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In recent years, scholars from a wide variety of disciplines have begun to study the process of emotional contagion. These disciplines include cultural psychology, anthropology, primatology, the neurosciences, biology, social psychology, and history. Primitive emotional contagion appears to be a basic building block of human interaction. It assists in “mind-reading” (allowing people to understand others’ thinking), sharing others’ emotions, as well as coordinating and synchronizing their activities with others. Primitive emotional contagion is also an important component of empathy. In this chapter we will discuss the many ways people can “mind-read” and feel themselves into others’ emotional experiences – especially those from disparate cultures and ethnic groups. We will also discuss the ways in which an understanding of the contagion process may be integrated into intercultural training programs. We begin by reviewing the theory of Emotional Contagion.
Chapter 1 argues that Victorian studies of animal mimicry and camouflage (known collectively as crypsis) resisted the hardening dichotomy between science and the arts. Researchers drew on their subjective perceptions, and art theories and techniques, to represent crypsis and recreate its illusions for readers. The first theorisers of ‘protective mimicry’, Henry Walter Bates and Alfred Russel Wallace, laced their writings with personal anecdotes of being deceived by animals’ appearances. Such narratives substituted for the imagined experiences of these animals’ predators and prey. It is proposed that these texts followed a pattern of perceptual self-scrutiny and suspended judgement that had been articulated by the art critic John Ruskin. Bates, Wallace and, even more, the Oxford zoologist Edward Bagnall Poulton also sought to simulate experiences of crypsis through illustrations. Accompanying text guided readers through the trompe l'oeil much as Ruskin’s ekphrastic prose guided the consumption of paintings. The tension between such artistic science and the rising ideal of objectivity came to a head in the controversial work of the American artist Abbott Handerson Thayer. Although Thayer made some lasting contributions to crypsis studies, his approach to nature as an artwork that only artists could understand provoked strong attacks from some zoologists.
Chapter 6 argues that evolutionary theories of crypsis and display served as models for thinking through the positions of disempowered, marginalised groups at the turn of the century. Israel Zangwill sometimes invoked protective mimicry to decry Jewish assimilation as the degenerate defence mechanism of helpless dependents. Persecution, he complained, had driven Jews to become invisible and, thus, alienated from their own nature. Conversely, Charlotte Perkins Gilman made sense of women’s perceived weakness via the conspicuous display of sexual selection. Gilman argued that women’s eye-catching, impractical clothes reflected their feeble dependence on men. Through their rhetoric of standing out and blending in, both authors sought to recover the imagined authentic essences of their group identities, which regimes of Gentile or male surveillance had repressed. Yet they also imagined this self-realisation being asserted through visual display. The intersubjectivity of display rendered it inherently inauthentic, mediated by arbitrary symbols. This contradiction caused Zangwill’s vision of Jewish self-realisation to vacillate between essentialism and anti-essentialism, between a return to pure origins and progression toward open-ended, heterogeneous identity. Gilman’s vision similarly vacillated between the restoration of a primordial female ‘modesty’ and the progressive transcendence of visible sex distinctions.
The Introduction outlines the historical context in which evolutionary theories of animal mimicry, concealment and display (grouped under the term ‘adaptive appearance’) emerged, and how they interacted with broader Victorian culture. It is argued that adaptive appearance constituted a shared discourse in which scientific arguments overlapped with more general ideas about appearance, perception and semiosis that can be traced in the period’s literature. Adaptive appearance was symbiotic with new models of communication that located meaning in receiver interpretations instead of sender intentions. In this way, it challenged the Cartesian binary between semiotic humans and mechanistic animals, suggesting that non-humans might be imagined as performers, deceivers and interpreters. This implication problematised the ideal of scientific objectivity, framing subjective perceptions and misperceptions as intrinsic to nature’s processes. Equally, adaptive appearance inspired reimaginings of human social interactions involving appearance and interpretation as biological processes instead of moral acts. It is suggested that, by materialising mind and meaning, adaptive appearance in some ways prefigured contemporary theories of biosemiotics and zoosemiotics. However, such discourse was not necessarily politically progressive. Adaptive appearance was ideologically adaptable, triggering different connotations for different observers, at once divine presence and absence, progress and degeneration, creative individuality and mindless conformity.
