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Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a multifactor pathology. Animal studies and cohort studies suggest that poor nutrient intake after birth increases risk of BPD. The objective of this study is to determine the existence of association between BPD in VLBW and energy intake during the first week of life. We recorded in a retrospective cohort study the intake of enteral and parenteral macronutrients during this period, by examining the nutritional and clinical history of 450 VLBW newborns admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. After applying the relevant exclusion criteria, data for 389 VLBW infants were analysed, of whom 159 developed some degree of BPD. Among the newborns with BPD, energy and lipid intake was significantly lower, and fluid intake was significantly higher. The energy intake for the 25th percentile in the group without BPD was 425 kcal/kg during the first week of life. An energy intake <425 kcal/kg in this period was associated with a twofold increase in the adjusted risk of BPD (OR 2.63, 95% CI: 1.30-5.34). The early nutrition and the increase of energy intake in the first week of life is associated in our sample with a lower risk of BPD developing.
It has been reported that 50% of the affected during natural or man-made disasters are children. They have unique vulnerabilities that require unique and specific management. It is therefore vital to understand the optimal management in pediatric emergencies, and to consider efforts regarding pediatric preparedness and response in humanitarian situations.
This chapter reviews the necessary means of pediatric care that must be included in medical relief delegations, and proposes a structure for a dedicated medical team, as well as necessary logistic and administrative considerations.
A triage algorithm is described, considering three key parameters: urgency, available resources, and the likelihood of saving a patient’s life. Ethical dilemmas posed by the above approach are discussed as well.
Lastly, the authors discuss the necessary collaboration between the pediatric team and the traumatology and obstetrics/gynecology departments, and describe the structure and function of a pediatric ward in a field hospital, based on experience from medical relief delegations deployed by the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) after natural disasters in Haiti and Nepal.
Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) belongs to a heterogeneous group of neurological disorders known as autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxias. Low awareness of CTX can result in misdiagnoses in the differential diagnostic process and may limit one’s ability to offer suitable recommendations. While neurodegeneration is a recognized manifestation of CTX, there is scant literature to characterize the nature of cortical symptoms and even less detailing of its associated neurocognitive and neuropsychiatric manifestations.
Based on the lack of representation of CTX in neuropsychological literature, we sought to present a case seen in a 39-year-old patient within our own clinic.
Evaluation of the patient’s neurocognitive functioning revealed global impairment consistent with a CTX diagnosis and neuroimaging findings noting significant cerebellar involvement.
Neuropsychologists are increasingly called upon to make treatment recommendations and provide information that may be helpful in differential diagnosis as part of multidisciplinary teams. Referrals from neurology are common, and it is important for neuropsychologists to be aware of diseases that affect the central nervous system; CTX is one such example. The goal of this case study is to build awareness of this condition and increase interest in a more systematic approach to research and clinical care of this population.
In this chapter, the authors discuss the issues related to post-operative neonatal apnea with an example of an infant hernia repair. Neonatal apnea, its etiology and associated risk factors is reviewed. The use of infant spinal anesthesia versus general anesthesia and its relationship to neonatal post-operative apnea is discussed.
In this chapter, the authors discuss numerous anesthetic considerations related to the care for the premature infant. A host of topics associated with prematurity are reviewed including bronchopulmonary dysplasia, pulmonary hypertension, apnea of prematurity, retinopathy of prematurity, cerebral palsy, neonatal hypoglycemia, hypothermia and acidosis, necrotizing enterocolitis and the performance of neonatal spinal anesthetics.
This chapter, provides an overview of the basics of pharmacology and physiology in the neonate. The authors focus on the physiological differences between children and adults using a background case of omphalocele. Key concepts for pediatric anesthesia are considered including, hyperbilirubinemia, oxygenation, hepatic function and metabolism and thyroid function.
To study the incidence, types, and characteristics of CHD in all live births delivered in Jinshan Hospital from 1 January, 2016 to 31 December, 2017, and to analyse the correlation between CHD and the distance between maternal residence and Shanghai Petrochemical Complex.
