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Chapter 3 analyzes how forged documents and fraudulent identities emerged in Biafra, considering how they overlapped with “legitimate” forms of official practice that the war had thrown into flux. These records show how the logics, tools, and skills of the battlefield inflected confrontations in Biafra, leading some people to survive in ways that the norms of war permitted, but the law classed as “crime.”
Chapter 2 moves into the later period of the war, when Biafra was cut off from the outside world and its carefully constructed legal system began to unravel. It traces the emergence of vigilantism, the blurring of lines between the battlefield and civilian life in Biafra, and the Biafran state’s loss of its monopoly on violence.
Chapter 4 analyzes the political, legal, and social problems of reintegration, starting with the minority areas that fell to Nigeria early in the war and moving into the central Igbo provinces that held out until 1970.
Chapter 5 uses legal records to describe the shape of crime in the postwar East Central State – the core of the former Biafra and the last region to fall to Nigeria – where poverty, unemployment, and a variety of social and political ills caused by the war conspired to make everyday life in the 1970s very violent and precarious.
Chapter 6 considers the long tail of wartime 419, using a variety of sources to understand why wartime practices of deception and subterfuge continued long after the war was over. It analyzes the ways in which 419 has been explained and concludes with a coda on the question of how "organized" Nigerian organized crime is.
In 1921 and 1924 Muhammadu Dikko, the emir of Katsina, traveled to Britain on a sightseeing trip, becoming the first emir or chief from Northern Nigeria to visit the British imperial metropole. This article analyzes the colonial relationship that put Dikko in the colonizers’ orbit and favor and paved the way for him to embark on the trips, the colonial logistics and networks that facilitated the journeys, Dikko's experiences and adventures in Britain, and, most importantly, his perspectives on British society, institutions, goods, and forms of leisure. I argue that Dikko, though constrained by serving as a prop in a colonial performance of power, used travel to Britain as a platform to advance metropolitan modernity as an aspirational if distant model of socioeconomic advancement and to give his peers and subjects in Northern Nigeria a textual reference for navigating colonial culture in relation to their own natal Islamo-Hausa cultural norms.
For all the academic and policy interest in Nigeria’s Boko Haram insurgency, the coping strategies of civilians who survive amid everyday violence have received relatively little attention. Focusing on the Civilian Joint Task Force (CJTF), a pro-government militia fighting Boko Haram in northeastern Nigeria, Agbiboa explores how and why the group emerged, the nature of its relationship with the state and local communities, and how counterinsurgent vigilantism affects the prospects for peace. A focus on vigilantes and civil militias vis-à-vis the state points to the vital role of civil-military cooperation for effective counterinsurgency campaigns and for reducing state violence against civilians. At the same time, it underscores the precariousness of protection both in terms of increasing the targeting of civilians by vengeful insurgents as well as the tendency for civilian defense groups to “turn bad” and become threats to the communities they were expected to protect.
The business judgment rule is an ancient doctrine that was developed in the US. It seeks to prevent courts from reviewing directors’ decisions, on the basis that directors have the capacity and expertise to make business decisions. This article examines the desirability of applying the US business judgment rule in Nigeria. Through a comparative analysis, it argues that the peculiarities of Nigeria's corporate law and environment do not justify the application of the rule. More specifically, it contends that differences in the legal regime for derivative suits, standards of duty of care and skill, corporate law culture, and the distinct epoch in which the business judgment rule and the duty of care and skill were recognized in the US, make its application unnecessary in Nigeria. It concludes that the current statutory duty of care and skill should be retained to hold directors accountable for reckless business decisions.
Parts of northern Nigeria are becoming enclaves of banditry for gangs of cattle rustlers who maraud largely ungoverned forests. Extant studies of banditry shy away from serious interrogation of cattle rustling and ungoverned forest spaces in northern Nigeria. Onwuzuruigbo investigates the connection between cattle rustling and ungoverned forest spaces, highlighting the role of criminal groups in creating their own governance structures. The upswing in cattle rustling may thus be attributed to poor forest governance, which effectively keeps the government and its agents away from forests. Inclusive forest governance is one path toward addressing cattle rustling in northern Nigeria.
Gambling, legal and illegal, is popular in Nigeria. Lack of stringent regulation and enforcement, coupled with the rise in online gambling opportunities, has resulted in increased gambling-related harm. There needs to be a multipronged public health strategy to address the harms of gambling and for this the government, gambling industry, policy makers and academic experts need to engage in a meaningful debate.
Babesia caballi and Theileria equi are biological agents responsible for equine piroplasmosis (EP). We conducted a robust and extensive epidemiological study in Nigeria on the prevalence and risk factors of EP. Blood (468, both horses and donkeys) and ticks (201 pools) were screened using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). DNA of equine piroplasms was observed in tick pools with B. caballi amplified in Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi only [minimum infection rate (MIR) of 7.6%] while T. equi was observed in R. e. evertsi (MIR, 61.6%), Hyalomma dromedarii (MIR, 23.7%) and H. truncatum (MIR, 50.0%). Overall results showed that 196/468 (41.9%) animals were positive for equine piroplasms (both B. caballi and T. equi). The prevalence for T. equi was 189/468 (40.4%) compared to 7/468 (1.5%) for B. caballi. In the horses and donkeys, respectively, the prevalence for T. equi was (39.9%; 112/281) and (41.2%; 77/187) compared with (1.4%; 4/281) and (1.6%; 3/187) due to B. caballi. Our analysis showed that location (Jigawa state), Talon breed, horses used for work and reproduction, unsatisfactory husbandry practices, contact with other mammals are risk factors that associated positivity to T. equi infection in horses, whilst horses kept on intensive management appeared to be less prone to infection. On the other hand, Jangora breed of donkeys and location (Jigawa state) are risk factors to infection with T. equi in donkeys. Findings suggest the persistence of EP in equids and ticks in Nigeria.