This chapter explores the relationship between ICC interventions and efforts to reform the normative legal frameworks in Uganda, Kenya and the Democratic Republic of Congo with respect to atrocity crimes. It argues that it was less the ICC’s intervention or the desire to undertake domestic prosecutions that catalysed the passage of national implementation legislation in Uganda or Kenya; rather, implementation of the Statute was undertaken at certain political moments in order to ‘perform’ complementarity, typically for international audiences. But while the power of external constituencies was largely responsible for driving the implementation process, it often glossed over deeper concerns about the desirability of pursuing criminal accountability. The chapter also illustrates how the near identical importation of the Rome Statute’s substantive and procedural provisions reflects an increasingly disciplinary approach to implementation. By contrast, in the DRC, political mistrust in international judicial intervention not only thwarted the passage of comprehensive implementing legislation for many years, but appeared to encourage a more syncretic approach to implementation later on. Further, political contestation within the DRC was itself a catalyst that allowed other implementation strategies to take root, including the direct application of the Rome Statute by Congolese military judges in domestic proceedings.
This chapter examines the emergence of specialized domestic courts as a frequently cited outcome of ICC interventions. It highlights the shifting, adaptive nature of complementarity as the basis for reforming domestic judicial systems, even though the link between these efforts and the ICC itself is often tenuous. The chapter highlights how, in contexts like Uganda and Kenya, the threat of the ICC’s jurisdiction was used to prompt the setting up of domestic legal bodies and to buttress putative admissibility challenges. By contrast, recent descriptions depict these bodies more literally as extensions of the ICC: Rather than displacing the court, they are meant to complement and ‘complete’ its work. Non-state actors in the Democratic Republic of Congo have invoked complementarity in a similar manner, even though the domestic proceedings there through military courts are not materially connected to - nor the direct result of - the ICC’s undertakings. In tracing these shifts, the chapter considers complementarity’s duelling impulse towards conformity (specialized domestic courts often mimic the ICC) and competition (such courts are often in tension with the ‘ordinary’ justice system). I also suggest the concept of a ‘justice meme’ to understand how the perceived need for conformity with ICC practice is transmitted and replicated.
This chapter discusses how and why emotions affect other people’s actions, appraisals and emotions. One popular explanation of interpersonal influence is primitive emotional contagion. According to this account, people arrive at similar emotional states because they copy one another’s gestures and expressions (mimicry). The feelings and sensations produced by these gestures and expressions then produce convergent emotional experiences (interoceptive feedback). However, mimicry effects are too selective and feedback effects too weak to make this process work consistently. An alternative process is social appraisal, which involves calibrating emotional orientations to objects or events in the shared environment. Most studies of social appraisal present participants with verbal or facial information about someone else’s emotion and assess their inferences about that information. However, relation alignment may also operate at a more implicit level when people adjust to each other’s developing object-directed signals and movements. Similar processes may also produce divergent or conflicting emotional orientations when two people approach the same event from different angles or interpret its consequences in different ways.
This article is based on the author's production of Aimé Césaire's A Tempest in India. Guided by the concept of transculturation, a key concern of Kamaluddin Nilu in the working process was to develop positions that could be considered parallel to those of Césaire. The topographical condition of present-day India is interpreted as ‘internal colonialism’, locked in differences within, and presented through a double-framed vision. The parallel to ‘black subjectivity’ was found to be the Dalits, who suffer from systematic discrimination and are segregated from the main social body. Further, when adjusting the text to ‘India's world’, the notion of a ‘third space’, benefiting from the performance matrix of the traditional ritualistic performance Ram Lila as well as a heterotopian space concept, was crucial. The intention to make a theatre production that could give the audience an opportunity to engage in a political debate on the hierarchical nature of Indian society was fulfilled. Breaking the established postcolonial political myth meant that the audience was faced with the unexpected. In such cases an indirect or parabolic performance mode of communication rather than a synergetic one becomes likely. Kamaluddin Nilu is an independent theatre director and researcher affiliated with the Centre for Ibsen Studies, University of Oslo. He is currently a Research Fellow at the International Research Centre ‘Interweaving Performance Cultures’ at the Freie University, Berlin. He was Chair Professor of the Theatre Department at Hyderabad University in India, and Artistic Director of the Centre for Asian Theatre (CAT) in Dhaka.
This article uses the case of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) to make a conceptual argument about sovereignty. Despite its aura of natural order, sovereignty is ultimately self-referential and thus somewhat arbitrary and potentially unstable. At the heart of this unsteadiness, we posit, lies the paradox between the systematic tenets of rational governance and the capricious potential of sublime violence. Both are highly relevant to the LTTE case: the movement created de facto state institutions to mimic governance, but simultaneously deployed an elaborate transcendental register of sacrifice, meaning, and intractable power wielded by a mythical leader. To capture this paradox, we connect the literature on rebel governance with anthropological debates about divine kingship. We conceptualize sovereignty as a citational practice that involves the adaptation, imitation, and mutation of different idioms of authority: political and religious, modern and traditional, rational and mythical. Understanding sovereignty in this way debunks the idea that insurgent movements are merely lagging behind established states. As sites of mimicry, bricolage, and innovation, they transform the way sovereignty is practiced and understood, thus affecting the frame that sovereignty is.
