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Chapter 4 delivers a comparative perspective. The United States served as a model for many other countries to adopt earnings-based family tax credits, and this chapter seeks to borrow ideas back by examining how New Zealand and Canada administer similar credits. The chapter provides an overview of New Zealand’s Working for Families Tax Credits and Canada’s Working Income Tax Benefit and Canada Child Benefit. It describes the mechanics of each, explores critiques raised by domestic scholars, and draws takeaways for the United States. While acknowledging that there are cultural differences and conceding that no design is perfect, this chapter sets the stage for a reimagination of how the United States delivers its antipoverty benefits to working families.
In Chapter 5 I consider water rights for Maori in Aotearoa New Zealand. Pursuant to a settlement between Whanganui Iwi and the Crown, made in 2017, the Whanganui River was recognised as ‘Te Awa Tupua’ (‘an indivisible and living whole, incorporating all its physical and meta-physical elements’), declaring the River to be a ‘legal person’. The arrangement accords certain guardianship and governance rights, but not property rights, to the Maori people that traditionally owned the River. However, Maori continue to agitate at a national level, both politically and before courts and tribunals, for the right to ‘own’ their water resources, amid cautious government plans for water law reform. The New Zealand study raises interesting questions about the nature of water in law; as a private right to be held and allocated, or a public interest incapable of ownership. Maori are seeking both recognition of their distinctive water relationships and influence and control over water governance and a substantive share of the consumptive pool of water for any purpose including economic development. The study of Maori rights to water in this chapter demonstrates the variability of indigenous water demands, and a need for multifaceted responses to indigenous water exclusion.
In Chapter 4 I consider the limited recognition of traditional, cultural water rights in Australian law. In the Australian model, property rights in water and water markets accompany government oversight and planning. Australian water law has undergone drastic reforms since the early 1990s, yet little has been done to provide indigenous peoples with the right to use water on their lands for commercial and productive purposes. Native title rights to water have been interpreted narrowly by the courts according to traditional and cultural uses, and are usually accounted for as in-stream cultural and conservation values in water catchments, distinguishing them from the consumptive rights held by other users. Yet indigenous Australians continue to make up the most disadvantaged sector of Australian society and Australian governments have committed to reducing that disadvantage, including by supporting the productive use of indigenous lands. The Australian experience demonstrates the difficulties inherent in recognising historical indigenous rights to land and resources, as indigenous water practices change over time and conflict with other uses. The study highlights the need for an allocative model, enabling both the reservation of water for indigenous allocation and the redistribution of water rights in fully allocated catchments.
Since 1999 surveillance of ART in Europe is carried out by the European IVF-monitoring (EIM) Consortium, founded in June 1999 by the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE). EIM is organized by the representatives of national registries of European countries offering ART. The high diversity of participating European countries pose a serious challenge for obtaining complete data and interpreting the results. Notwithstanding this challenge EIM has managed in 2014 to collect the data of 38 from 42 participating European countries (90.5%) and 1280 institutions (90.2% of all known in Europe). Annual meetings supported by ESHRE have created a spirit of mutual understanding and have contributed much to increase the level of participation. Every year, EIM published an annual report with cross-sectional data, typically made of more than 700'000 treatment cycles of ART. The first data set of 1997 was published in 2001 and was followed by 17 reports in the journal „Human Reproduction“.
Most democracies fail to provide equal representation and tend to have an overrepresentation of men from the upper class and the majority racial or ethnic group. We investigate public support for increasing the number of women and indigenous Māori members of parliament (MPs) in the New Zealand Parliament, both in general and through specific mechanisms such as quotas and reserved seats. We offer three explanations: descriptive (group identity), substantive (issue alignment), and symbolic (socioeconomic and political equity concerns). Using data from the 2014 New Zealand Election Study, we found that shared identity (descriptive) matters for all measures of increased representation, but especially for Māori respondent support of increased Māori MPs. Support for increasing the proportion of Māori MPs is also strongly driven by substantive concerns, as measured by support for keeping the Treaty of Waitangi in law. Support for increasing the number of women MPs is driven most strongly by symbolic concerns (measured as increased government social spending and efforts to reduce income differences). Overall, respondents favor retaining the current number of reserved seats for Māori MP representation, whereas informal efforts (rather than quotas) are strongly preferred for increasing the number of women MPs.
