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Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a multifactor pathology. Animal studies and cohort studies suggest that poor nutrient intake after birth increases risk of BPD. The objective of this study is to determine the existence of association between BPD in VLBW and energy intake during the first week of life. We recorded in a retrospective cohort study the intake of enteral and parenteral macronutrients during this period, by examining the nutritional and clinical history of 450 VLBW newborns admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. After applying the relevant exclusion criteria, data for 389 VLBW infants were analysed, of whom 159 developed some degree of BPD. Among the newborns with BPD, energy and lipid intake was significantly lower, and fluid intake was significantly higher. The energy intake for the 25th percentile in the group without BPD was 425 kcal/kg during the first week of life. An energy intake <425 kcal/kg in this period was associated with a twofold increase in the adjusted risk of BPD (OR 2.63, 95% CI: 1.30-5.34). The early nutrition and the increase of energy intake in the first week of life is associated in our sample with a lower risk of BPD developing.
A systematic review and network meta-analysis (NMA) were conducted to address the question, ‘What is the efficacy of litter management strategies to reduce morbidity, mortality, condemnation at slaughter, or total antibiotic use in broilers?’ Eligible studies were clinical trials published in English evaluating the efficacy of litter management in broilers on morbidity, condemnations at slaughter, mortality, or total antibiotic use. Multiple databases and two conference proceedings were searched for relevant literature. After relevance screening and data extraction, there were 50 trials evaluating litter type, 22 trials evaluating litter additives, 10 trials comparing fresh to re-used litter, and six trials evaluating floor type. NMAs were conducted for mortality (61 trials) and for the presence or absence of footpad lesions (15 trials). There were no differences in mortality among the litter types, floor types, or additives. For footpad lesions, peat moss appeared beneficial compared to straw, based on a small number of comparisons. In a pairwise meta-analysis, there was no association between fresh versus used litter on the risk of mortality, although there was considerable heterogeneity among studies (I2 = 66%). There was poor reporting of key design features in many studies, and analyses rarely accounted for non-independence of observations within flocks.
As life expectancy increases, more people have chronic psychiatric and medical health disorders. Comorbidity may increase the risk of premature mortality, an important challenge for health service delivery.
Population-based cohort study in Ontario, Canada of all 11 246 910 residents aged ⩾16 and <105 on 1 April 2012 and alive on 31 March 2014. Secondary analyses included subjects having common medical disorders in 10 separate cohorts. Exposures were psychiatric morbidity categories identified using aggregated diagnosis groups (ADGs) from Johns Hopkins Adjusted Clinical Groups software® (v10.0); ADG 25: Persistent/Recurrent unstable conditions; e.g. acute schizophrenic episode, major depressive disorder (recurrent episode), ADG 24: Persistent/Recurrent stable conditions; e.g. depressive disorder, paranoid personality disorder, ADG 23: Time-limited/minor conditions; e.g. adjustment reaction with brief depressive reaction. The outcome was all-cause mortality (April 2014–March 2016).
Over 2 years' follow-up, there were 188 014 deaths (1.7%). ADG 25 conferred an almost threefold excess mortality after adjustment compared to having no psychiatric morbidity [adjusted hazard ratio 2.94 (95% CI 2.91–2.98, p < 0.0001)]. Adjusted hazard ratios for ADG 24 and ADG 23 were 1.12 (95% CI 1.11–1.14, p < 0.0001) and 1.31 (95% CI 1.26–1.36, p < 0.0001). In all 10 medical disorder cohorts, ADG 25 carried significantly greater mortality risk compared to no psychiatric comorbidity.
Psychiatric disorders, particularly those graded persistent/recurrent and unstable, were associated with excess mortality in the whole population, and in the medical disorder cohorts examined. Future research should examine whether service design accounting for psychiatric disorder comorbidity improves outcomes across the spectrum of medical disorders.
Aboriginal Australians experience higher rates of non-communicable chronic disease, injury, dementia, and mortality than non-Aboriginal Australians. Self-reported health is a holistic measure and may fit well with Aboriginal views of health and well-being. This study aimed to identify predictors of self-reported health in older Aboriginal Australians and determine acceptable research methodologies for future aging research.
Longitudinal, population-based study.
Five communities across New South Wales, Australia (two urban and three regional sites).
