To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is the most common cause of death and injury among all poisonings. Myocardial injury is detected in one-third of CO poisonings. In this Case Report, a previously healthy 41-year-old man was referred for CO poisoning. The initial electrocardiogram (ECG) showed 1mm ST segment elevation in leads DII, DIII, and aVF. As the patient did not describe chest pain and had no cardiac symptoms, ECG was repeated 10 minutes later and it was seen that ST segment elevation disappeared. As the patient had a transient ST segment elevation and elevated high-sensitive Tn-T (HsTn-T), the patient was transferred to the coronary angiography laboratory. The patient’s left coronary system was normal, but a thrombus image narrowing the lumen by approximately 60% was observed in the right coronary artery. Intravenous tirofiban was administered for 48 hours. Control coronary angiography showed continuing thrombus formation and a bare metal stent was successfully implanted. This is the first reported case with transient ST segment elevation associated with acute coronary thrombus caused by CO poisoning. It may be recommended that patients with CO poisoning should be followed-up with a 12-lead ECG monitor or 24-hour ECG Holter monitoring, even if they show no cardiac symptoms and echocardiography shows no wall motion abnormality. Early coronary angiography upon detection of such dynamic ECG changes in these recordings as ST segment elevation can reduce the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and mortality in these patients.
ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is a time-sensitive entity that has been shown to benefit from prehospital diagnosis by electrocardiogram (ECG). Current computer algorithms with binary decision making are not accurate enough to be relied on for cardiac catheterization lab (CCL) activation.
An algorithmic approach is proposed to stratify binary STEMI computerized ECG interpretations into low, intermediate, and high STEMI probability tiers.
Based on previous literature, a four-criteria algorithm was developed to rule out/in common causes of prehospital STEMI false-positive computer interpretations: heart rate, QRS width, ST elevation criteria, and artifact. Prehospital STEMI cases were prospectively collected at a single academic center in Salt Lake City, Utah (USA) from May 2012 through October 2013. The prehospital ECGs were applied to the algorithm and compared against activation of the CCL by an emergency department (ED) physician as the outcome of interest. In addition to calculating test characteristics, linear regression was used to look for an association between number of criteria used and accuracy, and logistic regression was used to test if any single criterion performed better than another.
There were 63 ECGs available for review, 39 high probability and 24 intermediate probability. The high probability STEMI tier had excellent test characteristics for ruling in STEMI when all four criteria were used, specificity 1.00 (95% CI, 0.59-1.00), positive predictive value 1.00 (0.91-1.00). Linear regression showed a strong correlation demonstrating that false-positives increased as fewer criteria were used (adjusted r-square 0.51; P <.01). Logistic regression showed no significant predictive value for any one criterion over another (P = .80). Limiting physician overread to the intermediate tier only would reduce the number of ECGs requiring physician overread by a factor of 0.62 (95% CI, 0.48-0.75; P <.01).
Prehospital STEMI ECGs can be accurately stratified to high, intermediate, and low probabilities for STEMI using the four criteria. While additional study is required, using this tiered algorithmic approach in prehospital ECGs could lead to changes in CCL activation and decreased requirements for physician overread. This may have significant clinical and quality implications.
Cannabis smoking is considered the most popular illicit drug used worldwide. We present the case of a 26-year-old male with ST elevation myocardial infarction and heart failure subsequent to cannabis smoking abuse. We searched the literature regarding acute myocardial infarction following cannabis smoking and the possible pathophysiologic mechanisms.