This paper presents a history of New Zealand's accident compensation scheme as a struggle between two competing normative paradigms that justify the core reform of the replacement of civil actions for victims of personal injury with a comprehensive no-fault scheme. Under ‘community insurance’, the scheme represents the community taking moral and practical responsibility for members who are injured in accidents, while for ‘compulsory insurance’ the scheme is a specific form of compulsory accident insurance. Understanding the history of the scheme in this way helps explain both the persistence of the scheme and important changes made to it by different governments.
The Umbilicaria polyphylla aggregate (U. polyphylla (L.) Baumg., U. subpolyphylla Oxner and U. iberica Sancho & Krzewicka) is discussed based on morphological, chemical and molecular data. Umbilicaria iberica is proposed to be a later synonym of U. subpolyphylla. The constructed nrITS + mtLSU phylogeny, which includes specimens with wide geographical ranges, shows that both U. polyphylla and U. subpolyphylla are monophyletic and closely related. Both species have the same type of thalloconidia and identical secondary metabolites. Umbilicaria subpolyphylla has prominent phenotypic differences when compared to U. polyphylla including the monophyllous thallus with a dull upper surface and an elevated, slightly wrinkled centre, often covered with white pruina, and a medulla of the ‘U. havaasii’ type. Phylogenetic evidence for the bipolar distribution of both U. polyphylla and U. subpolyphylla is provided. Sympatric speciation in one region followed by long-distance dispersal seems to be the most plausible phylogeographical explanation for the observed patterns. Umbilicaria subpolyphylla is found in southern temperate-subtropical (Mediterranean) mountains, at least in Europe.
Aotearoa New Zealand is a country of just under 5 million people with a diverse population, the main ethnic groups being of European descent and Maori. There are well-developed public and private healthcare systems. As in other countries, Aotearoa New Zealand has closed the large institutions and developed community-based services for people with intellectual disability. Aotearoa New Zealand has specific legislation for people with intellectual disability presenting to the criminal justice system and has unusually and explicitly excluded people with intellectual disability from mental health legislation since 1992. Partly as a result, most health professional training schemes have little focus on issues for people with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Therefore, one of the main challenges over the coming decade will be to ensure there is a sufficient workforce of psychiatrists and other professionals who have the training and expertise to work with people with intellectual disability requiring mental health and forensic services.
Eight latest Eocene to earliest Miocene stratigraphic surfaces have been identified in petroleum well data from the Taranaki Basin, New Zealand. These surfaces define seven regional sedimentary packages, of variable thickness and lithofacies, forming a mixed siliciclastic–carbonate system. The evolving tectonic setting, particularly the initial development of the Australian–Pacific convergent margin, controlled geographic, stratigraphic and facies variability. This tectonic signal overprinted a regional transgressive trend that culminated in latest Oligocene times. The earliest influence of active compressional tectonics is reflected in the preservation of latest Eocene – Early Oligocene deepwater sediments in the northern Taranaki Basin. Thickness patterns for all mid Oligocene units onwards show a shift in sedimentation to the eastern Taranaki Basin, controlled by reverse movement on the Taranaki Fault System. This resulted in the deposition of a thick sedimentary wedge, initially of coarse clastic sediments, later carbonate dominated, in the foredeep close to the fault. In contrast, Oligocene active normal faulting in a small sub-basin in the south may represent the most northerly evidence for rifting in southern Zealandia, related to Emerald Basin formation. The Early Miocene period saw a return to clastic-dominated deposition, the onset of regional regression and the southward propagation of compressional tectonics.
