To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Homology surveillance of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) is critical to monitor and prevent outbreaks of nosocomial infections. In the present study, a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation-time of flight (MALDI-TOF MS)-based method was evaluated as a rapid tool for typing CRKP in comparison with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multi locus sequence typing (MLST). Drug-resistant phenotypes and genotypes of 44 CRKP isolates were detected by microdilution broth method and polymerase chain reaction, and typed by PFGE, MLST and MALDI-TOF MS. Simpson's Index of Diversity was used to evaluate taxonomic diversity, Adjusted Rand Index (ARI) for congruence between the typing methods and Wallace coefficients (W) for the ability of either method to predict each other. Forty-four CRKP isolates of 15 sequence types (STs) produced either NDM-1 (n = 16), NDM-5 (n = 9) or KPC-2 (n = 19) carbapenemases. PFGE differentiated these isolates into 16 distinct types, and two deoxyribonucleic acid profiles were assigned to ST337 and ST11, respectively. MALDI-TOF MS failed to clearly delineate between clusters on dendrograms based on principal components analysis and main spectrum profile. The chosen parameters resulted in a maximum ARI of 0.310 (95% CI 0.088–0.531) between MALDI-TOF MS typing and the PFGE reference, indicating a low ability of the former to correctly identify related isolates. Likewise, the maximum W coefficient of 0.367 (95% CI 0.203–0.532) showed that MALDI-TOF MS had a lower predictive power than PFGE. We conclude that MALDI-TOF MS lacks the discriminatory power necessary for clone assignment of CRKP isolates and consequently cannot be considered as a rapid and creditable method for this purpose.
The accurate and rapid identification of mosquito blood meals is critical to study the interactions between vectors and vertebrate hosts and, subsequently, to develop vector control strategies. Recently, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) profiling has been shown to be a reliable and effective tool for identifying single blood meals from mosquitoes.
In this study, we developed MALDI-TOF MS profiling protocols to identify Anopheles gambiae Giles, Anopheles coluzzii and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes’ mixed blood meals and the last of successive blood meals. The mosquitoes were either successively artificially fed with distinct host bloods or engorged with mixed bloods from distinct vertebrate hosts, such as humans, sheep and dogs.
Blind test analyses revealed a correct identification of mixed blood meals from mosquitoes using MALDI-TOF MS profiling. The 353 MS spectra from mixed blood meals were identified using log score values >1.8. All MS spectra (n = 244) obtained from mosquitoes' successive blood meals were reproducible and specific to the last blood meal, suggesting that the previous blood meals do not have an impact on the identification of the last one.
MALDI-TOF MS profiling approach appears to be an effective and robust technique to identify the last and mixed blood meals during medical entomological surveys.
The aim of this study was to characterize the protein profile of ovarian follicular fluid (FF) of brown brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira). Five adult females received an ovarian stimulation treatment and the FF was collected by laparoscopy from small/medium (≤3.5 mm) and large (>3.5 mm) follicles. Concentrations of soluble proteins in FF samples were measured and proteins were analyzed by 1-D SDS-PAGE followed by tryptic digestion and tandem mass spectrometry. Data from protein list defined after a Mascot database search were analyzed using the STRAP software tool. For the protein concentration, no significant difference (P > 0.05) was observed between small/medium and large follicles: 49.2 ± 22.8 and 56.7 ± 27.4 μg/μl, respectively. Mass spectrometry analysis identified 13 major proteins, but with no significant difference (P > 0.05) between follicle size class. This study provides insight into elucidating folliculogenesis in brown brocket deer.
A variety of studies have investigated endocrinological aspects of ecology, cooperation and immune system activation in Taï chimpanzees, making use of the ever-growing number of validated biomarkers used on non-invasive samples by the endocrinology laboratory at the MPI EVAN. In particular, the measurement of urinary oxytocin allows for insights into benefits of food-sharing, bonds and the potential physiological mechanism behind cooperation. Measures of urinary cortisol in combination with creatinine and C-peptide allow for the investigation of causes of seasonal variation in stress levels while patterns of immune system activation are monitored by the measurement of urinary neopterin. Future studies will profit from combined analysis of endocrine and immune parameters in relation to behaviour and reproductive success to investigate life-history trade-offs. Across-site comparisons of behaviour and endocrine patterns will help us to understand how variation in ecological and physiological parameters form the social setting of a population which leads to relatively low intergroup hostility, low leverage of males over females and relatively high levels of female sociality at Taï.