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people (n = 227; 60–88 years, M = 66.06, SD = 5.85; 145 female).
Participants completed baseline (demographic, medical, cognitive, mental health, and social factors) and follow-up assessments (self-reported health quantified with 5-point scale; sharing thoughts on areas important for future research). Predictors of self-reported health were examined using logistic regression analyses.
Self-reported health was associated with sex, activities of daily living, social activity participation, resilience, alcohol use, kidney problems, arthritis, falls, and recent hospitalization. Arthritis, kidney problems, and resilience remained significant in multiple logistic regression models.
Perceived resilience and the absence of certain chronic age-related conditions predict older Aboriginal peoples’ self-reported health. Understanding these factors could inform interventions to improve well-being. Findings on acceptable research methodologies suggest that many older Aboriginal people would embrace a range of methodologies within long-standing research partnerships, which is an important consideration for Indigenous population research internationally.
Ethnic inequalities in health outcomes are often explained by socioeconomic status and concentrated poverty. However, ethnic disparities in psychotic experiences are not completely attenuated by these factors.
We investigated whether disparities are better explained by interactions between individual risk factors and place-based clustering of disadvantage, termed a syndemic.
We performed a cross-sectional survey of 3750 UK men, aged 18–34 years, oversampling Black and minority ethnic (BME) men nationally, together with men residing in London Borough of Hackney. Participants completed questionnaires covering psychiatric symptoms, substance misuse, crime and violence, and risky sexual health behaviours. We included five psychotic experiences and a categorical measure of psychosis based on the Psychosis Screening Questionnaire.
At national level, more Black men reported psychotic experiences but disparities disappeared following statistical adjustment for social position. However, large disparities for psychotic experiences in Hackney were not attenuated by adjustment for social factors in Black men (adjusted odds ratio, 3.24; 95% CI 2.14–4.91; P < 0.002), but were for South Asian men. A syndemic model of joint effects, adducing a four-component latent variable (psychotic experiences and anxiety, substance dependence, high-risk sexual behaviour and violence and criminality) showed synergy between components and explained persistent disparities in psychotic experiences. A further interaction confirmed area-level effects (Black ethnicity × Hackney residence, 0.834; P < 0.001).
Syndemic effects result in higher rates of non-affective psychosis among BME persons in certain inner-urban settings. Further research should investigate how syndemics raise levels of psychotic experiences and related health conditions in Black men in specific places with multiple deprivations.
Declaration of interest
K.B. is Editor in Chief of the British Journal of Psychiatry but played no part in the review and decision process.
Cancer diagnosis affects patients, their families, and their caregivers in particular. This study focused on the validation of the CareGiver Oncology Quality of Life (CarGOQoL) questionnaire in Portuguese caregivers of patients with multiple myeloma, from the caregiver's point of view.
This was a cross-sectional study with 146 caregivers of patients with multiple myeloma from outpatient medical oncology and clinical hematology consultations from five hospitals in north and central Portugal. Participants were assessed on quality of life (QoL), psychological morbidity and social support.
The Portuguese version maintains 17 of the original 29 items version, maintaining general coherence and a dimensional structure that is clinically interpretable. Reliability findings indicated good internal consistency for the total scale (0.86) and respective subscales (0.75 to 0.88), which is in agreement with the alpha values from the previous CarGOQoL validation study for the corresponding subscales (0.74 to 0.89) and total scale (0.90).
Significance of results
The CarGOQoL is a reliable and valid tool for clinical trials and intervention programs to assess QoL in caregivers of myeloma patients. Future studies should validate the adapted version in caregivers of other types of cancer patients including other chronic diseases.
Hurricane Harvey left a path of destruction in its wake, resulting in over 100 deaths and damaging critical infrastructure. During a disaster, public health surveillance is necessary to track emerging illnesses and injuries, identify at-risk populations, and assess the effectiveness of response efforts. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and American Red Cross collaborate on shelter surveillance to monitor the health of the sheltered population and help guide response efforts.
We analyzed data collected from 24 Red Cross shelters between August 25, 2017, and September 14, 2017. We described the aggregate morbidity data collected during Harvey compared with previous hurricanes (Gustav, Ike, and Sandy).