Introduction: Very low concentrations of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin can rule-out myocardial infarction (MI) at ED arrival in patients with chest pain. However, this single troponin rule-out strategy works poorly in patients with renal impairment and elevated baseline troponin levels. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a troponin adjustment strategy to accurately rule-out MI with a single hs-cTnTmeasurement in patients with kidney dysfunction. Methods: We used data from three cohorts of ED chest pain patients to develop an adjustment score for a high-sensitivity troponin T (hs-cTnT) assay in patients with kidney dysfunction. The derivation cohort (n = 8846) used administrative and registry data. Two validation cohorts (n = 1187 and 1092) were prospectively-collected. The score assigned points for increasing hs-cTnT levels and subtracted points for lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). In the derivation cohort, hs-cTnT concentrations achieving 98.5% sensitivity in of patients with eGFR ≥60, 45-59, 30-44, 15-29 and <15 were assigned ascending positive integer values. Negative integer values were assigned to eGFR values 45-59, 30-44, 15-29 and <15. The scpres for troponin and eGFR were summed for each patient, with scores ranging from −4 to +5. The proportion of patients with 7-day MI ruled out by a score ≤0, sensitivity, NPV, negative likelihood ratio (LR-) and area under the curve (AUC) were quantified in each study cohort. Results: The derivation and validation cohorts had 7-day MI rates of 5.7, 8.6 and 9.1%. In the derivation cohort, a score ≤0 ruled out MI in 35% of patients, with a sensitivity for 7-day MI of 99.5% (95% CI 98-100), NPV of 99.9% (95% CI 98.4-99.9), LR- of 0.02 (95% CI 0.01-0.05) and AUC of 0.88. In the first validation cohort, a score ≤0 ruled out MI in 45% of patients, with a sensitivity for 7-day MI of 97% (95% CI 90-100%), NPV of 99% (95% CI 98-100%), LR- 0.06 (0.02-0.18) and AUC of 0.89. In the second validation cohort, a score ≤0 ruled out MI in 20% of patients, with a sensitivity for 7-day MI of 96% (95% CI 93-99%), NPV of 98% (95% CI 96-100%), LR- of 0.16 (95% CI 0.07-0.39) and AUC of 0.78. Conclusion: We developed and validated a simple scoring system to adjust hs-cTnT concentrations for a patient's kidney function that enables MI to be ruled out in a large proportion of chest pain patients using a single measurement on ED presentation.
Major incidents affecting large numbers of people may increase the rate of acute cardiovascular events, even among those who are not directly involved in the incident. It is hypothesized that the MV Sewol ferry disaster (South Korea) would increase the incidence of cardiovascular events nation-wide.
Data on all adult patients (>18 years) who were diagnosed with acute cardiovascular events, including acute myocardial infarction (MI), angina, and cardiac arrhythmias, were extracted from the National Emergency Department Information System (NEDIS) from March 15 through June 17, during the years 2011-2014 (four weeks before to eight weeks after the event date). Poisson regression models were used to calculate the incidence rate ratios (IRRs) comparing the weekly changes in the occurrences of cardiovascular events from the week of the Sewol event (April 16-22, 2014) to eight weeks after the disaster (June 11-17, 2014), using the one-month period before Sewol as a reference period (March 15-April 15), adjusting for calendar years (years 2011-2014) and environmental factors.
During the study periods, cardiovascular events were identified in 73,823 patients. Compared to the reference period, the week of the Sewol disaster and the three weeks after the disaster showed a significant increase in the number of acute cardiovascular events, IRRs of 1.09 (95% CI, 1.03-1.15) and 1.08 (95% CI, 1.02-1.15), respectively (P <.01 for both). In particular, there was 21% increase in incidence of arrhythmia (IRR = 1.21; 95% CI, 1.02-1.44; P = .03) during the week of the Sewol disaster compared with the reference period.
This study showed a significant increase in the incidence of acute cardiovascular events during the week of, and the three weeks after, the Sewol ferry disaster in 2014. These additional cardiac emergencies may be triggered by emotional stressors related to the event, highlighting the public health importance of indirect exposure to a tragic catastrophe.