Dissipation of S-metolachlor, a soil-applied herbicide, on organic and mineral soils used for sugarcane production in Florida was evaluated using field studies in 2013 to 2016. S-metolachlor was applied PRE at 2,270 g ha−1 on organic and mineral soils with 75% and 1.6% organic matter, respectively. The rate of dissipation of S-metolachlor was rapid on mineral soils compared with organic soils. Dissipation of S-metolachlor on organic soils followed a negative linear trend resulting in half-lives (DT50) ranging from 50 to 126 d. S-metolachlor loss on organic soils was more rapid under high soil-moisture conditions than in corresponding low soil-moisture conditions. On mineral soils, dissipation of S-metolachlor followed an exponential decline. The DT50 of S-metolachlor on mineral soils ranged from 12 to 24 d. The short persistence of S-metolachlor on mineral soils was likely attributed to low organic matter content with limited adsorptive capability. The results indicate that organic matter content and soil moisture are important for persistence of S-metolachlor on organic and mineral soils used for sugarcane production in Florida.
Advanced glycation endproducts (AGE) are a group of complex and heterogeneous molecules, sharing some common characteristics such as covalent cross-link formation among proteins, the effect of transforming the colour of food products into yellow-brown colours and fluorescence formation. AGE are linked to many diseases including diabetes, renal diseases, CVD, liver diseases, neuro-degenerative and eye disorders, female reproductive dysfunction, and even cancer. AGE are formed endogenously but are also provided from exogenous sources including diet and tobacco. Western diet, rich in processed and/or heat-treated foods, fat and sugar, increases the exposure to AGE. The foods that contain high levels of fat and protein are generally rich in terms of AGE, and are also prone to AGE formation during cooking compared with carbohydrate-rich foods such as vegetables, fruits, legumes and whole grains. The present article aimed to review the literature about the effects of different cooking methods and conditions on the AGE content of food and AGE formation mechanisms using a comprehensive approach.
Although common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are consumed worldwide, studies on the metabolic fate of phenolic compounds from common beans are still very scarce. The present work aimed to study the bioavailability of phenolic compounds in human plasma and urine, after acute consumption of a single meal of cooked common beans. Blood and urine of seven volunteers were collected before (0 h) and at different time points (1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 h for plasma and 0–2, 2–4, 4–6, 6–8 and 8–24 h for urine) after beans’ intake. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight-MS (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) was used for quantification. After beans’ intake, 405 (sd 3) g, containing 188 mg of phenolic compounds (expressed as gallic acid equivalents), there was a significant increase (P < 0·05) in the plasma concentration of six metabolites and in the urinary excretion of eleven metabolites. After 1 h post-consumption, metabolites, such as kaempferol-3-O-glucuronide, showed a significant increase in plasma concentration, suggesting kaempferol’s glucuronidation in the upper gastrointestinal tract. More than 50 % of the total amount of metabolites, such as 4-methylcatechol-O-sulphate and dihydrocaffeic acid-3-O-sulphate, were excreted after 8 h post-consumption, indicating colonic bacterial metabolism of the phenolic compounds. Partial least square-discriminant analysis models clearly showed clusters of metabolites, which contributed to extend the list of compounds related to cooked common beans’ human intake at different time points and showed the human inter-individual variability in plasma concentration as well as in urinary excreted metabolites, after cooked common beans’ intake.
This paper is intended for dealing with the peristaltic flow of an electrically conducting Williamson nanofluid in a tapered asymmetric channel through a porous medium with heat and mass transfer. In the current paper, temperature-dependent electrical conductivity formulation was introduced for the first time in peristaltic literature. The flow is pervaded by an oblique uniform magnetic field. The present investigation includes the influences of thermal radiation, Joule heat, viscous dissipation, Hall Current, 1st order chemical reaction, and Dofour and Soret numbers. Current problem is reformulated under the molds of low Reynolds number and long wavelength approximation. Afterwards, semi analytical solutions have been evaluated for the distributions of velocity, temperature, nanoparticle concentrations as well as longitudinal pressure gradient. Solutions can be obtained by using multi-step differential transform method (MS-DTM), a reliable and powerful technique that improve accuracy and overcome drawbacks raised in using the standard differential transform method (DTM). Detailed comparisons have been made at different values of 𝑥 through graphs by Ms-DTM. The graphically results were prepared to visualize the effects of various physical parameters of interest. The semi-analytical results had shown that, as the thermal radiation increases, the nanoparticles diameter and concentration of fluid increase (thermal radiation is a decreasing function in temperature when the temperature decreases the diameter of the nanoparticles increases i.e. the volume of nanoparticle and its concentration increases and become more effective near to tumor tissues). Consequently, it can be used as agents for radiation therapy, generate localized raises in radiation doses and selectively target tumor cells for localized damage (Radiotherapy of oncology).
