bay regression in this area. The chronostratigraphical significance of the Skiagia ornata–Fimbriaglomerella membranacea, Heliosphaeridium dissimilare–Skiagia ciliosa and Volkovia dentifera–Liepaina plana zones is critically analysed. Correlation of the Duolbagáisá Formation with peri-Gondwanan terrains of Avalonia and Iberia is established. The Digermulen Peninsula has great potential as a reference section for establishing a Cambrian chronostratigraphy based on acritarchs.
Physicians have a higher suicide rate than the general population or other academics. Little is known about the reasons for this. Analysing risk factors may be a valuable way of identifying reasons for the high suicide rate among physicians, thereby leading to preventive efforts. The present study is one of the first papers on suicidal thoughts and attempts among physicians. A questionnaire about suicidal thoughts (developed by E.S. Paykel) was completed by 1,063 of 1,476 active Norwegian physicians (72%). Lifetime prevalence ranged from 51.1% for feelings that life was not worth living to 1.6% for a suicide attempt. Risk factors were being female, living alone, and depression. Suicidal thoughts, however, were hardly attributed to working conditions. A high rate of suicide and a low rate of suicidal attempts support the hypothesis that physicians do not ‘cry for help,' but are inclined to act out their suicidal impulses.
We evaluate the timing and environmental controls on past rock-glacier activity at Øyberget, upper Ottadalen, southern Norway, using in situ 10Be surface-exposure dating on (1) boulders belonging to relict rock-glacier lobes at c. 530 m asl, (2) bedrock and boulder surfaces at the Øyberget summit (c. 1200 m asl), and (3) bedrock at an up-valley site (c. 615 m asl). We find that the rock-glacier lobes became inactive around 11.1 ± 1.2 ka, coeval with the timing of summit deglaciation (11.2 ± 0.7 ka). This is slightly older than previously published Schmidt-hammer surface-exposure ages. The timing does not match known climatic conditions promoting rock-glacier formation in the early Holocene; hence we infer that lobe formation resulted from enhanced debris supply and burial of residual ice during and soon after deglaciation. The results demonstrate that rock glaciers may form over a relatively short period of time (hundreds rather than thousands of years) under non-permafrost conditions and possibly indicate a paraglacial type of process.
The association between folic acid supplementation and birth defects other than neural tube defects (NTD) remains unclear. We used a log-binomial regression model to investigate if periconceptional folic acid and/or multivitamin use was associated with birth defects in Norway with prospectively collected data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway (MBRN) during 1999–2013. We used the European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies (EUROCAT) classification system to define eleven organ-specific major birth defect groups (nervous system, eye, ear–face–neck, cardiovascular system, respiratory system, oral clefts, digestive system, abdominal wall, urinary system, genital organs and limb), with additional subgroups. Fetuses or infants whose mothers used folic acid and/or multivitamin supplements before and during pregnancy were classified as exposed. During the years 1999–2013, 888 294 (99·0 %) live-born infants, 6633 (0·7 %) stillborn infants and 2135 (0·2 %) fetuses from terminated pregnancies due to fetal anomalies were registered in the MBRN. Among the live- and stillborn infants of women who used vitamin supplements compared with infants of non-users, the adjusted relative risk (aRR) was 0·94 (95 % CI 0·91, 0·98) for total birth defects (n 18 382). Supplement use was associated with reduced risk of abdominal wall defects (aRR 0·58; 95 % CI 0·42, 0·80, n 377), genital organ defects (aRR 0·81; 95 % CI 0·72, 0·91, n 2299) and limb defects (aRR 0·81; 95 % CI 0·74, 0·90, n 3409). Protective associations were also suggested for NTD, respiratory system defects and digestive system defects although CI included the null value of 1. During the full study period, statistically significant associations between supplement use and defects in the eye, ear–face–neck, heart or oral clefts were not observed.