The discovery of glass crucible fragments with the remains of semi-finished glass at Ile-Ife, Nigeria, has provided the first evidence for the existence of autonomous glass production in sub-Saharan Africa.
This article uses the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in post-independence Nigeria to examine the transition from individuated agents of religious exchange to integration into global corporate religiosity. Early Latter-day Saint adherents saw Mormonism as a mechanism by which they could acquire access to monetary resources from a financially stable Western patronage, despite political animosity due to Mormonism's racist policies and sectional tumult during the Nigeria-Biafra war. Drawing on oral and archival records, this article highlights how Mormonism as an American-based faith was able to be "translated" to meet the exigencies of indigenous adherents.
In this chapter, the authors trace out the “natural history” of an intensely collaborative multisited comparison, which was distinct from many other comparative research projects because research at each site was carried out by a PhD-level anthropologist who was involved in the scientific development of the project rather than only in the implementation of a centrally directed project. It draws on their experiences with this once-in-a-lifetime opportunity, a large, US National Institutes of Health–funded multisite project, to discuss ways in which that comparative research could have been even more powerful, things that future comparative research should strive to avoid, recommended best practices, and what the authors would call “minimum adequate” approaches to comparative ethnography.
In 2015, the OECD gave the world a template to address base erosion and profit shifting and ensure that profit is taxed in the jurisdiction of value addition and / or where economic activities take place. The world's jurisdictions then embarked on implementing the template. Examining the legal framework subsequently put in place for the taxation of intangibles in Nigeria, this article argues that the distinct regimes for connected and unconnected persons’ transactions create flaws. It further asserts that these flaws are consequences of the conflict between the policy that underpins the legal framework and other policies in the country. It concludes that the legal framework may not be a “Swiss army knife” (providing Nigeria with all that is needed to combat transfer pricing issues associated with the transfer of intangibles by connected persons), as it creates issues that have undesired consequences for the taxation as well as the economic system.
Human experience is more visual and visualized than ever before. This has been obvious in Africa since the 1990s, when democratization, media liberalization, proliferation of small technology, and religious reform movements introduced new ways of meaning-making. Ibrahim’s ethnographic research shows how sharia implementation and cinema as cultural production in northern Nigeria are embedded within the implicit and explicit visual regime of influencing what and how people see, think, and perform. The strategic replacement of cinemas with religious or other “neutral” objects is a visual regime that shifts people’s vision or encounter from one means of cultural production to another.
The sports pages of the postcolonial press provide a vantage point for viewing the tensions surrounding nation-building in Nigeria. Following independence, coverage of the Green Eagles national football team reflected aspirations for a united Nigeria, but it was also an outlet for the deep political tensions plaguing Nigeria at this time. From 1960 to 1961, contentious games against Ghanaian rivals, disputes around the choice of a national coach, and clashes with referees in international matches all enabled sports journalists to become mouthpieces for both cohesion and discord. Schler and Dubinsky demonstrate that sports pages provide opportunities for viewing the links between postcolonial sports and politics.
There is an emerging debate about the growth of Anglicanism in sub-Saharan Africa. With this debate in mind, this paper uses four statistically representative surveys of sub-Saharan Africa to estimate the relative and absolute number who identify as Anglican in five countries: Kenya, Nigeria, South Africa, Tanzania and Uganda. The results for Kenya, South Africa and Tanzania are broadly consistent with previous scholarly assessments. The findings on Nigeria and Uganda, the two largest provinces, are likely to be more controversial. The evidence from statistically representative surveys finds that the claims often made of the Church of Nigeria consisting of ‘over 18 million’ exceedingly unlikely; the best statistical estimate is that under 8 million Nigerians identify as Anglican. The evidence presented here shows that Uganda (rather than Nigeria) has the strongest claim to being the largest province in Africa in terms of those who identify as Anglican, and is larger than is usually assumed. Evidence from the Ugandan Census of Populations and Households, however, also suggests the proportion of Ugandans that identify as Anglican is in decline, even if absolute numbers have been growing, driven by population growth.
To preserve the integrity and purity of the church, the policies of churches commonly provide for the enforcement of discipline whenever a cleric errs. The concern is that despite these provisions in the governing documents of churches, disputes challenging churches’ disciplinary exercise over their clergy are increasingly finding their way into the civil courts for adjudication. These disputes have implications for the reputation, governance and flourishing of a church. Against this backdrop, this article analyses a number of case studies to examine some legal issues arising from the churches’ exercise of disciplinary powers over their clergy within the Nigerian and South African contexts. From the analysis of the cases, a wide variety of legal issues associated with implementing church disciplinary procedures are identified to offer some lessons that may enhance the quality of legal risk management for churches.
Between the 1950s and the 1990s, Chinese enamelware products dominated kitchens, living rooms, and bedrooms in the northern part of Nigeria. These were initially imported from China by European trading firms but later manufactured in Nigeria by Chinese-owned factories. Liu concludes that it was not only the immediately obvious “modern” advantages of the enamelware that enabled it to dominate northern Nigeria’s market, but it was also its integration into local, socio-cultural networks of meaning that granted it a significance far beyond its practical use. Such processes of integration further enabled enamelware to become an important component of local marriage customs and an essential possession for Hausa women.