Spheroids—three-dimensional aggregates of cells grown from a cancer cell line—represent a model of living tissue for chemotherapy investigation. Distribution of chemotherapeutics in spheroid sections was determined using the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI MSI). Proliferating or apoptotic cells were immunohistochemically labeled and visualized by laser scanning confocal fluorescence microscopy (LSCM). Drug efficacy was evaluated by comparing coregistered MALDI MSI and LSCM data of drug-treated spheroids with LSCM only data of untreated control spheroids. We developed a fiducial-based workflow for coregistration of low-resolution MALDI MS with high-resolution LSCM images. To allow comparison of drug and cell distribution between the drug-treated and untreated spheroids of different shapes or diameters, we introduced a common diffusion-related coordinate, the distance from the spheroid boundary. In a procedure referred to as “peeling”, we correlated average drug distribution at a certain distance with the average reduction in the affected cells between the untreated and the treated spheroids. This novel approach makes it possible to differentiate between peripheral cells that died due to therapy and the innermost cells which died naturally. Two novel algorithms—for MALDI MS image denoising and for weighting of MALDI MSI and LSCM data by the presence of cell nuclei—are also presented.
Melatonin-rich and 1,8-cineole-rich extracts have been successfully obtained from yellow mustard (YM) and small cardamom (SC) seeds, respectively, employing green technology of supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) extraction. Chemical profiling confirmed the presence of melatonin and 1,8-cineole and co-extractants in the respective extracts. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy attested strong antioxidant activities of the extracts foregoing pan-assay interference compounds involved in spectroscopic analysis. These extracts also exhibited synergistic efficacies greater than unity confirming antioxidant synergy among the co-extracted bioactives therein. To ascertain hypocholesterolaemic efficacies, these extracts were co-administered orally with Triton X (at the pre-optimised dose of 175 mg/kg body weight (BW)) to Wistar albino rats at doses of 550, 175 and 55 mg/kg BW. Serum total cholesterol levels in the rats were monitored on days 3, 7, 15 and 21. On day 21, total cholesterol level reduced appreciably by 49·44 % in rats treated with YM seed extract and by 48·95 % in rats treated with SC seed extract, comparable with atorvastatin-administered rats (51·09 %). Either extract demonstrated inhibitory effects on hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase activity. A molecular docking exercise identified specific compounds in the extracts which possessed binding affinities comparable with therapeutically used HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors. In silico and in vivo studies concertedly concluded that the consortium of bioactive components in the extracts cannot be considered as invalid metabolic panaceas and therefore these ‘green’ extracts could be safely subjected to clinical studies as preventive biotherapeutics for hypercholesterolaemia. These extracts could be consumed per se as hypocholesterolaemic supplements or could be ingredients of new spice-based therapeutic foods.
The brain endocannabinoid system is believed to play significant roles in anti-nociception, fear response, anxiety, and stress. This study investigated the effects of rat inguinal surgery on the levels of endocannabinoids in the cerebral cortex.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of acute post-surgical pain on the levels of endocannabinoids in the cerebral cortex.
Quantitation of endocannabinoids in the rat cerebral cortex was performed by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry.
There was no significant difference in the cerebral cortical levels of anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) between the sham and surgery experimental groups. However, there were lateralized differences in the levels of these endocannabinoids between the right and left cerebral cortices irrespective of the two groups. The concentrations of AEA and 2-AG were significantly higher in the right cerebral cortex compared to the contralateral cerebral cortex.
Acute post-surgical pain did not induce significant alterations in the cerebral cortical levels of endocannabinoids in this study, but the phenomenon of lateralization of the cerebral cortical AEA and 2-AG levels was observed; this latter finding may be related to the role played by endocannabinoids in fear conditioning.
Social cognitive deficits are an important consequence of multiple sclerosis (MS), yet our understanding of how these deficits manifest in progressive MS is currently limited. To this end, we examined theory of mind (ToM) ability in a sample of individuals with progressive MS using an ecologically valid virtual assessment tool that allows for delineation of cognitive ToM (inferring thoughts and intentions of others) from affective ToM (inferring emotions of others).