All live births, delivered in Jinshan Hospital in 2016 and 2017, have received CHD screening and neonatal follow-up after delivery. For those both positive for CHD screening and negative for CHD screening but with heart murmur found during physical examination on neonatal follow-up after delivery, echocardiography was performed to confirm CHD diagnosis. All maternal residential addresses have been grouped for analysis according to the distance between maternal residence and Shanghai Petrochemical Complex.
There were 5544 live births in total, and a total of 79 children with CHD were confirmed by CHD screening and echocardiography, of which the types of diseases with high incidence, in descending order of incidence, are atrial septal defect (48/79), ventricular septal defect (25/79), patent ductus arteriosus (21/79), and pulmonary artery stenosis (9/79). There was no statistically significant difference in the incidence of CHD among the groups divided by the distance between maternal residence and Shanghai Petrochemical Complex. The incidence of neonatal CHD near Shanghai Petrochemical Complex is 1.42%.
Most of the children with CHD can be screened out through CHD screening and physical examination in neonatal period and early infancy stage. The distance between maternal residence and Shanghai Petrochemical Complex has no significant direct effect on the incidence of CHD in neonates near Shanghai Petrochemical Complex.
Evidence on the impact of the quality of prenatal care on childhood mortality is limited in developing countries, including India. Therefore, using nationally representative data from the latest round of the National Family Health Survey (2015–16), this study examined the impact of the quality of prenatal care on neonatal and infant mortality in India using a multivariable binary logistic regression model. The effect of the essential components of prenatal care services on neonatal and infant mortality were also investigated. The results indicate that improvement in the quality of prenatal care is associated with a decrease in neonatal (OR: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.91–0.97) and infant (OR: 0.94, 95% CI: 0.92–0.96) mortality in India. Tetanus toxoid vaccination, consumption of iron–folic acid tablets during pregnancy and having been weighed during pregnancy were statistically associated with a lower risk of neonatal and infant mortality. Educating women on pregnancy complications was also associated with a lower risk of neonatal mortality. No effect of blood pressure examination, blood test and examination of the abdomen during pregnancy were found on either of the two indicators of childhood mortality. Although the coverage of prenatal care has increased dramatically in India, the quality of prenatal care is still an area of concern. There is therefore a need to ensure high-quality prenatal care in India.
We report a neonatal case of the use of alteplase for the lysis of a large aortic arch thrombus formed during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support. Alteplase (0.1–0.15 mg/kg/hour) was infused for thrombolysis, and meanwhile, unfractionated heparin was administrated at 5–10 U/kg/hour for the anticoagulation purpose. Alteplase was successfully administered to this neonate after the repair of congenital diaphragmatic hernia on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and the patient survived without apparent catastrophic long-term complications. It is reasonable to consider alteplase therapy during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support in this setting.
The objective of this study was to systematically assess the literature regarding postnatal healthcare utilization and barriers/facilitators of healthcare in neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) children.
A systematic search was performed in PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, PsychINFO, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and Web of Science to identify peer-reviewed research. Eligible studies were peer-reviewed articles reporting on broad aspects of primary and specialty healthcare utilization and access in NAS children. Three investigators independently reviewed all articles and extracted data. Study bias was assessed using the Newcastle–Ottawa Assessment Scale and the National Institute of Health Study Quality Assessment Tool.
This review identified 14 articles that met criteria. NAS children have poorer outpatient appointment adherence and have a higher rate of being lost to follow-up. These children have overall poorer health indicated by a significantly higher risk of ER visits, hospital readmission, and early childhood mortality compared with non-NAS infants. Intensive multidisciplinary support provided through outpatient weaning programs facilitates healthcare utilization and could serve as a model that could be applied to other healthcare fields to improve the health among this population.
This review investigated the difficulties in accessing outpatient care as well as the utilization of such care for NAS infants. NAS infants tend to have decreased access to and utilization of outpatient healthcare following hospital birth discharge. Outpatient weaning programs have proven to be effective; however, these programs require intensive resources and care coordination that has yet to be implemented into other healthcare areas for NAS children.