Over one-third (38%) of reasons for visit were for health care maintenance; 33% for acute illnesses, which includes respiratory conditions, gastrointestinal symptoms, and pain; 19% for exacerbation of chronic disease; 7% for mental health; and 4% for injury. The Red Cross treated 41% of clients within the shelters; however, reporting of disposition was often missed. These results are comparable to previous hurricanes.
The capacity of Red Cross shelter staff to address the acute health needs of shelter residents is a critical resource for local public health agencies overwhelmed by the disaster. However, there remains room for improvement because reporting remained inconsistent.
The authors assessed the association of physical function, social variables, functional status, and psychiatric co-morbidity with cognitive function among older HIV-infected adults.
From 2012–2014, a cross-sectional study was conducted among HIV-infected patients ages 50 or older who underwent comprehensive clinical geriatric assessment.
Two San Francisco HIV clinics.
359 HIV-infected patients age 50 years or older
Unadjusted and adjusted Poisson regression measured prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals for demographic, functional and psychiatric variables and their association with cognitive impairment using a Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) score < 26 as reflective of cognitive impairment.
Thirty-four percent of participants had a MoCA score of < 26. In unadjusted analyses, the following variables were significantly associated with an abnormal MoCA score: born female, not identifying as homosexual, non-white race, high school or less educational attainment, annual income < $10,000, tobacco use, slower gait speed, reported problems with balance, and poor social support. In subsequent adjusted analysis, the following variables were significantly associated with an abnormal MoCA score: not identifying as homosexual, non-white race, longer 4-meter walk time, and poor social support. Psychiatric symptoms of depressive, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorders did not correlate with abnormal MoCA scores.
Cognitive impairment remains common in older HIV-infected patients. Counter to expectations, co-morbid psychiatric symptoms were not associated with cognitive impairment, suggesting that cognitive impairment in this sample may be due to neurocognitive disorders, not due to other psychiatric illness. The other conditions associated with cognitive impairment in this sample may warrant separate clinical and social interventions to optimize patient outcomes.
Canadian older adults with complex health problems are often considered ineligible for traditional rehabilitation programs but may benefit from slow stream rehabilitation (SSR). This scoping review summarizes the literature related to SSR for older adults, within single-payer health care systems. Methods: Peer-reviewed and grey-literature documents relevant to older adults in SSR were systematically reviewed. Results: 1,445 documents were screened independently by two reviewers [Cohen Kappa value of 0.78 (CI = 0.73, 0.83)], and included 18 documents. SSR programs were found to be multidisciplinary with a mean duration ranging from 30 to 141.2 days. SSR participants were more likely to be female, with a mean age range of 72–82 years, multiple co-morbidities and mild-to-moderate cognitive impairments. SSR participants demonstrated improvements in physical and functional measures. Discussion: SSR programs have the potential to be an integral part of the continuum of care for older adults with complex medical histories.
To present evidence on the burden and outcomes of co-morbidities among severely malnourished (SAM) children admitted to outpatient therapeutic programme (OTP) facilities in the conflict setting of Borno, Nigeria.
Retrospective medical chart review.
Children aged 6–59 months with SAM enrolled in OTP between June and November 2016 whose medical records were analysed. Only pneumonia and diarrhoea were examined due to data limitations. Stata software was used for descriptive, multivariate and survival analyses.
Records of 396 children with median age of 15 months were identified and analysed from the date of enrolment to exit from OTP. Mean length of stay in OTP was 61d, with co-infected SAM children having shorter stay (P=0·006). Of the total, 148 (37·4 %) had at least one co-morbidity (pneumonia or diarrhoea), of which thirty-nine (26·4 %) had both. Cumulative rate of mortality during follow-up time was 9·5 (95 % CI 6·0, 15·1) per 10 000 child-days; SAM children with co-morbidities were ten times more likely to die than those without (hazard ratio=10·2; 95 % CI 3·4, 31·0). In multivariable analysis, co-morbidity (P=0·01), oedema (P=0·003), dehydration (P=0·02) and weight on admission (P=0·01) were associated with mortality. Both recovery and defaulter rates (57·8 and 36·1 %, respectively) did not meet SPHERE standards.