Kong SY, Song KJ, Shin SD, Ro YS. Cardiovascular events after the Sewol ferry disaster, South Korea. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2019;34(2):142–148
The consumption of nitrate-rich vegetables can acutely lower blood pressure and improve mediators shown to optimise vascular health. However, we do not yet understand the impact of long-term habitual dietary nitrate intake and its association with CVD. Therefore, the aim of this investigation was to examine the relationship between habitual dietary nitrate intakes and risk of CHD in women from the Nurses’ Health Study. We prospectively followed 62 535 women who were free from diabetes, CVD and cancer at baseline in 1986. Information on diet was updated every 4 years with validated FFQ. The main outcome was CHD defined by the occurrence of non-fatal myocardial infarction or fatal CHD. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate the relative risks (RR) and 95 % CI. During 26 years of follow-up, 2257 cases of CHD were identified. When comparing the highest quintile of nitrate intake with the lowest quintile, in aged-adjusted analysis there was a protective association for CHD (RR=0·77, 95 % CI 0·68, 0·97; P=0·0002) which dissipated after further adjustment for smoking, physical activity, BMI and race (RR=0·91; 95 % CI 0·80, 1·04; P=0·27). This magnitude of association was further attenuated once we adjusted for the Alternative Healthy Eating Index excluding vegetable and fruit consumption (RR=1·04, 95 % CI 0·91, 1·20; P=0·34). Dietary nitrate intake was not related to the risk of CHD after adjustment for other lifestyle and non-vegetable dietary factors in a large group of US women.
Giant coronary artery aneurysms are a complication of Kawasaki disease and can be fatal if associated with thrombosis. We describe the clinical outcome of a boy with Kawasaki disease who exhibited “supergiant” coronary artery aneurysms at the age of 14 months and, despite treatment with anticoagulant and antiplatelet medication, developed a left coronary artery thrombosis and presented following a myocardial infarction at 2 years old. Although his symptoms were minimal, the myocardial infarction was identified by abnormal Q-waves and giant negative T-waves in precordial leads of routine electrocardiography. Intensive anticoagulant therapy combining heparin injections and high-dose warfarin was successful. The abnormal Q-waves and negative T-waves had completely disappeared 2 weeks later, likely in association with confirmed reperfusion. On the basis of prompt identification of abnormal Q-waves by electrocardiography, the patient could avoid thrombolytic therapy and catheter or surgical intervention.
The internet has the potential to overcome geographic limitations for smoking cessation interventions, but further telehealth-based studies of utility are required.
To investigate the efficacy of an internet-based version of a quit smoking approach using a personalised video to create a simulated teachable moment.
Smokers within Australia were recruited through a dedicated website. After consent, eligible subjects, aged ≥30 years with a non-smoking partner, uploaded pictures of themselves, their partner and family, to be inserted into a video depicting the subject having a heart attack due to smoking, with consequences to them and their family. Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) began prior to the quit attempt. The video was shown during two videoconference counselling sessions, with follow-up phone calls and text messaging support. Smoking status at 6 months by self-report (primary endpoint) was verified by partner/proxy and salivary cotinine (NicAlert™).
Seventy seven smokers were screened, of whom 50 were eligible, and 17 of these (34%) were enrolled; 11 men and 6 women, aged 41.5 ± 6.9 years, daily cigarette consumption 20.8 ± 8.9, Heaviness of Smoking Index score 3.7 ± 1.7. Participants reported feeling personally involved with the video (5.9 ± 1.1), which felt real (5.8 ± 1.1) and emotionally moving (5.6 ± 1.5) [7-point Likert Scale]. A similar video response was reported by the four participants (24%), who due to bandwidth limitations, watched the video after the counselling session instead of during it. Non-smoking rates at 6 months were 65% (11/17) by self-report with proxy confirmation, and 47% (8/17) by self-report with biologic confirmation. Three non-smokers by self-report could not provide a valid NicAlert™ result due to current NRT use. One participant who by self-report smoked once in the prior 14-days was assessed as a non-smoker by both proxy and NicAlert™.
This pilot study demonstrates efficacy for an internet-based version of a quit smoking program based on creating a simulated teachable moment. The findings provide support for further research into this technique, with the internet enabling greater reach than face-to-face.
Sex-specific diagnostic cut-offs may improve the test characteristics of high-sensitivity troponin assays for the diagnosis of myocardial infarction (MI). The objective of this study was to quantify test characteristics of sex-specific cut-offs of a single, high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) assay for 7-day MI in patients with chest pain.