This paper investigates how 492 of the largest companies in Norway comply with the language requirement of the Norwegian Accounting Act Article 3-4. The results show that 36% of the companies presented their financial statements in Norwegian only, 45% in one or more language(s) in addition to Norwegian, while 19% had been granted dispensation and presented statements in English-only. The company’s ownership, use of English as a corporate language, and industry affiliation were the three most commonly mentioned reasons for dispensation, but the findings show significant differences between industry sectors in terms of language choice. The study contributes to corporate law research by examining the interpretation and application of the Norwegian Accounting Act by the Norwegian Directorate of Taxes; to sociolinguistics by shedding new light on the concepts of domain loss and diglossia; and to language-sensitive research in international business by analysing language use in Norwegian companies.
Glaciers depicted on old maps reveal their historical extents, before the advent of aerial and satellite remote sensing. Digital glacier inventories produced from these maps can be employed in assessments of centennial-scale glacier change. This study reconstructs the ~1899 (covering the period 1882–1916) glacier extent in Nordland, northern Norway, from historical gradteigskart maps, with an emphasis on examining the accuracy of the mapped glaciers. Glacier outlines were digitised from georectified scans of the analogue maps in a raster graphics editor and were subsequently inventoried in a GIS. The accuracy of the historical glacier extent was established from written descriptions and landscape photographs created during the original field surveys, and further validated against independent glacier outlines of (1) the maximum Little Ice Age extent derived from geomorphological evidence, and (2) the 1945 extent derived from vertical aerial photographs. An overall uncertainty of ±17% is associated with our inventory. Nordland's glaciers covered an area of 1712 ± 291 km2 in 1899. By 2000, total ice cover had decreased by 47% (807 ± 137 km2) at a rate of 6% 10 a−1 (80 ± 14 km2 10 a−1). The approach presented here may serve as a blueprint for future studies intending to derive glacier inventories from historical maps.
Borre in Norway is famous for its Late Nordic Iron and Viking Age (AD 400–1050) monumental burial mounds. Recently, ground-penetrating radar (GPR) surveys have revealed three large structures close to the mound cemetery. Their unusual layout and size, and location within such a prominent burial site, suggest that they were halls—high-status buildings mentioned in the Nordic sagas. The authors present the GPR results, discuss the buildings’ typological classification and provide a preliminary chronological framework. The latter suggests that the buildings coexisted with some of the burial mounds, and raises important questions about the significance of such buildings in Nordic mound-building societies.
The point of departure for this article is the excavation of two burial mounds and a trackway system in Bamble, Telemark, Norway. One of the mounds overlay ard marks, which led to speculation as to whether the site was ritually ploughed or whether it contained the remains of an old field system. Analysis of the archaeometric data indicated that the first mound was related to a field system, while the second was constructed 500–600 years later. The first mound was probably built to demonstrate the presence of a kin and its social norms, while these norms were renegotiated when the second mound was raised in the Viking Age. This article emphasizes that the ritual and profane aspects were closely related: mound building can be a ritualized practice intended to legitimize ownership and status by the reuse of domestic sites in the landscape. Further examples from Scandinavia indicate that this is a common, but somewhat overlooked, practice.
The first positive genome-wide association study on gestational length and preterm delivery showed the involvement of an Se metabolism gene. In the present study, we examine the association between maternal intake of Se and Se status with gestational length and preterm delivery in 72 025 women with singleton live births from the population-based, prospective Norwegian Mother, Father and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). A self-reported, semi-quantitative FFQ answered in pregnancy week 22 was used to estimate Se intake during the first half of pregnancy. Associations were analysed with adjusted linear and Cox regressions. Se status was assessed in whole blood collected in gestational week 17 (n 2637). Median dietary Se intake was 53 (interquartile range (IQR) 44–62) µg/d, supplements provided additionally 50 (IQR 30–75) µg/d for supplement users (n 23 409). Maternal dietary Se intake was significantly associated with prolonged gestational length (β per sd = 0·25, 95 % CI, 0·07, 0·43) and decreased risk of preterm delivery (n 3618, hazard ratio per sd = 0·92, 95 % CI, 0·87, 0·98). Neither Se intake from supplements nor maternal blood Se status was associated with gestational length or preterm delivery. Hence, the present study showed that maternal dietary Se intake but not intake of Se-containing supplements, during the first half of pregnancy was significantly associated with decreased risk of preterm delivery. Further investigations, preferably in the form of a large randomised controlled trial, are needed to elucidate the impact of Se on pregnancy duration.