Methods & Results:
We compared 15 individuals with progressive MS and 15 healthy controls on their ToM ability using the Virtual Assessment of Mentalising Ability. We found that, relative to healthy controls, participants with progressive MS were impaired in cognitive ToM, but not in affective ToM. Furthermore, we found that the MS participants’ deficits in cognitive ToM were mediated by their general cognitive ability such that poor cognitive ToM ability in MS was explained by poor performance on tests of memory and processing speed.
Our findings demonstrate that ToM deficits in progressive MS may be limited to cognitive ToM, while affective ToM is conserved. This could be attributable to the MS-related deficits in general cognitive ability, which appear to negatively affect only the cognitive component of ToM.
This research examined dicamba measurements following an application to soil inside a humidome. The dicamba formulations examined were the diglycolamine (DGA) and diglycolamine plus VaporGrip® (DGA+VG), both applied with glyphosate. Post-application dicamba measurements were related to ambient temperature, with more dicamba detected as the temperature increased. There also appeared to be a minimum temperature of ~15 C at which dicamba decreased to low levels. The addition of glyphosate to dicamba formulations decreased the spray mixture pH and increased the observed dicamba air concentrations. Adding glyphosate to DGA+VG increased detectable dicamba air concentrations by 2.9 to 9.3 times across the temperature ranges examined. Particle drift would not be expected to be a factor in the research, as applications were made remotely before treated soil was transported into the greenhouse. The most probable reason for the increased detection of dicamba at higher temperatures and with mixtures of glyphosate is via volatility.
The objective of this study was to identify potential recruitment sources of Prochilodus lineatus from freshwater areas (Paraná and Uruguay rivers) to estuarine population of the Río de la Plata Estuary (La Plata Basin, South America), considering young (age-1) and adult (age-7) fish. LA-ICP-MS chemical analysis of the otolith core (nine element:Ca ratios) of an unknown mixed sample from Río de la Plata Estuary (2011 and 2017) was compared with a young-of-year baseline data set (same cohort) and classified into freshwater nurseries (Paraná or Uruguay river) by using maximum classification-likelihood models (MLE and MCL) and quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA). Considering the three models used, the Uruguay River was the most important contributor for both young and adult populations. The young population (2011) was highly mixed with contributions between 31.7 to 68.3%, while the degree of mixing was found to decrease in 2017 (adult fish) from 97.1 to 100% contributions. The three employed methods showed comparable estimates, however, the QDA showed a high similarity with the MCL model, suggesting sensitivity to evaluate small contributions, unlike the MLE method. Our results show the potential application of maximum likelihood mixture models and QDA for determining the relative importance of recruitment sources of fish in estuarine waters of the La Plata Basin.
Vitamin D deficiency is recognised as a public health problem globally, and a high prevalence of deficiency has previously been reported in Australia. This study details the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in a nationally representative sample of Australian adults aged ≥25 years, using an internationally standardised method to measure serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations and identifies demographic and lifestyle factors associated with vitamin D deficiency. We used data from the 2011–2013 Australian Health Survey (n 5034 with complete information on potential predictors and serum 25(OH)D concentrations). Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were measured by a liquid chromatography-tandem MS that is certified to the reference measurement procedures developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology, Ghent University and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency were defined as serum 25(OH)D concentrations <50 nmol/l and 50 to <75 nmol/l, respectively. Overall, 20 % of participants (19 % men; 21 % women) were classified as vitamin D deficient, with a further 43 % classified as insufficient (45 % men; 42 % women). Independent predictors of vitamin D deficiency included being born in a country other than Australia or the main English-speaking countries, residing in southern (higher latitude) states of Australia, being assessed during winter or spring, being obese, smoking (women only), having low physical activity levels and not taking vitamin D or Ca supplements. Given our increasingly indoor lifestyles, there is a need to develop and promote strategies to maintain adequate vitamin D status through safe sun exposure and dietary approaches.
Pharmacotherapy of multiple sclerosis (MS) is evolving rapidly. Despite impressive gains over the past 2 decades in the approval of multiple drugs for MS, lack of recruitment of minorities with MS in phase 3 clinical studies is a persistent concern and skews efficacy and disability data.