This observational cohort study included consecutive emergency department (ED) patients with suspected cardiac chest pain from four Canadian EDs who had an hs-cTnT assay performed within 60 minutes of ED arrival. The primary outcome was MI at 7 days. We quantified test characteristics (sensitivity, negative predictive value [NPV], likelihood ratios and proportion of patients ruled out) for multiple combinations of sex-specific, rule-out cut-offs. We calculated the net reclassification index compared to universal rule-out cut-offs.
In 7,130 patients (3,931 men and 3,199 women), the 7-day MI incidence was 7.38% among men and 3.78% among women. Optimal sex-specific cut-offs (<8 ng/L for men and <7 ng/L for women) had a 98.5% sensitivity for MI and ruled out MI in 55.8% of patients. This would enable an absolute increase in the proportion of patients who were able to be ruled out with a single hs-cTnT of 13.2% to 22.2%, depending on the universal rule-out concentration used as a comparator.
Sex-specific hs-cTnT cut-offs for ruling out MI at ED arrival may improve classification performance, enabling more patients to be safely ruled out at ED arrival. However, differences between sex-specific and universal cut-off concentrations are within the variation of the assay, limiting the clinical utility of this approach. These findings should be confirmed in other data sets.
Lightning strike is an infrequent natural phenomenon with serious medical complications, like multiple organ damage, and it is associated with increased risk of mortality. Cardiovascular complications are among the most hazardous complications of lightning strike. Lightning strike can cause various serious consequences ranging from electrocardiographic changes to death. We reported a 21-year-old patient with no cardiovascular risk factors struck by lightning and presented by inferior ST elevated myocardial infarction (MI). The patient was followed up in the intensive care unit and MI complication did not develop during follow-up. The patient was lost due to multi-organ failure after 20 hours.
Intrauterine myocardial infarction is a rare and frequently fatal diagnosis. It has been presented in the literature only as case reports and short series. We present a case report of a coronary occlusive intrauterine myocardial infarction and survival and present a systematic review of the literature. This is the first summative description of current data on intrauterine and perinatal myocardial infarction. We performed the systematic review based on the guidelines established by the PRISMA statement. Our population of intrauterine and perinatal myocardial infarction included published cases who presented as a live birth within the first 28 postnatal days, and had a diagnosis of myocardial infarction. We conducted descriptive statistics and regression analysis on short-term mortality as the primary outcome. After applying exclusion criteria we described 84 individual cases of myocardial infarction from 63 full-text articles including our own case. Presentation within the first 12 hours was associated with mortality (OR 3.90, p=0.004). Treatment modalities were varied and inconsistently recorded. The aetiologies and comorbidities are varied in our systematic review. We would have a low threshold to perform viral testing, consider anticoagulation early and coronary imaging if feasible. The use of extracorporeal membranous oxygenation may serve as a bridge to cardiac recovery.
It remains unclear whether ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients transported by ambulance over long distances are at risk for clinical adverse events. We sought to determine the frequency of clinical adverse events in a rural population of STEMI patients and to evaluate the impact of transport time on the occurrence of these events in the presence of basic life support paramedics.
We performed a health records review of 880 consecutive STEMI patients transported to a percutaneous coronary intervention centre. Patients had continuous electrocardiogram and vital sign monitoring during transport. A classification of clinically important and minor adverse events was established based on a literature search and expert consensus. A multivariate ordinal logistic regression model was used to study the association between transport time (0-14, 15-29, ≥30 minutes) and the occurrence of overall clinical adverse events.
Clinically important and minor events were experienced by 18.5% and 12.2% of STEMI patients, respectively. The most frequent clinically important events observed were severe hypotension (6.1%) and ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation (5.1%). Transport time was not associated with a higher risk of experiencing clinical adverse events (p=0.19), but advanced age was associated with adverse events (p=0.03). No deaths were recorded during prehospital transport.
