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This chapter underpins the book and presents the argument in summary. China's legislative system provides entrepreneurial actors with opportunities to advance their own interests. In joining local legislatures, private entrepreneurs are building a system of selective property rights. This chapter discusses contribution to the literature of property rights and economic growth, property protection and authoritarian institution. It then introduces the methodology and data. It ends with a roadmap for the rest of the book.
In this essay, I present an account of forgiveness as a process of emotional distancing. The central claim is that, understood in these terms, forgiveness does not require a change in judgment. Rationally forgiving someone, in other words, does not require that one judges the significance of the wrongdoing differently or that one comes to the conclusion that the attitudes behind it have changed in a favorable way. The model shows in what sense forgiving is inherently social, shows why we should be pluralists about it, and provides a basis for arguing against the existence of necessary conditions of forgiving.
In the specific design of public policy interventions, reciprocity, somewhat strangely, has until relatively recently been largely overlooked as a key motivator of human behaviour. Rather, the debate on public sector governance and human motivation has tended to focus on the dichotomy of pure altruism and selfish egoism, with the latter generally winning out over recent decades, because the egoism that some have interpreted as being essential to achieve efficiency in the economic exchange has also been embraced by many as applicable to social exchanges. Yet this chapter argues that when we examine the writings of the classical economists we find that over complex goods with much asymmetry of information, the assumption that people either should be or are selfish egoists is not integral to efficient economic exchange, let alone social exchange. The modern supporters of using egoism to inform the design of public policy may contend that this admittedly ever-present aspect of human behaviour can be harnessed to positive ends, but by legitimising egoism we will perhaps crowd out reciprocal altruism, to the detriment of group cooperation.
Although psychologists have paid scant attention to the sense of obligation as a distinctly human motivation, moral philosophers have identified two of its key features: first, it has a peremptory, demanding force, with a kind of coercive quality, and second, it is often tied to agreement-like social interactions (e.g., promises) in which breaches prompt normative protest, on the one side, and apologies, excuses, justifications, and guilt, on the other. Drawing on empirical research in comparative and developmental psychology, we provide here a psychological foundation for these unique features by showing that the human sense of obligation is intimately connected developmentally with the formation of a shared agent “we”, which not only directs collaborative efforts but also self-regulates them. Thus, children's sense of obligation is first evident inside, but not outside, of collaborative activities structured by joint agency with a partner, and it is later evident in attitudes toward in-group, but not out-group, members connected by collective agency. When you and I voluntarily place our fate in one another's hands in interdependent collaboration - scaled up to our lives together in an interdependent cultural group - this transforms the instrumental pressure that individuals feel when pursuing individual goals into the pressure that "we" put on me (who needs to preserve my cooperative identity in this “we”) to live up to our shared expectations: a we>me self-regulation. The human sense of obligation may thus be seen as a kind of self-conscious motivation.
The expectations of the impact of technology for language teaching and learning have often exceeded the actual results themselves, where emerging technologies are often believed to be more effective than existing ones simply because they are newer, with little consideration of the differences in associated pedagogies (see Bax, 2003; Levy & Stockwell, 2006). Technology is often believed to be inherently motivating for students and linked to the development of autonomy. The realities of technology and its influence on motivation are proving to be somewhat more complex than perceived for both language teachers and learners (Stockwell, 2013). Technology can provide opportunities for motivated learners but is unlikely to lead to motivation or autonomous behavior in many learners unless appropriate pedagogies are applied that capitalize on the affordances of the technologies and include sufficient training in how to use the technologies for language learning purposes (see Reinders, 2018a). At the same time, the role of teachers in the classroom and their attitudes toward their environment and the pressures that they face (Mercer & Kostoulas, 2018) can also impact technology implementation. This article brings together these three interrelated areas and explores how they link to technology: learner motivation and autonomy, teacher psychology, and pedagogical considerations.