Children with SAM and co-morbidities are less likely to survive, presenting a significant barrier in improving child survival. The findings call for integrated OTP models that incorporate clinical algorithms and ensure prompt referral for SAM children with co-morbidity.
Investigate short- and long-term effects of Superstorm Sandy on multiple morbidities among the elderly.
We examined emergency department visits; outpatient visits; and hospital admissions for cardiovascular disease (CVD), respiratory disease, and injury among residents residing in 8 affected counties immediately, 4 months, and 12 months following Superstorm Sandy. Control groups were defined as visits/admissions during the identical time window in the 5 years before (2007-2011) and 1 year after (2013-2014) the storm in affected and nonaffected counties in New York. We performed Poisson regression to test whether there was an association of increased visits/admissions for periods following Superstorm Sandy while controlling for covariates.
We found that the risk for CVD, respiratory disease, and injury visits/admissions was more than twice as high immediately, 4 months, and 12 months after the storm than it was in the control periods. Women were at greater risk at all time periods for CVD (risk ratio [RR], 2.04) and respiratory disease (RRs: 1.89 to 1.92). Whites had higher risk for CVD, respiratory disease, and injury than other racial groups during each period.
We observed increases in CVD, respiratory disease, and injury up to a year following Superstorm Sandy. Findings demonstrate the need to incorporate short- and long-term health effects into public health recovery. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2019;13:28-32)
Other than obesity, no definitive insights have been gained regarding the apparent association between mode of delivery and long-term endocrine and metabolic outcomes in the offspring. We aimed to determine whether elective cesarean delivery (CD) impacts on long-term endocrine and metabolic morbidity of the offspring. A population-based cohort analysis was performed including all singleton-term deliveries occurring between 1991 and 2014 at a single tertiary medical center. A comparison was performed between children delivered via a non-emergent CD and those delivered vaginally (VD). Hospitalizations of the offspring up to the age of 18 years involving endocrine morbidity were evaluated. A Kaplan–Meier survival curve was used to compare cumulative morbidity incidence. Cox and a Weibull regression models were used to control for confounders. During the study period 131,880 term deliveries met the inclusion criteria; 8.9% were elective non-urgent CDs (n=11,768) and 91.1% (n=120,112) were VDs. The survival curve demonstrated a significantly higher cumulative incidence of endo-metabolic morbidity in offspring born via CD (P=0.010). In the regression models, adjusted for maternal obesity, CD was not noted as an independent risk factor for long-term pediatric endocrine and metabolic morbidity of the offspring while maternal obesity emerged as a strong predictor. We therefore conclude that CD per-se does not appear to increase the risk for long-term pediatric endo-metabolic morbidity of the offspring.
The 2004 tsunami, the civil conflict until 2009 and the youth insurrection in the late 1980s in Sri Lanka resulted in many persons being classified as ‘missing’ as they disappeared and were unaccounted for. Our aim was to compare the prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) and prolonged grief disorder (PGD) in families of disappeared individuals, who eventually received the mortal remains and those who did not.
An ethically approved cross sectional study was conducted in a purposively selected sample after informed consent. Information on the circumstances of the family member going missing was gathered. Culturally adapted versions of the General Health Questionnaire and the Beck Depression Scale were administered. Those who screened positive were assessed by a psychiatrist on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 criteria to arrive at a diagnosis.
Of 391 cases of disappearances studied, MDD (17.5% v. 6%) and PGD (22% v. 7%) were significantly higher in those who did not eventually receive the mortal remains of the disappeared person. Among those who did not receive the mortal remains, being unsure whether the disappeared person was dead or alive was highly predictive of MDD and PGD. Mothers and wives, older family members and those with a family history of mental illness were more vulnerable.
Family members of missing individuals unsure whether their loved one was alive or dead have higher psychological morbidity in the form of MDD and PGD.
As prevalence of mental health disorders increases worldwide, recognition and treatment of these disorders falls increasingly into the remit of primary care. This study investigated the prevalence and management of adults presenting to their general practitioner (GP) in Ireland with a psychological condition.
A random number function was used to select 100 patients with a consultation in the previous 2 years from 40 general practices around Ireland. The clinical records of these patients were examined using a standardised reporting tool to extract information on demographics, eligibility for free care, prevalence and treatment of psychological conditions.