In our study of rural STEMI patients, clinical adverse events were common (30.7%). However, transport time was not associated with the occurrence of adverse clinical events in these patients.
Introduction: Ruling out acute myocardial infarction (AMI) using serial troponin testing is central to the care of many emergency department (ED) patients with chest pain. While diagnostic strategies using conventional troponin assays require repeat sampling over many hours to avoid missed diagnoses, serial high-sensitivity troponin (hs-cTn) assays may be able to exclude AMI in most patients within 1 or 2 hours. However, many of the initial studies deriving and validating these rapid diagnostic algorithms had all hs-cTn samples analyzed in a central core lab likely representing optimal assay performance. This objective of this study is to validate a 2-hour rapid diagnostic algorithm to exclude AMI in ED chest pain patients using an hs-cTn assay in real world practice. Methods: This prospective cohort study was conducted at a single urban tertiary center and regional percutaneous coronary intervention site in Calgary, Alberta. Patients were eligible for enrolment if they presented to the ED with chest pain, were 25-years or older and required biomarker testing to rule out AMI at the discretion of the attending emergency physician. Patients were excluded if they had clear acute ischemic ECG changes, new arrhythmia or renal failure requiring hemodialysis. A high-sensitivity troponin result (Roche Elecsys hs-cTnT) was obtained in all patients at ED presentation and 2-hours later. The primary outcome was AMI on the index visit. Secondary outcomes included 30-day AMI and 30-day major adverse cardiac events (MACE - including AMI, revascularization or cardiac death). Electronic medical records were reviewed and telephone follow-up was obtained for all patients at 30-days to ensure relevant events were captured. Two physician adjudication (board-certified emergency physician and cardiologist) was obtained for all outcomes. This study was REB approved. Results: A total of 549 patients were enrolled from August 2014 September 2016 with 2-hour serial hs-cTnT results, of which 349 (63.6%) met the 2-hour rapid diagnostic algorithm low risk criteria (time 0 h/2 h hs-cTnT <14 ng/L and delta 2 h <4 ng/L). The sensitivity of the 2-hour low risk criteria for index AMI was 98.4% (95% CI 91.3%-100%) and for 30-day AMI was 98.4% (95% CI 91.6-100%). The sensitivity for 30day MACE was lower 84.4% (95% CI 74.4-91.7%) but maintained a high negative predictive value, 96.6% (95% CI 94.1-98.2%). Conclusion: A 2-hour rapid diagnostic algorithm using an hs-cTnT assay was highly sensitive for AMI on the index visit and successfully identified patients at low risk of 30-day AMI. Sensitivity for MACE was lower, reminding us that while biomarker-only rapid diagnostic algorithms excel at ruling out AMI, careful clinical risk stratification is needed to avoid missed MACE events.
Introduction: Ruling out acute myocardial infarction (AMI) using serial troponin testing is central to the care of many emergency department (ED) patients with chest pain. While diagnostic strategies using conventional troponin assays require repeat sampling over many hours to avoid missed diagnoses, serial high-sensitivity troponin (hs-cTn) assays may be able to exclude AMI in most patients within 1 or 2 hours. However, many of the initial studies deriving and validating these rapid diagnostic algorithms had all hs-cTn samples analyzed in a central core lab likely representing optimal assay performance. This objective of this study is to validate a 1-hour rapid diagnostic algorithm to exclude AMI in ED chest pain patients using an hs-cTn assay in real world practice. Methods: This prospective cohort study was conducted at a single urban tertiary center and regional percutaneous coronary intervention site in Calgary, Alberta. Patients were eligible for enrolment if they presented to the ED with chest pain, were 25-years or older and required biomarker testing to rule out AMI at the discretion of the attending emergency physician. Patients were excluded if they had clear acute ischemic ECG changes, new arrhythmia or renal failure requiring hemodialysis. A high-sensitivity troponin result (Roche Elecsys hs-cTnT) was obtained in all patients at