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The concern for inequality, growth and development is undoubtedly crucial in the context of climate change mitigation and adaptation. However, most studies either rely on the nation-state estimates of carbon emissions to propose a uniform nation-wide growth (or degrowth) strategy, or they tailor the method to assess the inequality of one country at a time, making a cross-country cross-income comparison difficult. To fill this analytical gap, we synthesize the existing methods of emission calculations and calculate the level of carbon emissions associated with given income deciles of household consumption in five countries, namely China, Germany, India, the UK and USA. We find that the within-country inequality varies among countries, with the ratio between the top and bottom income deciles ranging from three to nine at the household level. We also find that the carbon emissions of the top income group in urban China is almost comparable to that of their peer group in the US, UK and Germany. Based on these results, we discuss the use of the remaining global carbon budget in the context of development and inequality.
The chapter describes what climate finance is, how it over the past ten years has increased in importance both within climate negotiations and in the implementation of climate policies, and the key issues of contestation in this regard. The chapter includes an outline of the cognitive debate regarding what kinds of financial flows can be defined as climate finance, followed by a discussion of the key normative issues of contestation in climate finance discussions. The following section focuses on equity versus efficiency regarding the generation and allocation of climate finance. Finally, the most important groups of actors (beyond the G20, the OECD and the IMF) and their roles in climate finance are discussed.
The world responded in many different ways to the coronavirus epidemic. Why is that? Three obvious solutions present themselves: different understandings of the nature of the disease and how to tackle it, the nature of the political system in each nation, the history of how pandemics had been dealt with in the past in each country. Upon inspection, none of these explanations seems to work. The scientific understanding of the disease and its means of spreading were broadly similar in all nations. Only at the margins did unorthodox theories hold sway. Most nations claimed to be following expert advice, but what the experts advised differed. Politicians could pick and choose among the counsels they received. Both democracies and autocracies tried each of the three possible approaches to the pandemic, targeted quarantine, broad lockdown, or a hands-off approach. And nations did not obviously follow the tactics they had used in previous epidemics. The heavy hand of past public health interventions, with the state compelling citizens to follow behavioral prescriptions, was harder to implement today.
The objective of this study was to assess the current breaking point of crisis surge capacity of trauma services in Qatar and to develop a mitigation plan.
The study utilized real-time data from the National Trauma Registry. Data was explored cumulatively by weeks, months and a year’s interval and all trauma admissions within this time frame were considered as 1 ‘Disaster Incident.’
A total of 2479 trauma patients were included in the study over 1 year. The mean age of patients was 31.5 ± 15.9 and 84% were males. The number of patients who sustained severe trauma which necessitated Level 1 activation was 16%. The emergency medical services (EMS) surge attained crisis of operational capacity at 5 months of disaster incident for priority 1 cases. Bed capacity at the floor was the first to reach operational crisis followed by the ICU and operating room. The gap in the surge for surgical interventions was specific to the specialty and surgery type which reached operational crisis at 3 months.
The study highlights the surge capacity and capability of the healthcare system at a Level 1 trauma center. The identified gaps in surge capacity require several key components of healthcare resources to be addressed across the continuum of care.
Most of the literature on climate policy is occupied by research on global and regional levels of governance, focusing on norms, rules and decision processes regarding the international climate regime. Despite these necessary contributions, taking account of the regional and local dimension of the theme is also relevant, since most human activities that contribute to global climate changes take place at these levels and, at the same time, these level is the most affected by the impacts of these changes. In this sense, this article analyzes political responses to the climate issue in Brazil in multi-level governance. Within social and political dimensions of the climate issue, this article highlights governments as relevant stakeholders in proposing appropriate forms of climate change governance understanding that they are not the only ones facing this challenge Following the growing international movement of local responses to climate change in Brazil, this type of action was more expressive first at the city level. Then, it reached the state level and finally, the federal level.
Conflicts between humans and bears have occurred since prehistory. Through time, the catalogue of human–bear conflicts (HBC) has been changing depending on the values and needs of human societies and their interactions with bears. Even today, conflict situations vary among the eight species of bears and geographically across these species’ ranges. This results in a broad range of interactions between bears and humans that may be considered as conflicts, including: (1) predation of domestic or semiwild animals, including bees, hunting dogs, and pet animals; (2) damage due to foraging on cultivated berries, fruits, agricultural products, and the tree bark in forest plantations; (3) economic loss due to destruction of beehives, fences, silos, houses, and other human property; (4) bear attacks on humans causing mild or fatal trauma; (5) bluff charges, bear intrusions into residential areas; and (6) vehicle collisions with bears and traffic accidents. In this chapter we aim to outline the principal types of HBC and geographical differences in the occurrence of conflicts and the coexistence between people and bears.