From a sample of 3845 ‘active’ patients, 620 (16%, 95% confidence interval 15–17%) had a documented psychological condition in the previous 2 years. The most common diagnoses were depression (54%) followed by stress and anxiety (47%). The following patient characteristics were associated with having a documented mental health condition: female gender; higher GP consultation rate; a referral or attendance at secondary care and eligibility for free GP care. Of those with a psychological condition, 34% received a psychological intervention and 81% received a pharmacological intervention.
The overall prevalence estimate of mental health disorders for this sample was lower than previously documented in primary care. Patients diagnosed with mental health disorders had higher utilisation of health services and pharmacological treatment was common.
Defined as the co-occurrence of more than two chronic conditions, multi-morbidity has been described as a significant health care problem: a trend linked to a rise in non-communicable disease and an ageing population. Evidence on the experiences of living with multi-morbidity in middle-income countries (MICs) is limited. In high-income countries (HICs), multi-morbidity has a complex impact on health outcomes, including functional status, disability and quality of life, complexity of health care and burden of treatment. Previous evidence also shows that multi-morbidity is consistently higher amongst women. This study aimed to explore the perceptions and experiences of women living with multi-morbidity in the Greater Accra Region, Ghana: to understand the complexity of their health needs due to multi-morbidity, and to document how the health system has responded. Guided by the Cumulative Complexity Model, and using stratified purposive sampling, 20 in-depth interviews were conducted between May and September 2015 across three polyclinics in the Greater Accra Region. The data were analysed using the six phases of Thematic Analysis. Overall four themes emerged: 1) the influences on patients’ health experience; 2) seeking care and the responsiveness of the health care system; 3) how patients manage health care demands; and 4) outcomes due to health. Spirituality and the stigmatization caused by specific conditions, such as HIV, impacted their overall health experience. Women depended on the care and treatment provided through the health care system despite inconsistent coverage and a lack of choice thereof, although their experiences varied by chronic condition. Women depended on their family and community to offset the financial burden of treatment costs, which was exacerbated by having many conditions. The implications are that integrated health and social support, such as streamlining procedures and professional training on managing complexity, would benefit and reduce the burden of multi-morbidity experienced by women with multi-morbidity in Ghana.
Otitis media (OM) carries a tremendous global health burden and potentially severe long-term consequences. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of birth at different gestational ages on the incidence of childhood OM.
A population-based cohort analysis was conducted. All singleton deliveries occurring between 1991 and 2014 at a regional tertiary medical center were included. Gestational age on delivery was divided into six subgroups: early (<34 weeks gestation; 0 out of 7) and late (34 weeks gestation; 0 out of 7 to 36 weeks gestation; 6 out of 7) preterm, and early (37 weeks gestation; 0 out of 7 to 38 weeks gestation; 6 out of 7), full (39 weeks gestation; 0 out of 7 to 40 weeks gestation; 6 out of 7), late (41 weeks gestation; 0 out of 7 to 41 weeks gestation; 6 out of 7) and post (⩾42 weeks 0 out of 7) term deliveries. Rates of OM-related hospitalizations up to 18 years of age were assessed. Weibull parametric hazards model was used to study the association between gestational age at birth and the risk for OM-related hospitalizations while controlling for potential confounders.
During the study period, 238,622 deliveries met the inclusion criteria. OM-related hospitalizations of the offspring (n=4724) were significantly more common in the preterm (early 3.6%, late 2.4%) and early-term born children (2.2%) and decreased gradually across the full (1.9%), late (1.7%) and post (1.6%) term groups (χ2-test for trends P<0.001). In the Weibull regression model, early preterm, as well as early-term deliveries exhibited an independent association with pediatric OM (adjusted hazard ratios: 1.67 and 1.09, respectively, P<0.02).
Deliveries occurring at preterm and early term are associated with higher rates of pediatric OM-related hospitalizations, which decrease gradually as gestational age advances.
Elderly patients have been consistently shown to receive suboptimal therapy for cancers of the head and neck. This study was performed to determine the peri-operative outcomes of these patients and compare them with those of younger patients.
In this retrospective analysis, 115 patients aged 70 years or more undergoing major surgery for head and neck cancers were matched with 115 patients aged 50–60 years, and univariate analysis was performed.
