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Rule combination can contribute to morphological simplicity. Synchronically, rule combinations (like word combinations) are sometimes stored as formulaic units, and this fact contributes to a morphological system’s processing simplicity, since accessing a stored rule combination directly is simpler than decomposing that combination into its component rules for separate lookup. Stored, formulaic rule combinations may also contribute to diachronic simplifications of a language’s morphology, since they are the locus of reanalyses that may eventuate in “affix telescoping,” the development of a rule combination into a simple rule. But affix telescoping is not a monolithic phenomenon; it involves the reduction of a rule combination’s combinatory transparency along at least four dimensions. Thus, it is possible to find rule combinations that are progressing toward reanalysis as simple rules without yet having reached the point of reanalysis.
This paper demonstrates that morphological change tends to involve the replacement of low frequency forms in inflectional paradigms by innovative forms based on high frequency forms, using Greek data involving the diachronic reorganisation of verbal inflection classes. A computational procedure is outlined for generating a possibility space of morphological changes which can be represented as analogical proportions, on the basis of synchronic paradigms in ancient Greek. I then show how supplementing analogical proportions with token frequency information can help to predict whether a hypothetical change actually took place in the language’s subsequent development. Because of the crucial role of inflected surface forms serving as analogical bases in this model, I argue that the results support theories in which inflected forms can be stored whole in the lexicon.
The effects of simulated trampling on shoot morphology and ethylene production of a trampling-tolerant perennial forb asiatic plantain were investigated. Trampling increased the number of leaves or inflorescences per plant, the petiole diameter, and the leaf blade length to width ratio but decreased the leaf blade width to petiole diameter ratio and the inflorescence length. Ramets subjected to trampling produced more ethylene than did nontrampled ramets originating from the same root crown. Moreover, an ethylene releaser ethephon decreased the leaf blade width to petiole diameter ratio and increased the leaf blade length to width ratio, in a manner similar to the changes induced by trampling. These results suggested that trampling-induced ethylene might be closely related to some of the adaptive morphological changes in asiatic plantain in response to trampling.
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