Species of the genus Tylodelphys (Diplostomidae) have a cosmopolitan distribution. Metacercariae of these species infect the eye, brain, pericardial sac or body cavity of fish second intermediate hosts, and the adults are found in piscivorous birds of many orders. An unnamed species of Tylodelphys from the eyes of bullies (Gobiomorphus cotidianus) was characterized molecularly and morphologically as a metacercaria in a previous study, in which it was predicted that the adult of this species would be found in the Australasian crested grebe. Two specimens of this bird became available and specimens of the unnamed Tylodelphys species were, indeed, found in them, confirmed by identity of genetic sequence data. Found to differ morphologically from its congeners, the new species is here described as Tylodelphys darbyi n. sp. Three species are closest to the new species in morphology: Tylodelphys glossoides, T. immer and T. podicipina robrauschi. Compared with T. darbyi n. sp. these three species are slightly larger and possess longer eggs. Tylodelphys glossoides also differs in having a wider oral sucker and T. podicipina robrauschi in having comma- or kidney-shaped pseudosuckers and an ovary that reaches a larger size, along with higher upper limits for body width, hind body and sucker width, holdfast and oesophagus length, and pharynx, pseudosucker and testes length and width. Tylodelphys immer also differs from T. darbyi n. sp. in having a shorter ventral sucker and the largest pseudosuckers of any Tylodelphys species.
Whilst much has been written about the opportunities and perils of Green participation in national coalition governments, analysis of Greens supporting minority governments is less common and has not focused on comparative-historical trends as this article does. We look beyond single case studies of Green-supported minority governments in order to establish historical party trajectories and policy impact over time in three countries with different political systems. The extent of the comparative work here has never previously been undertaken and establishes that repeat instances of such support can provide the basis for more stable and effective future interparty governing relationships. However, we argue that, whilst trust can build between parties to minority government arrangements over decades, it is not assured, and, whilst Green parties may achieve ministerial control after repeat instances of supporting minority governments, the benefits of doing so are not guaranteed.
Walk tall: The story of REX Bionics is about the key decisions faced by the founders Richard Little and Robert (Robbie) Irving to commercialise a ‘walking skeleton’ for people who are wheelchair-bound for extended periods. The changing role of the founders in a technology-based business and the interplay between the founders’ vision and the reality of growing technology-based businesses is the focus. The history of REX Bionics lies in the founders’ first-hand experiences with people diagnosed with multiple sclerosis. Over 15 years the company evolved from a ‘workshop idea’ in a garage to public listing on the London AIM Stock Exchange. Facing multiple institutional hurdles, rapidly moving technology and high start-up costs, REX Bionics successfully commercialised the walking robotic exoskeleton inspirited by the ‘Power Load’ in the movie Aliens. Little and Irving faced some tough choices about which commercialisation pathways to pursue in the light of diverse perspectives from the board of directors, an advisory board, various investors to their personal mission.
This article focuses on Britain’s 1917 National Baby Week and specifically how it played out in London. Pageantry and celebration were an important part of the event, and possibly a welcome distraction from the trials and horrors of war, and they were embraced by women of all social classes. But there was much more to it, as women who led the event seized the opportunity for political purposes, in what appeared to be an unthreatening environment of celebrating motherhood. Their goal was to promote the material wellbeing of, and state support for, women and children, and in this they were remarkably successful. Baby Week was also seized upon as an opportunity to showcase other welfare systems as a model for Britain, focusing in particular on New Zealand, with its free and comprehensive health service for infants. Rather than reflecting the eugenic and pronatalist concerns of the establishment, the event should be seen as a moment of politicisation of women arguing for cross-class social reform targeted at mothers.
Clay minerals and organic matter occur frequently in fault zones. Their structural characteristics and their textural evolution are driven by several formation processes: (1) reaction by metasomatism from circulating fluids; (2) in situ evolution by diagenesis; and (3) neoformation due to deformation catalysis. Clay-mineral chemistry and precipitated solid organic matter may be used as indicators of fluid circulation in fault zones and to determine the maximum temperatures in these zones. In the present study, clay-mineral and organic-matter analyses of two major fault zones – the Adams-Tinui and Whakataki faults, Wairarapa, North Island, New Zealand – were investigated. The two faults analysed correspond to the soles of large imbricated thrust sheets formed during the onset of subduction beneath the North Island of New Zealand. The mineralogy of both fault zones is composed mainly of quartz, feldspars, calcite, chabazite and clay minerals such as illite-muscovite, kaolinite, chlorite and mixed-layer minerals such as chlorite-smectite and illite-smectite. The diagenesis and very-low-grade metamorphism of the sedimentary rock is determined by gradual changes of clay mineral ‘crystallinity’ (illite, chlorite, kaolinite), the use of a chlorite geothermometer and the reflectance of organic matter. It is concluded here that: (1) the established thermal grade is diagenesis; (2) tectonic strains affect the clay mineral ‘crystallinity’ in the fault zone; (3) there is a strong correlation between temperature determined by chlorite geothermometry and organic-matter reflectance; and (4) the duration and depth of burial as well as the pore-fluid chemistry are important factors affecting clay-mineral formation.