ED presentation and 1-hour later. The primary outcome was AMI on the index visit. Secondary outcomes included 30-day AMI and 30-day major adverse cardiac events (MACE - including AMI, revascularization or cardiac death). Electronic medical records were reviewed and telephone follow-up was obtained for all patients at 30-days to ensure relevant events were captured. Two physician adjudication (board-certified emergency physician and cardiologist) was obtained for all outcomes. The study was REB approved. Results: A total of 350 patients were enrolled from August 2014 September 2016 with 1-hour serial hs-cTnT results, of which 219 (62.6%) met the 1-hour rapid diagnostic algorithm low risk criteria (time 0h hs-cTnT <12ng/L and delta 1h <3ng/L). The sensitivity of the 1-hour low risk criteria for index AMI was 97.2% (95% CI 85.5%-99.9%) and for 30-day AMI was 97.3% (95% CI 85.8-99.9%). The sensitivity of the low risk criteria for 30-day MACE was lower 80.9% (95% CI 66.7-90.9%) but maintained a high negative predictive value, 95.9% (95% CI 92.3-98.1%). Conclusion: A 1-hour rapid diagnostic algorithm using an hs-cTnT assay was highly sensitive for AMI on the index visit and successfully identified patients at low risk of 30-day AMI; however, sensitivity for 30-day MACE was much lower. Of note, the 1-hour algorithm appears to be less sensitive for both AMI and 30-day MACE than a 2-hour algorithm validated in the same population.
Introduction: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at high risk of cardiovascular events, and have worse outcomes following acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Cardiac troponin is often elevated in CKD, making the diagnosis of AMI challenging in this population. We sought to quantify test characteristics for AMI of a high-sensitivity troponin T (hsTnT) assay performed at emergency department (ED) arrival in CKD patients with chest pain, and to derive rule-out cutoffs specific to patient subgroups stratified by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). We also quantified the sensitivity and classification performance of the assays limit of detection (5 ng/L) and the FDA-approved limit of quantitation (6 ng/L) for ruling out AMI at ED arrival. Methods: Consecutive patients in four urban EDs from the 2013 calendar year with suspected cardiac chest pain who had a Roche Elecsys hsTnT assay performed on arrival were included f. This analysis was restricted to patients with an eGFR< 60 ml/min/1.73m2. The primary outcome was 7-day AMI. Secondary outcomes included major adverse cardiac events (death, AMI and revascularization). Test characteristics were calculated and ROC curves were generated for eGFR subgroups. Results: 1416 patients were included. 7-day AMI incidence was 10.1%. 73% of patients had an initial hsTnT concentration greater than the assays 99th percentile (14 ng/L). TCurrently accepted cutoffs to rule out MI at ED arrival ( 5 ng/L and 6 ng/L) had 100% sensitivity for AMI, but no patients with an eGFR less than 30 ml/min/1.73M had hsTnT concentrations below these thresholds. We derived eGFR-adjusted cutoffs to rule out MI with sensitivity >98% at ED arrival, which were able to rule out 6-42% of patients, depending on eGFR category. The proportion of patients able to be accurately ruled-in with a single hsTnT assay was substantially lower among patients with an eGFR <30 ml/min/1.73m2 (6-20% vs 25-43%). We also derived eGFR-adjusted cutoffs to rule-in AMI with specificity >90%, which accurately ruled-in up to 18% of patients. Conclusion: Cutoffs achieving acceptable diagnostic performance for AMI using single hsTnT sampling on ED arrival may have limited clinical utility, particularly among patients with very low eGFR. The ideal diagnostic strategy for AMI in patients with CKD likely involves serial high-sensitivity troponin testing with diagnostic thresholds customized to different eGFR categories.
In some patients with Kawasaki disease, a prior myocardial infarction causes ventricular tachycardia in the chronic post-myocardial infarction phase. We report the case of a 41-year-old man with symptomatic and haemodynamically unstable ventricular tachycardia in whom substrate ablation was performed for the ventricular tachycardia before insertion of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator.