We examined whether undergraduates’ achievement goal orientations could be represented as profiles and whether profiles were linked to self-reported motivation, epistemic beliefs and academic achievement. Data collected during an undergraduate course were analyzed using a clustering technique. Using the 2 × 2 goal model (Elliot & McGregor, 2001), we identified five achievement goal profiles. Our findings suggest the interaction of goal orientations supports varying interpretations of students’ motivation and learning beliefs. Although no statistically significant differences in achievement were found across clusters, a High-Approach-Low-Avoidance cluster displayed an adaptive profile that was most positive towards learning and self but least anxious about exams. In contrast, a Performance-Avoidance-Dominant cluster demonstrated a maladaptive pattern of lowest self-efficacy and task value, and higher anxiety. Further, High-Approach-Low-Avoidance and Low-Performance-Avoidance clusters recognized that knowledge is not simple and authority could be questioned, compared to the other groups.
Mental imagery refers to the experience of perception in the absence of external sensory input. Deficits in the ability to generate mental imagery or to distinguish it from actual sensory perception are linked to neurocognitive conditions such as dementia and schizophrenia, respectively. However, the importance of mental imagery to psychiatry extends beyond neurocognitive impairment. Mental imagery has a stronger link to emotion than verbal-linguistic cognition, serving to maintain and amplify emotional states, with downstream impacts on motivation and behavior. As a result, anomalies in the occurrence of emotion-laden mental imagery has transdiagnostic significance for emotion, motivation, and behavioral dysfunction across mental disorders. This review aims to demonstrate the conceptual and clinical significance of mental imagery in psychiatry through examples of mood and anxiety disorders, self-harm and suicidality, and addiction. We contend that focusing on mental imagery assessment in research and clinical practice can increase our understanding of the cognitive basis of psychopathology in mental disorders, with the potential to drive the development of algorithms to aid treatment decision-making and inform transdiagnostic treatment innovation.
Rangers in the Democratic Republic of the Congo are working to conserve some of the largest remaining blocks of tropical rainforest, along with iconic species that are being targeted by poachers for subsistence or commercial purposes. During 2015–2016 we surveyed 72% of Kahuzi–Biega National Park rangers to assess their level of job satisfaction, why they chose to become rangers, what they liked and disliked about their job, and what affected their motivation to conduct their work. We used a cumulative link model to assess how various factors affected their self-reported level of job satisfaction. The rangers surveyed had been working in the Park for 16 years on average and most chose this occupation to earn a salary, to conserve wildlife or to serve their country. Overall, ranger job satisfaction was low; however, our findings highlight numerous ways in which this could be improved. These include higher salaries, more promotion opportunities, better recognition from the Congolese wildlife authority and other state services, positive performance incentives, better security, improved living conditions in remote patrol posts, and more support from the judicial system. Ranger patrol assignment (i.e. type of patrol and Park sector to patrol), receiving free housing at the Park headquarters, age, and length of service were statistically significant predictors of job satisfaction. It is likely that increasing ranger job satisfaction would result in a higher commitment to protecting wildlife, improved performance, and positive outcomes for wildlife conservation.
While research on the role of employees’ characteristics as core to transformational leadership theory is burgeoning, limited research has focused on the differing aspects of employees’ self-determined motivation as mediating mechanism through which transformational leadership may impact outcomes. Drawing on the self-determined theory of motivation, we build and test a theoretical model linking employees’ perceptions of transformational leadership with engagement through an intervening variable of differing aspects of employees’ self-determined motivation. Data from a sample of 155 participants revealed that employees’ perceptions of transformational leadership were positively related to employees’ self-determined motivation (intrinsic, autonomous, and controlled) and work engagement. Specifically, self-determined motivation (intrinsic, autonomous) was positively linked with work engagement while intrinsic, autonomous and controlled dimensions of self-determined motivation mediated the relationship between transformational leadership and work engagement. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of the results.
Watching videotaped personal compulsions together with a therapist might enhance the effect of cognitive–behavioural therapy in obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) but little is known about how patients experience this.
To performed a qualitative study that describes how watching these videos influences motivation for treatment and whether patients report any adverse events.
In this qualitative study, data were gathered in semi-structured interviews with 24 patients with OCD. The transcripts were coded by two researchers. They used a combination of open and thematic coding and discrepancies in coding were discussed.