The production of beef cattle in the Atlantic Forest biome mostly takes place in pastoral production systems. There are millions of hectares covered with pastures in this biome, including degraded pasture (DP), and only small area of the original Atlantic Forest has been preserved in tropics, implying that actions must be taken by the livestock sector to improve sustainability. Intensification makes it possible to produce the same amount, or more beef, in a smaller area; however, the environmental impacts must be assessed. Regarding climate change, the C dynamics is essential to define which beef cattle systems are sustainable. The objectives of this study were to investigate the C balance (t CO2e./ha per year), the intensity of C emission (kg CO2e./kg BW or carcass) and the C footprint (t CO2e./ha per year) of pasture-based beef cattle production systems, inside the farm gate and considering the inputs. The results were used to calculate the number of trees to be planted in beef cattle production systems to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The GHG emission and C balance, for 2 years, were calculated based on the global warming potential (GWP) of AR4 and GWP of AR5. Forty-eight steers were allotted to four grazing systems: DP, irrigated high stocking rate pasture (IHS), rainfed high stocking rate pasture (RHS) and rainfed medium stocking rate pasture (RMS). The rainfed systems (RHS and RMS) presented the lowest C footprints (−1.22 and 0.45 t CO2e./ha per year, respectively), with C credits to RMS when using the GWP of AR4. The IHS system showed less favorable results for C footprint (−15.71 t CO2e./ha per year), but results were better when emissions were expressed in relation to the annual BW gain (−10.21 kg CO2e./kg BW) because of its higher yield. Although the DP system had an intermediate result for C footprint (−6.23 t CO2e./ha per year), the result was the worst (−30.21 CO2e./kg BW) when the index was expressed in relation to the annual BW gain, because in addition to GHG emissions from the animals in the system there were also losses in the annual rate of C sequestration. Notably, the intensification in pasture management had a land-saving effect (3.63 ha for IHS, 1.90 for RHS and 1.19 for RMS), contributing to the preservation of the tropical forest.
This chapter provides the fundamentals of the relation between energy and climate change, presenting: (i) The scientific evidence that climate change is occurring; (ii) How human use of energy resources contributes to climate change; (iii) How current patterns in global energy use are expected to affect future levels of greenhouse gas emissions. It then outlines the current and expected future impacts of climate change, and presents strategies that can be followed to both mitigate and adapt to the worst expected impacts. To conclude, the chapter discusses the global institutional process to respond to climate, including successes and remaining challenges.
Mitigation of adverse impacts to archaeological resources within cultural resource management (CRM) is commonly achieved through a data recovery plan. Under this venue, the primary significance of a given site is its evaluation under NRHP Criterion D—its information potential. Rarely is consideration given to the emotional, psychological, and spiritual values descendant Native American communities attribute to these places in relation to their importance under other criteria. The associative relationships and integrity of traditional religious and cultural practices connected to sites are often overlooked because the identification of significance and values of archaeological sites is defined by Euro-American intellectual and value-laden frameworks. Even if one claims “scientific objectivity” as one's guiding principle, implementation of such practices without regard for Native American perspectives are clear violations of NHPA mandates. Balanced design of mitigation measures is seriously lacking from CRM practice, resulting in descendant communities being continually disenfranchised through the silencing of their voice in the management of their own heritage and inheritance. This article examines this issue from the perspective of the Pueblo of Zuni and how Zuni successfully worked with the Bureau of Reclamation to design a strategy for resolving adverse effects that is meaningful and beneficial to the Zuni.
