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State-Building as Lawfare explores the use of state and non-state legal systems by both politicians and ordinary people in postwar Chechnya. The book addresses two interrelated puzzles: why do local rulers tolerate and even promote non-state legal systems at the expense of state law, and why do some members of repressed ethnic minorities choose to resolve their everyday disputes using state legal systems instead of non-state alternatives? The book documents how the rulers of Chechnya promote and reinvent customary law and Sharia in order to borrow legitimacy from tradition and religion, increase autonomy from the metropole, and accommodate communal authorities and former rebels. At the same time, the book shows how prolonged armed conflict disrupted the traditional social hierarchies and pushed some Chechen women to use state law, spurring state formation from below.
Peer support interventions for dietary change may offer cost-effective alternatives to interventions led by health professionals. This process evaluation of a trial to encourage the adoption and maintenance of a Mediterranean diet in a Northern European population at high CVD risk (TEAM-MED) aimed to investigate the feasibility of implementing a group-based peer support intervention for dietary change, positive elements of the intervention and aspects that could be improved. Data on training and support for the peer supporters; intervention fidelity and acceptability; acceptability of data collection processes for the trial and reasons for withdrawal from the trial were considered. Data were collected from observations, questionnaires and interviews, with both peer supporters and trial participants. Peer supporters were recruited and trained to result in successful implementation of the intervention; all intended sessions were run, with the majority of elements included. Peer supporters were complimentary of the training, and positive comments from participants centred around the peer supporters, the intervention materials and the supportive nature of the group sessions. Attendance at the group sessions, however, waned over the intervention, with suggested effects on intervention engagement, enthusiasm and group cohesion. Reduced attendance was reportedly a result of meeting (in)frequency and organisational concerns, but increased social activities and group-based activities may also increase engagement, group cohesion and attendance. The peer support intervention was successfully implemented and tested, but improvements can be suggested and may enhance the successful nature of these types of interventions. Some consideration of personal preferences may also improve outcomes.
Empirical studies in economics traditionally use a limited range of methods, usually based on particular types of regression analysis. Increasingly, sophisticated regression techniques require the availability of appropriate data sets, often longitudinal and typically collected at a national level. This raises challenges for researchers seeking to investigate issues requiring data that are not typically included in regular large-scale data. It also raises questions of the adequacy of relying mainly or solely on regression analysis for investigating key issues of economic theory and policy. One way of addressing these issues is to employ a mixed-methods research framework to investigate important research questions. In this article, we provide an example of applying a mixed-methods design to investigate the employment decisions of mature age women working in the aged care sector. We outline the use of a coherent and robust framework to allow the integrated collection and analysis of quantitative and qualitative data. Drawing on particular examples from our analysis, we show how a mixed-methods approach facilitates richer insights, more finely grained understandings of causal relationships and identification of emergent issues. We conclude that mixed-methods research has the capacity to provide surprises and generate new insights through detailed exploratory data analysis.
Here I examine in more detail my first case study, namely mid-twentieth-century Turkey. The presence of high-quality census data from Turkey between 1935 and 1965 allows me to replicate my statistical analysis from the previous chapter at the provincial level to show that urbanization is correlated with increasing levels of people identifying as Turkish; moreover, this relationship is robust to the inclusion of a number of different controls and the use of sub-samples. Qualitative examination of evidence from Turkey suggests that this process was a consequence of economic structural change and incentives provided by the state, such that incentivized assimilation took place in urban Turkey but not in the countryside. Indeed, I show that a lack of industrialization in Kurdistan was responsible for the lack of Turkish identification in the region, despite both violent and non-violent attempts by the Turkish state at assimilating its Kurdish population.