The experience of watching videos with personal compulsions helped patients to realise that these compulsions are aberrant and irrational. Patients report increased motivation to resist their OCD and to adhere to therapy. No adverse events were reported.
Videos with personal compulsions create more awareness in patients with OCD that compulsions are irrational, leading to enhanced motivation for treatment.
To explore people’s perceptions of, and responses to, obesity and tobacco policies with a particular focus on motivation; and to compare and contrast responses to explore the potential for translating learning across domains.
A theoretically informed comparative qualitative study involving semi-structured interviews with two groups of participants (smokers and ex-smokers; those who have previously or are currently attempting to lose weight). Data were analysed inductively using thematic analysis and interpreted through the lens of Self-Determination Theory.
Interviews were conducted with five smokers and four ex-smokers around tobacco policy, and seventeen people acting to control their weight around obesity policy.
Three primary themes were identified. (i) Participants believed social norms to be crucial to supporting health behaviour change and responses to policy; not smoking was perceived as socially normal, whereas being physically active and eating healthily were perceived to go against social norms. (ii) Policies influencing the physical environment were perceived to support stopping smoking (e.g. smoke-free laws, advertising bans), but to undermine attempts to lose or control weight (e.g. high visibility, availability and low cost of energy-dense foods). (iii) While policies for both domains were considered necessary and legitimate, both groups found policy interventions neither motivating nor undermining of their sense of autonomy.
The results suggest those trying to lose weight respond similarly to obesity-related policy as smokers do to tobacco policy. Environmental interventions are perceived to be more helpful than appealing to people’s motivation to change for their own sake.
A lack of motivation and anhedonia represent frequent and pervasive symptoms in depression, although with poor specificity. Historically described as a response bias, reward-related impairments in depression may account for the important aspects of the cognitive impairments associated with diagnosis of major depressive disorder. Reward processing is a broad psychological construct that can be parsed into 3 distinct components known as “reinforcement learning” (learning), “reward responsiveness” (liking), and “motivation to obtain a reward” (wanting). Depressed patients respond hyposensitively to reward and maladaptively to punishment: this pattern is related to a dysfunction in the frontostriatal systems modulated by the monoamine systems; seems to be observed in medicated and unmedicated patients with depression and in healthy individuals with high levels of anhedonia; and could be observed in patients with a history of depression, even when in full remission. Considered to be cognitive impairments, reward-related-impairments may also constitute part of an underlying neurobiological vulnerability to major depressive disorder (MDD). For example, the reward-related impairment is state dependent and, more or less, correlated with symptom severity in some studies but has also been proposed as being trait like, with endophenotype characteristics, possibly contributing to the persistence of the disease or treatment resistance. The 3 core aspects of reward processing have specific neurobiological correlates that involve the ventral and dorsal striatum, lateral habenula, ventral tegmental area, orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and ventromedial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. These structures underline the important role of the dopaminergic mesolimbic pathway, but glutamate and serotonin could also have an important role, at least in some aspects of reward-related impairments.
Plant secondary metabolites (PSM) are one of the promising options to control gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep and goats. The objective of this study was to assess the abilities of sheep and goats to self-medicate with tannin-rich sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) (SF) when infected with gastrointestinal nematodes, using a cafeteria and an operant conditioning trial. Hypotheses were that parasitized (P) lambs and goat kids would show greater intake and preference for SF than their non-parasitized (NP) counterparts, that kids would eat more SF than lambs (due to their lower resistance against parasites and their greater ability to consume PSM), and that SF intake would increase over time for P animals. We used 20 female kids and 20 ewe lambs aged 3 months. Half of the animals per species (n = 10) were experimentally infected with 170 L3 larvae of Haemonchus contortus/kg of BW (P). The other half were free from parasites throughout the study (NP). Five weeks after infection, animals were exposed to a 24-day cafeteria trial (three 8-day periods) offering a free choice between two legume pellets: SF (3.8% condensed tannins) and alfalfa (ALF, Medicago sativa; no tannin). Subsequently, animals were involved in an operant conditioning trial of two 4-day long sessions, to assess in short-term tests their motivation to walk for a SF reward when offered in choice with freely available ALF. In the cafeteria trial, SF preference was greater in kids than in lambs, particularly in the first two periods. We did not observe a greater preference for SF in P animals, which was even greater in NP animals for periods 1 and 2. Sainfoin intake increased through periods for P animals, which led to similar SF preferences for all groups during period 3. In the operant-conditioning trial, motivation to get the SF reward was similar between P and NP animals. These results support the hypotheses that goats are more willing to consume tanniferous feeds than sheep, and that P animals increased SF intake through time. However, the emergence of a curative self-medicative behaviour was not supported, as P individuals did not show greater SF intake, preference, nor a greater motivation to get SF than NP animals, regardless of animal species. These findings are discussed with previous results and some explanations are presented.