Samples of graphite from a RBMK-1500 reactor at the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant from different construction elements (stack, sleeve, and bushing) were analyzed by the instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) method (LVR-15 experimental reactor of the Research Centre Řež, Ltd.) using the prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) method (Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum) and with an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) (CPST, Lithuania). These measurements were performed with the aim of obtaining the missing information on the impurity distribution in the RBMK-type nuclear graphite constructions as well as for intercomparison purposes, with the results measured in the graphite sleeve samples previously obtained by INAA & GDMS (Glow Discharge Mass Spectrometry) at CEA Saclay, France, and ICP-MS (CPST, Lithuania) methods. Validation of the ICP-MS method for the nuclear graphite impurity concentration determination was proven. The experimentally obtained RBMK-1500 graphite impurity values in different graphite constructions were compared with other measurements and new limits of the possible maximal concentrations of nuclear RBMK graphite impurity concentrations were obtained.
Australian mosquito species significantly impact human health through nuisance biting and the transmission of endemic and exotic pathogens. Surveillance programmes designed to provide an early warning of mosquito-borne disease risk require reliable identification of mosquitoes. This study aimed to investigate the viability of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization–Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) as a rapid and inexpensive approach to the identification of Australian mosquitoes and was validated using a three-step taxonomic approach. A total of 300 mosquitoes representing 21 species were collected from south-eastern New South Wales and morphologically identified. The legs from the mosquitoes were removed and subjected to MALDI-TOF MS analysis. Fifty-eight mosquitoes were sequenced at the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1) gene region and genetic relationships were analysed. We create the first MALDI-TOF MS spectra database of Australian mosquito species including 19 species. We clearly demonstrate the accuracy of MALDI-TOF MS for identification of Australian mosquitoes. It is especially useful for assessing gaps in the effectiveness of DNA barcoding by differentiating closely related taxa. Indeed, cox1 DNA barcoding was not able to differentiate members of the Culex pipiens group, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. pipiens molestus, but these specimens were correctly identified using MALDI-TOF MS.
We studied host discrimination in flight morph of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) among the legume plants Ife-brown (IB) and black-eyed (BE) cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp), soybean (SB), and Glycine max (L.) and analysed legume volatiles towards developing an attractant for C. maculatus. Olfactometry studies were conducted to investigate attraction of mated 3–4-day-old female C. maculatus to legume plants with the green pod (PGP), green pods (GP), plant with the ripened pod (PRP), ripened pod (RP), and plant without pod (PWP). We also assessed the response of beetles to phenological stages of the most attractive legume. In Y-tube bioassays, C. maculatus showed greater attraction to individual legumes at three phenological stages: PGP (73–93%), PRP (80–100%), and RP (63–93%) compared with PWP (6–36%). In four-choice bioassays, C. maculatus preferred IB at all stages to other legumes. SB had an insignificant attraction on the beetle. The RP of IB was the most attractive part of the plant. Gas chromatography (GC) and GC–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analyses of volatiles emitted by RP of the legumes revealed a variation in the compositions of odour blends. Benzaldehyde was found in the volatiles of IB and BE with a higher emission in IB. Octanone was detected only in IB. The two compounds were undetected in SB volatiles. These results reveal that in addition to infesting cowpea plants at RP stage as reported in previous studies, C. maculatus could also infest cowpea plants at the GP stage.
This paper evaluates the complexities of radiocarbon (14C) dates from soil organic matter (SOM) in archaeological scenarios. The aqueous NaOH-insoluble residual SOM from Neolithic to medieval sites in NW Spain produced consistently older calibrated 14C ages than NaOH-extractable SOM. Using pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) and thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation (THM-GC-MS), we analyzed the molecular composition of these SOM fractions, aiming to understand the differences in 14C ages and to gain insight on SOM dynamics in relation to age fractionation. The molecular composition of the NaOH-extractable SOM, which accounts for roughly two-thirds of total SOM, has a larger proportion of microbial detritus than the NaOH-insoluble SOM. This might suggest that the discrepancies between the two fractions is due to microbial rejuvenation in the extractable fraction, leading to 14C results that are younger than the activity that is to be dated. However, archaeological evidence presented here unambiguously shows that the 14C age of the extractable SOM provides the more accurate age for the targeted activity, and that the insoluble fraction contains inherited old carbon. After statistical data evaluation using Partial Least Squares-Regression (PLS-R), it is concluded that this inherited SOM is a mixture of Black Carbon from wild and/or domestic fires and recalcitrant aliphatic SOM.