Industrialization and Assimilation examines the process of ethnic identity change in a broad historical context. Green explains how and why ethnicity changes across time, showing that, by altering the basis of economic production from land to labour and removing people from the 'idiocy of rural life', industrialization makes societies more ethnically homogenous. More speciﬁcally, the author argues that industrialization lowers the relative value of rural land, leading people to identify less with narrow rural identities in favour of broader identities that can aid them in navigating the formal urban economy. Using large-scale datasets that span the globe as well as detailed case studies ranging from mid-twentieth-century Turkey to contemporary Botswana, Somalia and Uganda, as well as evidence from Native Americans in the United States and the Māori in New Zealand, Industrialization and Assimilation provides a new framework to understand the origins of modern ethnic identities.
Wearable digital health technologies (DHTs) have the potential to improve chronic kidney disease (CKD) management through patient engagement. This study aimed to investigate and elicit preferences of individuals with CKD toward wearable DHTs designed to support self-management of their condition.
Using the results of our review of the published literature and after conducting qualitative patient interviews, five-choice attributes were identified and included in a discrete-choice experiment. The design consisted of 10-choice tasks, each comprising two hypothetical technologies and one opt-out scenario. We collected data from 113 adult patients with CKD stages 3–5 not on dialysis and analyzed their responses via a latent class model to explore preference heterogeneity.
Two patient segments were identified. In all preference segments, the most important attributes were the device appearance, format, and type of information provided. Patients within the largest preference class (70 percent) favored information provided in any format except the audio, while individuals in the other class preferred information in text format. In terms of the style of engagement with the device, both classes wanted a device that provides options rather than telling them what to do.
Our analysis indicates that user preferences differ between patient subgroups, supporting the case for offering a different design of the device for different patients’ strata, thus moving away from a one-size-fits-all service provision. Furthermore, we showed how to leverage the information from user preferences early in the R&D process to inform and support the provision of nuanced person-centered wearable DHTs.
This study analyses the experience and response of farmers within a multi-year collaborative research trial focused on the development of forage-based fallows in eight communities in the central Peruvian Andes. Quantitative data from a rural household survey were used to characterize farming household socioeconomic factors, livelihood strategies and soil and crop management practices of community members belonging to four participation groups with respect to the trials: 1) current participants near the end of the trial; 2.) those who participated early on, but dropped the trials after the first year; 3) those who participated in meetings but not directly in experiments; and 4) those who never participated meaningfully in the process. Furthermore, qualitative interviews of farmers in the four groups were used to examine trends and questions arising from the quantitative survey findings. Analysis of this mixed-methods dataset showed that better resource-endowed households (in terms of human and social capital, more livestock assets, higher levels of farm value production and income, and farm inputs) tended to be more likely to participate compared to households with lower levels of these variables. Our findings suggest that the differences in resource endowment among participation group households may be related to household life cycles, where access to resources change over time, reflecting the changing demography of a household. It was established that farm households with intermediate-age children, that is near the middle of a farm life cycle trajectory, are those with the most wherewithal to participate in trials and likely serve as examples and test cases for other farms with younger parents or older farmers with children moved away. Follow-up interviews indicated that farming households at either end of the farm life cycle trajectory may be using a ‘wait-and-see’ approach to the trials carried out by their neighbours who have more labour and other resources to deploy. In light of these findings, we suggest that participatory research should aim to ensure that the voices, challenges and opportunities of Non-participants are represented in the research process and experimental design. Additionally, greater consideration should be placed on understanding management by context issues in order to better target potential farming innovations such as improved fallows, at multiple levels, from the field to the household and to the community and beyond.
Psychiatric services in LEDCs face a tripartite challenge: (i) limited financial capital; (ii) scarcity of professionals; (iii) restrictive health beliefs. Inevitably, services developed for the first-world are ill-suited here. Psychiatric services must be designed from the ground up: inspired by but not a replica of best practices in the developed world. The SOUL project in Larkana, Pakistan provides home based assessment by a psychiatrist and fortnightly treatment by a mobile nursing team for schizophrenic patients. Psychoeducation of carers and the community as well as facilitation of work for patients are core aims. This mixed-methods study evaluates the experiences of primary stakeholders - patients and their carers.
1.Are patients and carers satisfied with the care received? 2.Has SOUL been successful in changing health beliefs? 3.How could the programme be improved?