A direct way to evaluate food-based dietary guidelines is to assess if adherence is associated with development of non-communicable diseases. Thus, the objective was to develop an index to assess adherence to the 2013 Danish food-based dietary guidelines and to investigate the association between adherence to the index and risk of myocardial infarction (MI).
Population-based cohort study with recruitment of participants in 1993–1997. Information on dietary intake was collected at baseline using an FFQ and an index ranging from 0 to 6 points was created to assess adherence to the 2013 Danish food-based dietary guidelines. MI cases were identified by record linkage to the Danish National Patient Register and the Causes of Death Register. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) of MI.
Greater areas of Aarhus and Copenhagen, Denmark.
Men and women aged 50–64 years (n 55 021) from the Diet, Cancer and Health study.
A total of 3046 participants were diagnosed with first-time MI during a median follow-up of 16·9 years. A higher Danish Dietary Guidelines Index score was associated with a lower risk of MI. After adjustment for potential confounders, the hazard of MI was 13 % lower among men with a score of 3–<4 (HR=0·87; 95 % CI 0·78, 0·96) compared with men with a score of <3. The corresponding HR among women was 0·76 (95 % CI 0·63, 0·93).
Adherence to the 2013 Danish food-based dietary guidelines was inversely associated with risk of MI.
The History, Electrocardiogram (ECG), Age, Risk Factors, and Troponin (HEART) score is a decision aid designed to risk stratify emergency department (ED) patients with acute chest pain. It has been validated for ED use, but it has yet to be evaluated in a prehospital setting.
A prehospital modified HEART score can predict major adverse cardiac events (MACE) among undifferentiated chest pain patients transported to the ED.
A retrospective cohort study of patients with chest pain transported by two county-based Emergency Medical Service (EMS) agencies to a tertiary care center was conducted. Adults without ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) were included. Inter-facility transfers and those without a prehospital 12-lead ECG or an ED troponin measurement were excluded. Modified HEART scores were calculated by study investigators using a standardized data collection tool for each patient. All MACE (death, myocardial infarction [MI], or coronary revascularization) were determined by record review at 30 days. The sensitivity and negative predictive values (NPVs) for MACE at 30 days were calculated.
Over the study period, 794 patients met inclusion criteria. A MACE at 30 days was present in 10.7% (85/794) of patients with 12 deaths (1.5%), 66 MIs (8.3%), and 12 coronary revascularizations without MI (1.5%). The modified HEART score identified 33.2% (264/794) of patients as low risk. Among low-risk patients, 1.9% (5/264) had MACE (two MIs and three revascularizations without MI). The sensitivity and NPV for 30-day MACE was 94.1% (95% CI, 86.8-98.1) and 98.1% (95% CI, 95.6-99.4), respectively.
Prehospital modified HEART scores have a high NPV for MACE at 30 days. A study in which prehospital providers prospectively apply this decision aid is warranted.
EPA and DHA appear to be the most important n-3 fatty acids, but roles for n-3 docosapentaenoic acid are now also emerging. Intakes of EPA and DHA are usually low, typically below those recommended. Increased intakes result in higher concentrations of EPA and DHA in blood lipids, cells and tissues. Increased content of EPA and DHA modifies the structure of cell membranes and the function of membrane proteins. EPA and DHA modulate the production of lipid mediators and through effects on cell signalling can alter the patterns of gene expression. Through these mechanisms, EPA and DHA alter cell and tissue responsiveness in a way that often results in more optimal conditions for growth, development and maintenance of health. DHA has vital roles in brain and eye development and function. EPA and DHA have a wide range of physiological roles, which are linked to certain health or clinical benefits, particularly related to CVD, cancer, inflammation and neurocognitive function. The benefits of EPA and DHA are evident throughout the life course. Future research will include better identification of the determinants of variation of responses to increased intake of EPA and DHA; more in-depth dose–response studies of the effects of EPA and DHA; clearer identification of the specific roles of EPA, docosapentaenoic acid and DHA; testing strategies to enhance delivery of n-3 fatty acids to the bloodstream; and exploration of sustainable alternatives to fish-derived very long-chain n-3 fatty acids.