Terrorism, while not new in the history of humanity, has become a major issue and
challenge for contemporary society worldwide. Recently it has become embodied and symbolized
by the “Islamic State in Iraq and Syria” (ISIS) in its many permutations in the Middle East,
the focus of massive military intervention on the part of major world powers and of study,
analysis, strategy and planning. One aspect that has distinguished ISIS from previous
terrorist movements is a major migration of women, especially but not limited to Western
Europe, joining the jihad proclaimed by the religious leaders of ISIS. This
introduction to the special issue on Female Migration to ISIS surveys and identifies the
known possible roots of the phenomenon and related issues, summarizes major known points
relative to it, and outlines the future agenda of work, not only academic but also practical
and strategic, to be followed. Balanced recommendations on how to build a promising
intervention strategy not only based on military force are put forth for consideration and
discussion. While based on research, this article should be considered more of an editorial,
generally introducing the field, summarizing existing work, especially the content of this
special issue, and pointing out work needed in the future.
Motivation and coping are two of the most relevant factors associated to well-being. One of our objectives was to describe the motivation to pursue the personal goals, the coping strategies used to pursue them, and the levels of well-being experienced, in a group of people serving prison sentences (n = 175: 143 males and 32 females). We mainly wanted to study the joint contribution of motivation and coping on their well-being. The results have shown that motivation and coping contribute to the different dimensions of well-being. Specifically, we have found that autonomous motivation (AM) as well as problem solving (PS) and positive cognitive restructuring (PCR) coping positively predict self-acceptance (β = .12, p = .06; β = .17, p < .05; β = .24, p < .01 respectively), purpose in life (β = .12, p = .06; β = .35, p < .001 and β = .24, p < .001 respectively) and positive affect (β = .13, p = .06; β = .29, p < .001 and β = .28, p < .001 respectively). Personal growth was positively predicted by AM (β = .21, p < .01) and PCR coping (β = .21, p < .01), and negatively by avoidance coping (β = –.16, p < .05). Negative affect was positively predicted by social support (β = .16, p < .05) and avoidance (β = .42, p < .001) coping. None of the variables analyzed predicted life satisfaction. The results suggest that well-being promotion programs in prison settings should encourage the pursuit of goals by AM and the use of PS and PCR coping to achieve these goals.
Workgroup relationships are characterized by interdependence and intensity and can produce powerful norms that shape how work is performed. This study focuses on the effect of workgroup accord, defined as positive exchange, cooperation, and consensus among workgroup members, on change-oriented behavior in public service organizations. Change-oriented behavior denotes discretionary corrective or creative initiatives on the part of employees, and workgroup accord is hypothesized to increase change-oriented behavior both directly and indirectly via organizational commitment. The theoretical model is operationalized using survey data collected from employees of the Australian Public Service. The results of regression analysis are consistent with the hypothesis that workgroup accord positively influences organizational commitment, which in turn facilitates change-oriented behavior. However, a negative direct effect renders the total effect of workgroup accord on change-oriented behavior non-significant. Additionally, the findings suggest that innovation climate and employee performance agreement efficacy each positively moderate the negative relationship between workgroup accord and change-oriented behavior.
In an effort to optimize patient outcomes, considerable attention is being devoted to identifying patient characteristics associated with major depressive disorder (MDD) and its responsiveness to treatment. In the current study, we extend this work by evaluating whether early change in these sensitivities is associated with response to antidepressant treatment for MDD.