Human perception of biological variation is an important and understudied issue in the conservation and management of natural resources. Here, we took a novel approach by asking 1152 participants, primarily college biology students, to score examples of insect mimicry by the number of distinct kinds of animals they saw. Latent class analysis successfully separated participants based on their accuracy of perception as well as demographic information and opinions about biodiversity. Contrary to expectations, factors such as childhood experience (growing up in urban, suburban or rural areas) did not affect the ability to see biodiversity as much as political views (location on a spectrum from liberal to conservative) or the position that biodiversity is important for the health of the environment. We conclude that research into effective measures of biological education should consider the connection between personal views and perceptions of natural variation.
Cephalopods are common inhabitants of the deep ocean's mesopelagic zones worldwide, yet very little is known about their behaviour due to the inaccessibility of this environment. Recent studies suggest that, contrary to historical predictions, deep-sea cephalopods exhibit a wide array of visual behaviours. We used in situ footage from remotely operated vehicles, coupled with laboratory observations to assemble the first behavioural ethogram for the juvenile and subadult life stages of the mesopelagic squid, Chiroteuthis calyx. The number of behavioural components we described is comparable to or exceeds those recognized in ethograms of shallow-water teuthids. We used the ethogram to make a detailed behavioural comparison between the juvenile and subadult life stages, and found distinctly different patterns. Behavioural and morphological differences between the two life stages support the hypothesis that juvenile C. calyx mimic the abundant siphonophore Nanomia bijuga, in order to deter predation.
This chapter sketches out the relationship between speakers' consciousness and verbal ritual performances, and between ritual language and the social world. It discusses a number of works published in the last two decades, and draws on a variety of examples of ritual speech from societies in the Americas, the Pacific, South Asia, the Indian Ocean, and the Mediterranean, with a particular focus on anthropological and historical research on Amerindian languages. The chapter defines and problematizes five domains that inform many known forms of ritual language in different societies: parallelism and repetition; representation and mimicry; enaction and personification; authority; and reflexivity and indeterminacy. These domains follow a path from discrete linguistic phenomena to broader forms of articulating and expressing beliefs through linguistic performances. These five domains arguably have a close ideational relationship with various forms of collective linguistic intentionality embedded in ritual language.
Nikolai Ivanovich Vavilov was an early 20th century Russian plant scientist
who was killed by Joseph Stalin in 1943 for his adherence to basic genetic
principles. Vavilov is well known within plant breeding and plant
evolutionary biology circles, yet the science of Vavilov is just as
important to the field of weed science. Specifically, Vavilov proposed that
certain weeds adapted to weed control practices to survive in prehistorical
agrarian societies. Most would refer to this adaption as crop mimicry, but
the term “Vavilovian mimicry” is more apt. Vavilovian mimicry requires three
factors: a model—the crop or desirable plant; a mimic—the weed; and an
operator—the discriminating agent, possibly human, animal, or machine. In a
modern context, it is proposed that weed adaptation to herbicide
applications be included as a form of Vavilovian mimicry, with the
acknowledgement that the operator is the herbicide. In this context,
Vavilovian mimicry is the adaption of the weed mimic to be perceived by the
operator as visually, physically, or biochemically indistinguishable from
the crop model. This review will cover the history and legacy of Vavilov in
a condensed version in the hope that weed scientists will hold this
individual in high regard in our future endeavors and begin to acknowledge
Vavilov as one of the first scientists to propose that weeds can mimic the
attributes of crops.
It has already been suggested that snake head triangulation might be related to mimicry of the head shape of vipers (Greene & McDiarmid 2005, and references therein). Until very recently, this hypothesis has never been experimentally tested. We first tested the hypothesis of snakes’ head shape as a dangerous signal to predators by use of plasticine models (Guimarães & Sawaya 2011). We suggested in that study that shape of the head does not confer advantage itself but may work in synergy with a set of traits including colour and behavioural displays that warn and discourage predator attacks.