The principal investigator accompanied the team for 4-weeks. Purposive sampling was employed. Satisfaction was assessed quantitatively using the likert based PSQ-18 questionnaire. Thereafter, qualitative data was gathered using semi-structured interviews and analysed using a grounded theory approach. A total of 27 interviews were conducted before data saturation.
100% of interviewees answered ’Satisfied’ or ’Very’ Satisfied to all elements of the PSQ-18. Above all, stakeholders valued that treatment was free and highly accessible (home visits), promoting treatment adherence. They felt psychoeducation events significantly reduced community stigma and made families more likely to seek psychiatrists over faith healers. Provision of respite care was suggested as a future improvement.
SOUL is highly valued by stakeholders and offers an excellent example of LEDC psychiatric care.
This study aimed to explore perceptions of the meaning of life among Korean patients living with advanced cancer.
The study employed a mixed-methods design, and 16 participants were included in the analysis. Qualitative data gathered from in-depth interviews were analyzed using Colaizzi's phenomenological method. Quantitative survey data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, the Mann–Whitney U test, the Kruskal–Wallis test, and Spearman's ρ correlation.
Participants experienced both the existence of meaning and the will to find meaning in terms of four categories: “interpersonal relationships based on attachment and cohesion” (three themes — family as the core meaning of one's life, supportive and dependent interconnectedness with significant others, and existential responsibility embedded in familism), “therapeutic relationships based on trust” (one theme — communication and trust between the patient and medical staff), “optimism” (two themes — positivity embodied through past experiences and a positive attitude toward the current situation), and “a sense of purpose with advanced cancer” (two themes — the will to survive and expectations for the near future). The meaning in life questionnaire (MLQ) and the purpose in life scale (PIL) showed a significant positive correlation tendency with the functional assessment of chronic illness therapy-spiritual well-being scale (FACIT-Sp). The patient health questionnaire (PHQ-9) showed significant negative correlation tendency with both the MLQ-presence of meaning (MLQ-PM) and PIL-Initiative (PIL-I) questionnaires.
Significance of results
Finding meaning in life helps advanced cancer patients realize their will to live. It also acts as a coping mechanism that palliates negative experiences in the fight against the disease. In particular, among advanced cancer patients in the Korean culture, the dynamics of relationships with family and medical staff was a key axis that instilled optimism and will to live. These results suggest that considering the meaning of life in advanced cancer patients by reflecting Korean culture in the treatment process improves the quality of care.
Enhancing diversity in the scientific workforce is a long-standing issue. This study uses mixed methods to understand the feasibility, impact, and priority of six key strategies to promote diverse and inclusive training and contextualize the six key strategies across Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSAs) Program Institutions.
Four breakout sessions were held at the NCATS 2020 CTSA Program annual meeting focused on diversity, equity, and inclusion (DEI) efforts. This paper focuses on the breakout session for Enhancing DEI in Translational Science Training Programs. Data were analyzed using a mixed methods convergent approach. The quantitative strand includes the online polling results. The qualitative strand includes the breakout session and the chat box in response to the training presentation.
Across feasibility, impact, and priority questions, prioritizing representation ranked number 1. Building partnerships ranked number 2 in feasibility and priority, while making it personal ranked number 2 for impact. Across each strategy, rankings supported the qualitative data findings in feasibility through shared experiences, impact in the ability to increase DEI, and priority rankings in comparison to the other strategies. No divergence was found across quantitative and qualitative data findings.
Findings provide robust support for prioritizing representation as a number one strategy to focus on in training programs. Specifically, this strategy can be operationalized through integration of community representation, diversity advocates, and adopting a holistic approach to recruiting a diverse cadre of scholars into translational science training programs at the national level across CTSAs.