Our study of entrepreneurial engagement within a depleted New Zealand community contributes to understanding the role of place and legitimacy in entrepreneurial practice. General decline characterised Stanton until a newcomer entrepreneur started several businesses that rejuvenated the town. She became a local economic hero to many stakeholders; but others deployed social narratives of place that drew on different values. Our analysis of interactions shows how perceptions of place legitimise or vilify and we demonstrate how place intercedes upon economically generated legitimacy of entrepreneurial practice. Social constructions of place and notions of embeddedness influenced this entrepreneurial enactment. Conceptually, we challenge ideas about universal legitimacy ensuing from economic entrepreneurial benefits. Our theoretical contribution offers socio-spatial propositions for understanding entrepreneurial legitimacy through place.
Early-life intervention to reduce obesity and poor dental health through early-life nutrition will improve health outcomes in later life. This study examined the prevalence of overweight and obesity and visual dental decay in 4-year old children in New Zealand between 2013 and 2017, and the impact of a nutrition and physical activity intervention programme, Under-5-Energize (U5E), on prevalence of these conditions within ethnic groups and by deprivation. The data set included 277,963 4-year-old children, including 25,140 from the Waikato region children of whom 8067 attended one of the 121 early childhood centres (ECC) receiving the U5E programme from 2014. Purposively the U5E-ECC selected were attended by higher proportions of indigenous Māori children and children living in higher deprivation areas than non-U5E-ECC. From 2013 to 2017, the overall prevalence of obesity, as defined by World Health Organisation criteria, declined slightly but rates of dental decay did not change. In the Waikato region, the prevalence of obesity declined in non-Māori children from 2015 to 2017 and children attending U5E-ECC had lower rates of dental decay than non-U5E children. Binary logistic regression showed that between 2015 and 2017 visible dental decay was more likely in children who were Māori (3.06×3.17), living in high deprivation (1.54×1.66) and male (1.10) but less likely if attending an U5E-ECC (0.83×0.79). Early-life intervention had efficacy at reducing dental decay, and demonstrated that the origins of disparities in health such as ethnicity and deprivation need to be addressed further to break the intergenerational cycles of poor health.
This study introduces a new type of oversight in civil-military and executive-legislative relations: community policing. Building on principal-agent theory, this type of oversight emphasises trust rather than confrontation. To illustrate how community policing functions, the study examines how legislative oversight of military affairs operates in Belgium and New Zealand. Legislative defence committees in both countries rely on trust when overseeing the executive’s handling of defence affairs. This allows these committees to perform their oversight function at low cost in terms of time and effort, but with a high degree of access to information. Community policing therefore combines the strengths of recognised ‘police patrol’ and ‘fire alarm’ oversight, while avoiding their respective weaknesses. However, since it relies on a higher degree of trust and cooperation between the principal and agent, community policing is inherently fragile.
In this case study we address the issue of CEO succession drawing directly on the experience of the board of directors of Air New Zealand. Despite extensive literature on CEO-board relations, there has been a scarce number of studies on managing the processes of CEO succession and appointment from the board perspective. Drawing on documentary sources as well as in-depth interviews with all board members and CEOs appointed in the period 2002–2013, we shed light on this important governance process primarily for teaching purposes. We emphasise the board’s role in the context of the transformation of the airline into an award-winning, financially performing company in a highly competitive and mature industry. The case study examines how the board developed, implemented, and managed a succession process for three CEOs that was sound in design and achieved its desired benefits. By focusing on board leadership and board processes our case study provides evidence that independent boards can shape a specific combination of governance practices which contribute to successful CEO transitions.
This article describes the well-developed and long-standing medical ethics teaching programs in both of New Zealand’s medical schools at the University of Otago and the University of Auckland. The programs reflect the awareness that has been increasing as to the important role that ethics education plays in contributing to the “professionalism” and “professional development” in medical curricula.