Before weaning, breast milk is the physiological form of neonatal nutrition, providing pups with all nutrient requirements. Maternal low-protein diet (LPD) during pregnancy and lactation induces adverse changes in key maternal organs, which have negative effects on pup development. We studied the effects of maternal LPD on liver weight, mammary gland (MG) cell differentiation, milk composition and production and pup development throughout lactation. We fed rats with control (C) or LPD (R) during pregnancy and lactation. At 7 d early, 14 d mid and 21 d late lactation stages, maternal biochemical parameters, body, liver and MG weights were analysed. MG cell differentiation was analysed by haematoxylin and eosin staining; milk nutrient composition and production were studied; pup body, liver and brain weights, hippocampal arachidonic acid (AA) and DHA were quantified. Results showed lower body and liver weights, minor MG cell differentiation and lower serum insulin and TAG in R compared with C. R milk contained less protein and higher AA at early and mid stages compared with C. R pup milk and fat intake were lower at all stages. R protein intake at early and mid stages and DHA intake at mid and late stages were lower compared with C. In R pups, lower body, liver and brain weights were associated with decreased hippocampal AA and DHA. We conclude that maternal LPD impairs liver and MG function and induces significant changes in maternal milk composition, pup milk intake and organ development.
Exclusive breastfeeding is currently recommended until at least 6 months of postnatal age, due to maternal breast milk (BM) unique composition and beneficial properties. In fact, BM modifies itself according to gestational age (GA) at birth, adapting its composition to neonatal requests during lactation. Multiple births represent about 3% of the whole pregnancies; such neonates result more vulnerable than full-term newborns, due to lower GA and birth weight (BW) and the higher incidence of perinatal complications. Although an adequate nutrition is fundamental for twins and other multiples, studies on this topic are lacking. We collected and analyzed BM from mothers of 19 twins and 5 triplets showing GA < 33 weeks and BW < 1500 g, comparing it to a control group of 28 preterm singletons. As a result, at GA ≤ 28 weeks, we observed that protein content is higher in BM for multiples (1.53 vs. 1.29 g per 100 ml), lactose concentration is greater in BM for singletons (6.72 vs. 6.34 g per 100 ml) and GA results the most relevant factor influencing BM protein composition. BM for multiples results higher in proteins and lower in lactose, if compared with singleton’s samples; this could promote and sustain growth and organ development in this vulnerable category. BM from multiples shows a trophic and immunologic role, since these neonates often show lower GA and BW instead of singletons. These findings could help in optimizing nutritional strategies and improving BM individualized fortification.
Infants born with undiagnosed transposition of the great arteries continue to be born in district general hospitals despite the improvements made in antenatal scanning. Evidence indicates improved outcomes with early definitive treatment after birth, hence the recommendation of delivery in a tertiary centre. The role of specialist paediatric and neonatal transport teams, to advise, stabilise, and transport the infants to a tertiary centre in a timely manner, is critical for those infants born in a district general hospital. This pilot study aims to compare outcomes between infants born in district general hospitals and those who were born in a tertiary maternity unit in South West England and South Wales.
This was a secondary data analysis of data collected from the local Paediatric Intensive Care Audit Network and the local transport database. Infants born with a confirmed diagnosis of transposition of the great arteries, that required an arterial switch operation as the definitive procedure between April, 2012 and March 2018 were included.
Forty-five infants with a confirmed diagnosis of transposition of the great arteries were included. Statistical analysis demonstrated there were no significant differences in the time to balloon atrial septostomy (p = 0.095), time to arterial switch operation (p = 0.461), length of paediatric ICU stay (p = 0.353), and hospital stay (p = 0.095) or mortality between the two groups.
We found no significant differences in outcomes between infants delivered outside the specialist centre, who were transferred in by a specialist team.
Unexpected disasters, such as earthquakes or fires, require preparation to address knowledge gaps that may negatively affect vulnerable patients. Training programs can promote natural disaster readiness to respond and evacuate patients safely, but also require evidence-based information to guide learning objectives.
There is limited evidence on what skills and bedside equipment are most important to include in disaster training and evacuation programs for critically ill infants.