This book explores the deep roots of modern democracy, focusing on geography and long-term patterns of global diffusion. Its geographic argument centers on access to the sea, afforded by natural harbors which enhance the mobility of people, goods, capital, and ideas. The extraordinary connectivity of harbor regions thereby affected economic development, the structure of the military, statebuilding, and openness to the world – and, through these pathways, the development of representative democracy. The authors' second argument focuses on the global diffusion of representative democracy. Beginning around 1500, Europeans started to populate distant places abroad. Where Europeans were numerous they established some form of representative democracy, often with restrictions limiting suffrage to those of European heritage. Where they were in the minority, Europeans were more reticent about popular rule and often actively resisted democratization. Where Europeans were entirely absent, the concept of representative democracy was unfamiliar and its practice undeveloped.
Political science (PSCI) is housed in the social sciences, which together “examine what it means to be a social being, ranging from the minutiae of human behavior … to large scale social movements, demographics, economics and politics” (European Science Foundation, 2016). Undergraduate research (UR) in PSCI, whether using quantitative, qualitative or mixed methods, helps students develop critical thinking skills and tools, whereby they can apply what they learn in class to the real world, rather than just memorizing facts and figures that are forgotten after they take each semester exam.
Although countries differ tremendously in population size, comparative public administration has not considered this context factor systematically. This Element provides the most comprehensive theoretical and empirical account to date of the effects that country size has on the functioning of public administration. It synthesizes existing literature and develops a theoretical framework that distinguishes the effects of small, medium and large country size on administrative structures, practices, and public service performance. Large states with larger administrations benefit from specialization but are prone to coordination problems, whereas small states experience advantages and disadvantages linked to multifunctionalism and informal practices. Midsize countries may achieve economies of scale while avoiding diseconomies of excessive size, which potentially allows for highest performance. Descriptive and causal statistical analyses of worldwide indicators and a qualitative comparison of three countries, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and Germany, demonstrate the various ways in which size matters for public administrations around the world.
Accumulating shocks and long-term stresses, such as trade conflicts, climate change and deteriorating public trust in agricultural practices have raised concerns about the resilience of Europe’s diverse farming systems. The SURE-Farm approach aims to systematically assess the resilience capacities of farming systems, i.e. regional constellations of farms and other actors that provide a range of private and public goods, using local resources and traded inputs. This chapter introduces the key concepts and outlines the SURE-Farm approach to assess the resilience challenges and capacities of farming systems. It sets the scene for the empirical analyses and synthesizing assessments presented in the following chapters.
The aim of the study is (1) to assess the extent to which omnivores are willing to stop or reduce their consumption of red and processed meat in response to evidence-based information regarding the possible reduction of cancer mortality and incidence achieved by dietary modification; (2) to identify socio-demographic categories associated with higher willingness to change meat consumption and (3) to understand the motives facilitating and hindering such a change.
During an initial computer-assisted web interview, respondents were presented with scenarios containing the estimates of the absolute risk reduction in overall cancer incidence and mortality tailored to their declared level of red and processed meat consumption. Respondents were asked whether they would stop or reduce their average meat consumption based on the information provided. Their dietary choices were assessed at 6-month follow-up. Additionally, we conducted semi-structured interviews to better understand the rationale for dietary practices and the perception of health information.
The study was conducted among students and staff of three universities in Krakow, Poland.
Most of the 513 respondents were unwilling to change their consumption habits. We found gender to be a significant predictor of the willingness. Finally, we identified four themes reflecting key motives that determined meat consumption preferences: the importance of taste and texture, health consciousness, the habitual nature of cooking and persistence of omnivorous habits.
When faced with health information about the uncertain reduction in the risk of cancer mortality and incidence, the vast majority of study participants were unwilling to introduce changes in their consumption habits.