Several species of non-venomous snake are known to flatten their heads when disturbed, and this behaviour has been suggested to be a mimicry of vipers (Arnold & Ovenden 2002, Hailey & Davies 1986, Young et al. 1999). Using plasticine models, Guimarães & Sawaya (2011) tested the antipredatory function of a triangular head shape in snakes. Their article presents the first published empirical experiment testing the adaptive significance of vipers' triangular head shape. Guimarães & Sawaya (2011) found no support for the viper mimicry hypothesis. Accordingly, they concluded that ‘the shape of [the] head seemed not to confer advantage itself’. Although the use of plasticine models is a generally accepted method of testing predation pressure on snakes, we argue that the experiment may have failed to find the antipredatory function of triangulation due to the pooling of attacks by mammalian and avian predators. Mammals generally rely on olfactory cues during foraging. Plasticine has a strong odour which does not resemble the odour of any prey species. It is thus unlikely that mammals would treat snake replicas as true snakes.
The difficulty of observing interactions between predators and their prey in natural systems has promoted the use of artificial replicas (Exnerová et al. 2006, Smith 1977). Plasticine replicas have been successfully used because they retain imprints of predation attempts and enable the identification of the predator (Brodie 1993).
It is proposed herein that the juvenile parrotfish Scarus zelindae is a mimic of the barber goby Elacatinus figaro. Juvenile S. zelindae not only resemble E. figaro but also present changes in behaviour that helps establish the existence of a mimic–model system. When approached by divers juvenile S. zelindae remained stationary at the bottom adopting a site-attached behaviour similar to E. figaro. Because of S. zelindae's colour similarity and behaviour changes, we propose that juvenile S. zelindae may be acting as a mimic to the model E. figaro gaining advantage due to the low rate of predation upon cleaner fish.
Recent application of theories of embodied or grounded cognition to the recognition and interpretation of facial expression of emotion has led to an explosion of research in psychology and the neurosciences. However, despite the accelerating number of reported findings, it remains unclear how the many component processes of emotion and their neural mechanisms actually support embodied simulation. Equally unclear is what triggers the use of embodied simulation versus perceptual or conceptual strategies in determining meaning. The present article integrates behavioral research from social psychology with recent research in neurosciences in order to provide coherence to the extant and future research on this topic. The roles of several of the brain's reward systems, and the amygdala, somatosensory cortices, and motor centers are examined. These are then linked to behavioral and brain research on facial mimicry and eye gaze. Articulation of the mediators and moderators of facial mimicry and gaze are particularly useful in guiding interpretation of relevant findings from neurosciences. Finally, a model of the processing of the smile, the most complex of the facial expressions, is presented as a means to illustrate how to advance the application of theories of embodied cognition in the study of facial expression of emotion.
This essay argues that the common understanding of imperial divine sonship among biblical scholars can be reframed by emphasizing the importance of adoption in Roman society and imperial ideology. A case study from the Gospel of Mark—the portrayal of Jesus' baptism—demonstrates some of the pay-off for reading the NT with a newly contextualized perspective on divine sonship. Through engagement with diverse sources from the Hellenistic and Roman eras, the dove will be interpreted as an omen and counter-symbol to the Roman eagle, which was a public portent of divine favor, election, and ascension to power.
The presence of antigenic carbohydrate epitopes shared by Biomphalaria glabrata as well as by the sporocysts and miracidia representing snail-pathogenic larval stages of Schistosoma mansoni was assayed by immunohistochemical staining of paraformaldehyde-fixed tissues. To this end, both polyclonal rabbit antiserum raised against soluble egg antigens (SEA) of S. mansoni and monoclonal antibodies recognizing the carbohydrate epitopes LDN [GalNAc(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-)], F-LDN [Fuc(α1-3)GalNAc(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-)], LDN-F [GalNAc(β1-4)[Fuc(α1-3)]GlcNAc(β1-)], LDN-DF [GalNAc(β1-4)[Fuc(α1-2)Fuc(α1-3)]GlcNAc(β1-)] and Lewis X [Gal(β1-4)[Fuc(α1-3)]GlcNAc(β1-)] were used. Intriguingly, anti-SEA serum as well as anti-F-LDN antibodies displayed significant binding in the foot region, anterior tissue and the hepatopancreas of uninfected snails, whereas the Lewis X epitope was only weakly detectable in the latter tissue. In contrast, increased binding of antibodies recognizing LDN, LDN-F and LDN-DF was observed in infected snail tissue, in particular in regions involved in sporocystogenesis, in addition to an enhanced binding of anti-SEA serum and antibodies reacting with F-LDN. A pronounced expression of most of these carbohydrate antigens was also observed at the surface of miracidia. Hence, the detection of shared carbohydrate determinants in uninfected snail tissue, sporocysts and miracidia may support the hypothesis of carbohydrate-based molecular mimicry as a survival strategy of S. mansoni.