The Nordic societies share liberal social values, generous welfare states, sunny hedonism as a kind of secular faith, efficient public institutions, greater equality among classes than in most other Western democracies, high ratings in global surveys of popular happiness, and, until recently at least, a kind of cosmopolitan idealism baked into their respective national identities. Also until about the 1990s, they were more or less culturally homogenous. But in public and electoral attitudes toward Global South, largely Muslim migrant families, they diverge. In Denmark the governing coalition includes a far-right party, and particularly since the notorious affair of Danish cartoons satirizing Muhammad, the government has strongly discouraged asylum-seekers from approaching its doors and does not exert itself to make the settled Muslim population feel at home. In proportion to its population, Sweden took in far more refugees even than Germany during the great surge of 2015, but, despite a well-funded effort, has encountered serious integration problems recorded by liberal and conservative observers. Discourse and policy have become less welcoming. In Norway, smaller and more economically buoyant, the political backlash to Muslim migration is more muted, but integration remains a work in progress.
In this article, we analyse the social distribution of residential property in Norway post-1945 in light of the concept of social citizenship. Drawing on data from censuses and tax registers, we examine the social stratification of owner-occupation and housing wealth in a Nordic nation of homeowners. Our study shows that residential property and housing wealth is very unevenly distributed, and that the share of low-income homeowners decreased markedly after 1990. The implications of these findings are discussed with reference to three different conceptions of citizenship: the socio-liberal, the republican and the libertarian. Our main argument is that the falling rate of low-income owner-occupation constitutes an erosion of social citizenship viewed from the socio-liberal and republican conception of citizenship. This follows from theoretical arguments and empirical studies linking homeownership to positive welfare outcomes, such as civic engagement and social integration. The latter is arguably particularly true in some high-homeownership countries, such as Norway, where owner-occupation is the cultural norm and rental housing is associated with low quality and insecurity.
An issue for generic advertising in agricultural markets with unregulated supplies is that the promotion-induced demand shift could lead to a supply response that substantially attenuates the price effects of the promotion. For the generic promotion of fish exports, however, the concern is generally just the opposite—the possibility that extensive government supply controls could render promotion efforts to expand export sales ineffectual due to little or no supply response. This study considers the effects of government whitefish (cod, haddock, and others) supply controls on the effectiveness of the Norwegian Seafood Council (NSC) whitefish export promotion program. We use an econometric simulation model to measure the effectiveness and returns to NSC whitefish export promotion under a range of possible export supply control conditions. Results indicate that effective supply control maximizes the return to promotion and that ineffectual supply control imposes a potentially large opportunity cost on the promoting industry.
The Norwegian Twin Registry (NTR) is maintained as a research resource that was compiled by merging several panels of twin data that were established for research into physical and mental health, wellbeing and development. NTR is a consent-based registry. Where possible, data that were collected in previous studies are curated for secondary research use. A particularly valuable potential benefit associated with the Norwegian twin data lies in the opportunities to expand and enhance the data through record linkage to nationwide registries that cover a wide array of health data and other information, including socioeconomic factors. This article provides a brief description of the current NTR sample and data collections, information about data access procedures and an overview of the national registries that can be linked to the NTR for research projects.
Using internal debates and surviving account books, this article traces the eighteenth-century history of the Norwegian glass industry, created to exploit Norway's immense natural resource wealth, and of the chartered company that would later become Norway's iconic Christiania Glasmagasin. The investors in the company, many of them among Norway's “founding fathers,” were individually responsible for its losses and it operated, remarkably, at an annual loss for nearly five decades. The article asks why, beyond the anticipation of a royal import ban on foreign glass, private investors might have continued to accept such losses. It focuses on tensions between cameralist and liberal ideologies in the creation of an important national industry, and on older (and perhaps more sustainable) ways of thinking about profitability.