Sediments which occur frequently within Lower Devonian andesites of the Midland Valley of Scotland have so far yielded trace fossils in only two areas: Dunure, Ayrshire and Montrose, Angus.
Smith (1909) interpreted the trace fossils from Dunure as representing an “Upland Fauna” and he named 23 new ichnogenera. Re-examination of his localities and specimens suggests that the environment was a shallow ephemeral lake and when sedimentological and preservational factors, size, behavioural variation and synonymy are taken into account, only 8 ichnogenera are here considered valid. These are redefined as Siskemia, Stiaria, Danstairia, Keircalia, Stiallia, Isopodichnus (=Archatomia Smith), Mermia and Merostomichnites. The Montrose ichnofauna of 5 ichnogenera includes a large arthropod trackway Mitchellichnus ferrydenensis gen. and sp. nov.
The trackways from both localities appear to have been formed by various merostomes, crustaceans and possibly early myriapods. The habitat was essentially aquatic although some arthropods may have been amphibious.