The co-occurrence of the 2020 Atlantic hurricane season and the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic creates complex dilemmas for protecting populations from these intersecting threats. Climate change is likely contributing to stronger, wetter, slower-moving, and more dangerous hurricanes. Climate-driven hazards underscore the imperative for timely warning, evacuation, and sheltering of storm-threatened populations – proven life-saving protective measures that gather evacuees together inside durable, enclosed spaces when a hurricane approaches. Meanwhile, the rapid acquisition of scientific knowledge regarding how COVID-19 spreads has guided mass anti-contagion strategies, including lockdowns, sheltering at home, physical distancing, donning personal protective equipment, conscientious handwashing, and hygiene practices. These life-saving strategies, credited with preventing millions of COVID-19 cases, separate and move people apart. Enforcement coupled with fear of contracting COVID-19 have motivated high levels of adherence to these stringent regulations. How will populations react when warned to shelter from an oncoming Atlantic hurricane while COVID-19 is actively circulating in the community? Emergency managers, health care providers, and public health preparedness professionals must create viable solutions to confront these potential scenarios: elevated rates of hurricane-related injury and mortality among persons who refuse to evacuate due to fear of COVID-19, and the resurgence of COVID-19 cases among hurricane evacuees who shelter together.
Flood is the most common natural hazard in Iran, which annually affects the environment and human lives. On March 25, 2019 in Shiraz-Iran, following a heavy rainfall, the occurrence of a flash flood caused an extensive number of deaths, injuries, and vehicle demolitions in a short time. Evidence suggests that man-made causes of the incident, including unsustainable urban development and lack of early warning services, have played a more influential role compared with its natural causes. This study has attempted to substantiate that understanding disaster risks, as the first priority of Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (SFDRR) 2015-2030, directly impacts the decisions and actions of policymakers, local authorities, and the public. To provide more safety, mitigation, and disaster risk reduction, attention should primarily be paid on making a cultural paradigm shift through providing sufficient training in developing appropriate disaster risk perception in the community at large.
Managing interactions between humans and wild elephants is a complex problem that is increasing as a result of agricultural and urban expansion into and alongside protected areas. Mitigating negative interactions requires the development of new tools to reduce competition and promote coexistence. Many studies have tested various mitigation techniques across elephant ranges in Africa and Asia, with varying levels of success. Recently, strobe lights have been suggested as a potential mitigation strategy in deterring African lions Panthera leo from kraals or bomas, but this technique has to date not been tested to reduce negative human–elephant interactions. Over a 2-year period (November 2016–June 2018), we tested the effectiveness of solar-powered strobe light barriers in deterring African elephants Loxodonta africana, in collaboration with 18 farmers in a community adjacent to the Chobe Forest Reserve and Chobe National Park in northern Botswana. Although elephants were more likely to pass by fields with solar-powered strobe light barriers (which was probably a result of selection bias as we focused on fields that had previously been damaged by elephants), they were less likely to enter these treatment fields than control fields without such barriers. Our findings demonstrate the efficacy of light barriers to reduce negative human–elephant interactions in rural communities.
Over the last decade, extensive research effort has been placed on developing methane mitigation strategies in ruminants. Many disciplines on animal science disciplines have been involved, including nutrition and physiology, microbiology and genetic selection. To date, few of the suggested strategies have been implemented because: (1) methane emissions currently have no direct or indirect economic value for farmers, with no financial incentive to change practices and (2) most strategies have limited, or no, long-term effects. Consequently, there is a fundamental need for research on methane mitigation strategies across disciplines. Coordinated international initiatives similar to METHAGENE could represent highly relevant coordination tool of collaboration between countries, facilitating knowledge exchange, sharing concerns and building future collaborations.
This article examines the complex risks, costs and rewards of large-scale private law climate litigation – the climate litigation ‘holy grail’. It argues that while these cases undoubtedly have heroic aspects, their impacts can be complex or difficult to understand. It uses overlapping theories of metaphor and narrative in law, and theories of private law, to make some critical observations about these cases. Distilling some core reflections from the grail legends, the article argues that success in these cases requires a nuanced understanding of victory and defeat, and more careful thinking about the character, aims, and effect of these pieces of litigation. These stories inspire constant reflection as to what the metaphor of the ‘holy grail’ might mean in this context, and the role that these cases play in the development of a narrative about climate litigation.
The C40 is in many ways a success story. It has generated increased engagement and coordination, with the vast majority of member cities now committed to the collective goal of carbon neutrality by midcentury. This level of coordination was virtually unthinkable a mere decade ago, and the theory of global urban governance fields helps to identify and explain its origins and underpinnings. The ability of the C40 to generate convergence and consolidation around a common understanding of how to “be” a global urban climate governor has enabled the C40 to generate collective effort in the face of voluntary participation. This chapter sets out the ways in which this insight contributes to pushing forward the scholarship on cities, global climate governance, and the role of cities in international relations more broadly. It also highlights important questions that emerge as a result, including the relationship between the content of C40 norm/identity convergence and the potential contribution it can make to achieving collective goals of decarbonization and transformative sustainability, how to measure and assess progress and performance, and for whom/to whom cities are rendering themselves accountable as global climate governors.