Elderly patients had a reduced performance status (p < 0.001) and more co-morbid illnesses (p = 0.007), but a comparable intra-operative course. They had a longer median hospital stay (p = 0.016), longer intensive care unit stay (p = 0.04), longer median tracheostomy dependence (p = 0.04) and were more often discharged with feeding tubes (p < 0.001). They also had a higher incidence of post-operative non-fatal cardiac events (p = 0.045).
Elderly patients with good performance status should receive curative-intent surgery. Although hospital stay and tube dependence are longer, morbidity and mortality are comparable with younger patients.
Circulating 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) is related to decreased rates of gastrointestinal and ear infections in school-age children. Vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) transports 25(OH)D and exerts immunological functions; however, it is unknown whether DBP is associated with infectious morbidity in children. We quantified plasma DBP concentrations in 540 school-age children at the time of recruitment into a cohort study in Bogotá, Colombia and obtained daily information on infectious morbidity symptoms and doctor visits during the school year. We compared the incidence rates of gastrointestinal and respiratory symptoms across quartiles of DBP concentration by estimating adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRRs) with 95% confidence interval (CI). We also estimated the per cent of the associations between DBP and morbidity that were mediated through 25(OH)D using a counterfactual frame. Mean ± s.d. DBP concentration was 2650 ± 1145 nmol/l. DBP was inversely associated with the rates of diarrhoea with vomiting (IRR for quartiles 2–4 vs. 1 = 0.48; 95% CI 0.25–0.92; P = 0.03) and earache/ear discharge with fever (IRR for quartiles 2–4 vs. 1 = 0.29; 95% CI 0.12–0.71; P = 0.006). The DBP–morbidity associations were not mediated through 25(OH)D. We conclude that plasma DBP predicts lower incidence of gastrointestinal and ear infections in school-age children independent of 25(OH)D.
We examined whether hypotension in very low birth weight infants aged⩽1 week was associated with hospital morbidities and overall mortality. Further, we studied whether hypotension was associated with poor neurodevelopmental outcomes in these patients at the corrected age of 18 months. A total of 166 very low birth weight infants were studied during this period. Hospital outcomes and neurodevelopmental outcomes at the corrected age of 18 months were evaluated. Among the 166 very low birth weight infants, 95 patients (57.2%) experienced hypotension at⩽1 week and were associated with an increased incidence of morbidities and mortality. At the corrected age of 18 months, hypotension of the⩽1 week group had significantly lower scores in all three – cognitive, language, and motor – composites of the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (Bayley-III) screening tests. In addition, a multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that longer mechanical ventilation and periventricular leukomalacia were additionally associated with worse cognitive and language neurodevelopmental outcomes. Hypotension in very low birth weight infants within 1 week of life was associated with increased morbidities and overall mortality. It was also associated with an increased risk of cognitive and language outcomes.
Zn deficiency and diarrhoea are prevalent and may coexist in children living in low-resource settings. Recently, a novel approach for delivering Zn via microbiologically treated, Zn-fortified water was shown to be effective in improving Zn status in West African schoolchildren. We assessed the effectiveness of Zn-fortified, microbiologically purified water delivered as a household intervention on Zn intake, status and morbidity in children aged 2–6 years from rural western Kenya.
Randomised controlled trial. Intervention included households assigned to water treatment device with (ZFW) or without (FW) Zn delivery capability
Rural households in Kisumu, western Kenya.
Children aged 2–6 years.
The ZFW group had higher dietary Zn intake compared with the FW group. ZFW contributed 36 and 31 % of daily requirements for absorbable Zn in children aged 2–3 and 4–6 years, respectively, in the ZFW group. Consumption of Zn-fortified water resulted in lower prevalence of reported illness (risk ratio; 95 % CI) in the ZFW group compared with the FW group: for cold with runny nose (0·91; 0·83, 0·99; P=0·034) and abdominal pain (0·70; 0·56, 0·89; P=0·003) in the intention-to-treat analysis and for diarrhoea (0·72; 0·53, 0·96; P=0·025) in the per-protocol analysis. We did not detect an effect of treatment on plasma Zn concentration.
Daily consumption of Zn-fortified, microbiologically treated water results in increased intake of absorbable dietary Zn and may help in preventing childhood infections in pre-school children in rural Africa.