Participants included 210 patients with MDD who were treated with 8 weeks of escitalopram and 112 healthy comparison participants. Of the original 210 patients, 90 non-responders received adjunctive aripiprazole for an additional 8 weeks. Symptoms of depression and anhedonia were assessed at the beginning of treatment and 8 weeks later in both samples. Reward and punishment sensitivity were assessed using the BIS/BAS scales measured at the initiation of treatment and 2 weeks later.
Individuals with MDD exhibited higher punishment sensitivity and lower reward sensitivity compared with healthy comparison participants. Change in reward sensitivity during the first 2 weeks of treatment was associated with improved depressive symptoms and anhedonia following 8 weeks of treatment with escitalopram. Similarly, improvement in reward responsiveness during the first 2 weeks of adjunctive therapy with aripiprazole was associated with fewer symptoms of depression at post-treatment.
Findings highlight the predictive utility of early change in reward sensitivity during antidepressant treatment for major depression. In a clinical setting, a lack of change in early reward processing may signal a need to modify a patient's treatment plan with alternative or augmented treatment approaches.
The Virtual Personalities Model is a motive-based neural network model that provides both a psychological model and a computational implementation that explicates the dynamics and often large within-person variability in behavior that arises over time. At the same time the same model can produce—across many virtual personalities—between-subject variability in behavior that when factor analyzed yields familiar personality structure (e.g., the Big Five). First, we describe our personality model and its implementation as a neural network model. Second, we focus on detailing the neurobiological underpinnings of this model. Third, we examine the learning mechanisms, and their biological substrates, as ways that the model gets “wired up,” discussing Pavlovian and Instrumental conditioning, Pavlovian to Instrumental transfer, and habits. Finally, we describe the dynamics of how initial differences in propensities (e.g., dopamine functioning), wiring differences due to experience, and other factors could operate together to develop and change personality over time, and how this might be empirically examined. Thus, our goal is to contribute to the rising chorus of voices seeking a more precise neurobiologically based science of the complex dynamics underlying personality.
Free time is considered to be a very important aspect of adolescents’ psychosocial development. One of the instruments that has been developed to explore motivation in relation to free time activities is Baldwin and Caldwell’s (2003) Free Time Motivation Scale for Adolescents (FTMS-A), based on Ryan and Deci (2000) Self-Determination Theory. The main aim of this study is to explore the psychometric properties of the FTM S-A after its translation and adaptation to Catalan, administering it to a sample of 2,263 adolescents aged between 11 and 18 (M = 14.99; SD = 1.79) from Catalonia, Spain. To explore structural validity we follow two steps: Firstly, we analyze how the scale fits with the original model by conducting a CFA on the whole sample; secondly, we conduct an EFA on one half of the sample and a CFA on the other half in order to identify which structure best suits the sample. We also analyze convergent validity using three indicators of subjective well-being: The Personal Well-Being Index (PWI), the Satisfaction with Life scale (SWLS) and the Overall Life Satisfaction scale (OLS). The initial CFA produces a 5-factor model like the original, but with goodness of fit indices that do not reach the acceptable minimum. The EFA and the second CFA show a good fit for a 3-dimensional model (χ2(90) = 320.293; RMSEA = .048; NNFI = .92; CFI = .94) comprising introjected motivation, intrinsic motivation and amotivation. The correlations obtained between the FTMS-A and the three measures of subjective well-being scales show an association between free time motivations and this construct. Due to the model of scale used in the present study differs from the original, it is proposed that the new scale structure with 16 items be tested in the future in different cultural contexts.
Party activists are important for building party–voter
links. This study focuses on the motivations of
these activists and the hypothesis that economic
factors are associated with more programmatic and
policy-driven platforms. I examine a novel
comparative survey data set of party activists
collected in multiple districts in South Korea and
Mongolia to determine whether national economic
development, the local economy, or individual income
shapes activist motivations. The results challenge
the economic account and, instead, shed light on the
importance of party characteristics, such as size,
ideology, and whether a party has its roots in