An expert panel was used to create a 13-item mastery checklist of skills for bedside registered nurses (RNs) required to successfully evacuate a critically ill infant. Expert nurses were surveyed, and the Angoff method was used to determine which of the mastery checklist skills a newly graduated nurse (ie, the “minimally competent” nurse) should be able to do. Participants then rated the importance of 26 commonly available pieces of bedside equipment for use in evacuating a hemodynamically unstable, intubated infant during a disaster.
Twenty-three emergency department (ED) and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) charge RNs responded to the survey with a mean of 19 (SD = 9) years of experience and 30% reporting personal experience with evacuating patients. The skills list scores showed an emphasis on the newly graduated nurse having more complete mastery of skills surrounding thermoregulation, documentation, infection control, respiratory support, and monitoring. Skills for communication, decision making, and anticipating future needs were assessed as less likely for a new nurse to have mastered. On a scale of one (not important) to seven (critically important), the perceived necessity of equipment ranged from a low of 1.6 (breast pump) to a high of 6.9 (face mask). The individual intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.55 showed moderate reliability between raters and the average team ICC of 0.97 showed excellent agreement as a group.
Experts rated the ability to manage physiological issues, such as thermoregulation and respiratory support, as skills that every nurse should master. Disaster preparedness activities for nurses in training may benefit from checklists of essential equipment and skills to ensure all nurses can independently manage patients’ physiologic needs when they enter the workforce. Advanced nursing training should include education on decision making, communication during emergencies, and anticipation of future issues to ensure that charge and resource nurses can support bedside nurses during evacuation events.
Previous research has described the evil eye as a source of illness for pregnant women and their newborns. This study sought to explore the perceptions of the evil eye among mothers whose newborns had experienced a life-threatening complication across three regions of Ghana. As part of a larger, quantitative study, trained research assistants identified pregnant and newly delivered women (and their newborns) who had survived a life-threatening complication at three tertiary care hospitals in southern Ghana to participate in open-ended, qualitative interviews about their experiences in March–August 2015. All interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim into English and analysis using the constant comparative method of theme generation. A total of 37 mothers were interviewed, 20 about neonatal illnesses and 17 about maternal illnesses. Six of the 20 mothers interviewed about their newborn’s illnesses spoke at length about the evil eye being a potential cause of newborn illness. The evil eye was described in a variety of terms, but commonalities included a person looking at a pregnant woman, her newborn baby, the baby’s clothes and even the mother’s food, causing harm, even unintentionally. Prevention required mothers covering themselves while pregnant and keeping the baby away from others until it was old enough to ward off the evil eye. Treatment required traditional medicine, yet some indicated that allopathic medicine could help. The evil eye appears to serve a social control mechanism, encouraging pregnant women to dress modestly, stay indoors as much as possible and behave appropriately. The evil eye is a pervasive, universally understood phenomenon across three regions of Ghana, even amongst a hospitalized population receiving allopathic health care for life-threatening complications of childbirth. Understanding the role of the evil eye in newborn illness attribution is important for clinicians, researchers and programmatic staff to effectively address barriers to care seeking.
The aims of this study were to explore parents’ stress levels and negative feelings after premature births and to identify the risk factors related to parents’ stress and negative feelings during their children’s neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) stay.
Preterm birth is a multi-problematic event that may put the babies in danger for both their medical and neurophysiological conditions and could have a negative impact on both the mother–father relationship and the parent–child interactions.
The study involved 43 mothers and 38 fathers of preterm infants. All participants filled out the Parental Stressor Scale: Neonatal Intensive Care Unit and the Profile of Mood States.
The results revealed significant differences between mothers’ and fathers’ responses to preterm births in terms of both stress and negative feelings. We found that, for mothers, their own young age and the baby’s need for respiratory support were significant predictors of stress; for fathers, their own young age and the baby’s lower gestational age and worse condition at birth were significant predictors of stress and negative feelings. The NICU may be a stressful place both for mothers and fathers. Identifying which mothers and fathers are at risk immediately after their children are born could help to direct specific interventions that can reduce these parents’ stress and prevent them from negative feelings.