This article analyzes the efficacy of border enforcement against smuggling. We argue that walls, fences, patrols, and other efforts to secure porous borders can reduce smuggling, but only in the absence of collusion between smugglers and state agents at official border crossings. When such corruption occurs, border enforcement merely diverts smuggling flows without reducing their overall volume. We also identify the conditions under which corruption occurs and characterize border enforcement as a sorting mechanism that allows high-skilled smugglers to forge alternative border-crossing routes while deterring low-skilled smugglers or driving them to bribe local border agents. Combining a formal model and an archival case study of opium smuggling in Southeast Asia, we demonstrate that border enforcement has conditional effects on the routes and volumes of smuggling, depending on the nature of interactions between smugglers and border agents. By drawing attention to the technological and organizational aspects of smuggling, this article brings scholarship on criminal governance into the study of international relations, and contributes to debates on the effects of border enforcement and border politics more generally.
The objective of the current study was to evaluate the impact of the Market to MyPlate (M2MP) program on participants’ reported farmers’ market (FM) attitudes and shopping behaviours, frequency of serving vegetables to their families, food resource management behaviours and food security. A secondary objective was to identify facilitators and barriers to shopping at FM and food waste reduction techniques used by low-income families.
The current study used a mixed methods evaluation embedded within a cluster randomised trial of the M2MP intervention.
The 7-week M2MP program was delivered at Extension offices and community centres in central Illinois.
Participants included 120 adults and their families. Class cohorts were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups: (1) nutrition education and cooking classes with produce allocations (PAE, n 39); (2) nutrition education and cooking classes only (EO, n 36) or (3) control group (n 45).
Compared with control participants, PAE participants were significantly more likely to report shopping at FM (P = 0·029) and reported serving more vegetables to their families (P = 0·010) (EO participants did not differ from the control group on any outcomes). There were no differences between conditions in survey-based measures of food security or food resource management behaviours. Interview results describe facilitators and barriers to shopping at FM and a variety of food waste reduction techniques (including food placement and food resource management).
These findings suggest that fresh produce provision coupled with nutrition and culinary education can positively impact shopping and dietary behaviours.
We explore whether including cultural reforms in an intra-state peace accord facilitates its success. We distinguish between accommodationist and integrationist cultural provisions and employ a mixed research method combining negative binomial regression on a data set of all intra-state political agreements concluded between 1989 and 2017, and an in-depth analysis of the 1998 Good Friday Agreement for Northern Ireland. We recognize the important reassuring effect of accommodationist cultural reforms in separatist conflicts. However, we also find that they have an important and hitherto overlooked reputational effect across all conflict types. By enhancing the reputation of negotiating leaders, accommodationist cultural provisions contribute to ending violence by preventing leadership challenges, rebel fragmentation and remobilization across all civil conflicts. By the same logic, and despite the overwhelming emphasis of peace agreements on integrationist cultural initiatives, integrationist cultural reforms problematize leaders' ability to commit to pacts and to ensure compliance among their rank and file.
Conventional theories of ethnic politics argue that political entrepreneurs form ethnic parties where there is ethnic diversity. Yet empirical research finds that diversity is a weak predictor for the success of ethnic parties. When does ethnicity become a major element of party competition? Scholars have explained the emergence of an ethnic dimension in party systems as the result of institutions, mass organizations, and elite initiatives. But these factors can evolve in response to an emerging ethnic coalition of voters. The author advances a new theory: ethnic cleavages emerge when voters seek to form a parliamentary opposition to government policies that create grievances along ethnic identities. The theory is tested on rare cases of government policies in Prussia between 1848 and 1874 that aggrieved Catholics but were not based on existing policies or initiated by entrepreneurs to encourage ethnic competition. Using process tracing, case comparisons, and statistical analysis of electoral returns, the author shows that Catholics voted together when aggrieved by policies, regardless of the actions of political entrepreneurs. In contrast, when policies were neutral to Catholics, the Catholic party dissolved.
Implicitly or explicitly, sequence analysis is at the heart of research on routine dynamics. Sequence analysis takes many forms in many different disciplines, because sequence is central to temporality, process, language, and narrative. In this chapter, we focus on sequence analysis in routine dynamics research. The goal of this chapter is to help researchers use sequence analysis in their research on routine dynamics. Hence, the chapter reviews prior literature that has used sequence analysis, it shows how to carry out sequence analysis and it provides implications as well as an agenda for future research.