This chapter examines the importance of geomorphic understanding of river dynamics for managing, restoring, and naturalizing rivers to achieve environmental objectives. Many management efforts are based on the concept of equilibrium adjustments among flow, sediment transport, and channel morphology that presumably lead to the development of stable channel forms. Overviews are provided of geomorphic assessment methods to inform management. Management of rivers is linked to human processes, especially within the context of stream naturalization, which emphasizes the social nature of policy and decision-making that underpins management. The discussion highlights how the setting of goals for management and actual management outcomes are fundamentally social processes. It also emphasizes that factors other than geomorphological considerations are vital considerations in environmental decision-making related to river management. The Natural Channel Design approach to river restoration is compared with process-based approaches. How rivers respond to the removal of dams is also considered. The discussion emphasizes the importance of a watershed perspective on river management.
School closures are an important strategy to mitigate the impacts of a pandemic. But an optimal approach to transitioning from in-person to distance learning approaches is lacking. We analyzed a convenience sample of public K-12 schools in the early weeks of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States. This initial snapshot provides some insights to inform future research into the variation of strategies across school districts, and would benefit from more rigorous methods to determine true correlations between demographic and geographic factors. Additionally, many of these strategies have evolved in response to ongoing and prolonged public health social distancing measures implemented after this analysis was conducted.
Generating, collating and using scientific evidence is key to effective conservation. We illustrate this with examples from medicine and conservation, and in more depth with an example from our own studies, in which we assess the methods (overpasses and underpasses) used to reduce habitat fragmentation and mortality of bats caused by roads. Evidence is defined as the results of quantitative tests of interventions that directly address conservation effectiveness against clearly stated goals. The results show that methods used in the past were rarely tested quantitatively and when tested were rarely effective. We discuss why it can be difficult to get scientific evidence accepted and used routinely in conservation policy and practice. Finally, we discuss how evidence gathering and use can be improved in mitigation projects.
In the present study, the factors inducing the successful immediate mitigation measures and other activities at Haji-Abad village in Golestan Province, Iran, were scrutinized.
To find authentic data, information was gathered from a variety of sources, including mass media documents and interviews with the related Health House attendant (Behvarz) at Haji-Abad and the disaster liaison at the Rural-Urban Healthcare Center, both of whom were among the residents. A thematic analysis was performed on the transcriptions.
The findings showed that apart from the favorable geographical location of the area, appropriate education as well as vast family kinship among the residents were the major causes that induced high-risk perception, adequate collaboration and coordination among the residents and between them and the local authorities, and the women's active participation; these major effects, in turn, helped provide all of the efficient mitigation measures leading to the flood control.
It is recommended that opportunities for people's collaboration in preparedness, mitigation measures, and resilience during the occurrence of disasters be arranged by means of providing related inclusive operational education prior to the incidents. This can simultaneously generate risk perception and help people assume themselves as the owners of the disasters.
Collision with power lines is a major cause of mortality for many bird species. Understanding the biotic and abiotic factors that increase collision risk is therefore important for implementing mitigation measures to minimize mortality, such as power line rerouting or wire marking. Here, we used collision events registered during 2003–2015 along 280 km of transmission power lines in southern Portugal to analyse spatio-temporal patterns and collision risk factors in two sympatric, threatened, and collision-prone species: the great bustard Otis tarda and the little bustard Tetrax tetrax. The occurrence of collisions was not uniform across space and time, and variations could be explained by the species' ecological requirements, distribution patterns and behaviour. Although both species fly considerable distances between areas of suitable habitat, collisions were far more likely in power line sections with > 20% (for the little bustard) or > 50% (for the great bustard) of open farmland habitat in the surroundings. Power line configuration was also important: taller pylons and those with a higher number of wire levels posed a higher risk for both species. Wire marking had a small but significant effect for the little bustard, reducing collisions risk. There was, however, no similar effect for the great bustard, possibly a result of limited data. Mitigation measures should be implemented to prevent bustard collisions, including adequate route planning, ideally avoiding areas with > 20% of open habitat. Line configuration and wire marking are particularly important where such localities cannot be avoided and power lines cross areas with a high proportion of bustard habitat, including outside protected areas.