A cohort study was performed from January 2014 to December 2016 in a Brazilian neonatal intensive care unit, including neonates with high risk for infection and death. We estimated bloodstream infection (BSI) incidence and conducted a survival analysis, considering the time to death and to the first episode of BSI as outcomes, comparing very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates with the remaining neonates. An extended Cox model was performed and the hazard ratio (HR) was calculated for different time periods. The study had 1560 neonates included, the incidence and the incidence density of BSI was 22% and 18.6 per 1000 central venous catheter-days, respectively. Considering VLBW neonates as the reference group, the HR for time to death was 4.06 (95% CI 2.75–6.00, P < 0.01) from day 0 to 60 and for time to the first episode of BSI was 1.76 (95% CI 1.31–2.36, P < 0.01) from day 0 to 36. Having the heavier neonates group as reference, the HR for time to the first episode of BSI was 2.94 (95% CI 1.92–4.34, P < 0.01) from day 37 to 90. Late-onset neonatal sepsis prevention measures should consider the differences in risk during time, according to neonates' birth weight.
Background: Continuous EEG monitoring, in the form of amplitude-integrated (aEEG) or conventional EEG (cEEG), is used in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) to detect subclinical central nervous system pathologies, inform management, and prognosticate neurodevelopmental outcomes. To learn more about provider attitudes and current practices in Canada, we evaluated neurologist and neonatologist opinions regarding NICU EEG monitoring. Methods: A 15-item electronic questionnaire was distributed to 114 pediatric neurologists and 176 neonatologists working across 25 sites. Results: The survey was completed by 87 of 290 physicians. Continuous EEG monitoring is utilized by 97% of pediatric neurologists and 92% of neonatologists. Neurologists and neonatologists differ in their EEG monitoring preferences. For seizure detection and diagnosis of encephalopathy, significantly more neonatologists favor aEEG alone or in combination with cEEG, whereas most neurologists prefer cEEG (p = 0.047, 0.001). There is a significant difference in the perceived gaps in monitoring patients with cEEG between neonatologists (13% would monitor more) and neurologists (41% would monitor more) (p = 0.007). Half of all respondents (53%) reported that they would be interested in attending an education session on neonatal EEG monitoring. Conclusions: Canadian neurologists and neonatologists do not agree on the best monitoring approach for critically ill neonates. Furthermore, neonatologists perceive a smaller cEEG monitoring gap as compared with neurologists. However, many participants from both specialties would like to increase long-term EEG monitoring in the NICU setting. Facilitating access to EEG monitoring and enhancing education may help to address these needs.
Cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury is common. In order to improve our understanding of acute kidney injury, we formed the multi-centre Neonatal and Pediatric Heart and Renal Outcomes Network. Our main goals are to describe neonatal kidney injury epidemiology, evaluate variability in diagnosis and management, identify risk factors, investigate the impact of fluid overload, and explore associations with outcomes.
The Neonatal and Pediatric Heart and Renal Outcomes Network collaborative includes representatives from paediatric cardiac critical care, cardiology, nephrology, and cardiac surgery. The collaborative sites and infrastructure are part of the Pediatric Cardiac Critical Care Consortium. An acute kidney injury module was developed and merged into the existing infrastructure. A total of twenty-two participating centres provided data on 100–150 consecutive neonates who underwent cardiac surgery within the first 30 post-natal days. Additional acute kidney injury variables were abstracted by chart review and merged with the corresponding record in the quality improvement database. Exclusion criteria included >1 operation in the 7-day study period, pre-operative renal replacement therapy, pre-operative serum creatinine >1.5 mg/dl, and need for extracorporeal support in the operating room or within 24 hours after the index operation.
A total of 2240 neonatal patients were enrolled across 22 centres. The incidence of acute kidney injury was 54% (stage 1 = 31%, stage 2 = 13%, and stage 3 = 9%).
Neonatal and Pediatric Heart and Renal Outcomes Network represents the largest multi-centre study of neonatal kidney injury. This new network will enhance our understanding of kidney injury and its complications.