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This chapter explores Trump’s language around immigration to determine how he manages to terrorize immigrants while arguing that immigrants should be the source of America’s terror. Drawing on conceptual metaphor theory and over 300 speeches and 6,000 tweets, the authors find that Trump’s primary metaphor represents America as a fortress that is under attack, its cities and towns overrun by polluting invaders. Trump characterizes Mexico as the enemy that sent unauthorized immigrants to wreak havoc, and represents himself as the only hero who can save the nation. Along the way, the chapter explores Trump’s misleading extension of MS-13, the notorious gang, to all Latino gangs and even all young Latinos, and Trump’s extension of the phrase “criminal alien” (immigrants who commit felonious crimes) to all unauthorized immigrants. The authors draw parallels to related conceptual metaphors to be found in the history of Western ethnic nationalism, including Nazi Germany.
On Jan 2, 2018, President Trump tweeted a taunt to Kim Jong-un of North Korea: “I too have a Nuclear Button, but it is a much bigger & more powerful one than his, and my Button works!” This chapter connects Trump’s nuclear saber-rattling to broader patterns of militaristic language use among nuclear weapons scientists and strategists, as well as among past presidents. Professional and political discourse about nuclear weapons tends to be far removed from the human realities behind the weapons. Such dispassionate language is characterized by stunningly abstract and euphemistic language – and in part by a set of lively and misogynistic sexual metaphors. This linguistic framework seems to shape what can be said, or even thought, within the confines of these male-dominated discussions of war. Those who urge restraint in responding to a provocation or attack, for instance, are quickly impugned as sissies, and expressions of empathy denigrated as feminine. In this respect, Mr. Trump is not an exception. His fear of being perceived as unmanly may be closer to the surface, but gendered language that constrains our understanding of reality has long distorted the ways we think about international politics and national security.
In advertising, slogans are used to enhance the recall of the advertised product by consumers and to distinguish it from others in the market. Creating effective slogans is a resource-consuming task for humans. In this paper, we describe a novel method for automatically generating slogans, given a target concept (e.g., car) and an adjectival property to express (e.g., elegant) as input. Additionally, a key component in our approach is a novel method for generating nominal metaphors, using a metaphor interpretation model, to allow generating metaphorical slogans. The method for generating slogans extracts skeletons from existing slogans. It then fills a skeleton in with suitable words by utilizing multiple linguistic resources (such as a repository of grammatical relations, and semantic and language models) and genetic algorithms to optimize multiple objectives such as semantic relatedness, language correctness, and usage of rhetorical devices. We evaluate the metaphor and slogan generation methods by running crowdsourced surveys. On a five-point Likert scale, we ask online judges to evaluate whether the generated metaphors, along with three other metaphors generated using different methods, highlight the intended property. The slogan generation method is evaluated by asking crowdsourced judges to rate generated slogans from five perspectives: (1) how well is the slogan related to the topic, (2) how correct is the language of the slogan, (3) how metaphoric is the slogan, (4) how catchy, attractive, and memorable is it, and (5) how good is the slogan overall. Similarly, we evaluate existing expert-made slogans. Based on the evaluations, we analyze the method and provide insights regarding existing slogans. The empirical results indicate that our metaphor generation method is capable of producing apt metaphors. Regarding the slogan generator, the results suggest that the method has successfully produced at least one effective slogan for every evaluated input.
Chapter 4 focuses on discussions of metaphor (istiʿāra), figurative speech (majāz), and metonymy (kināya). It demonstrates how theories about the beauty of these figures were also driven by an underlying aesthetic of wonder. The process that leads to wonder in these figures, which come to form the pillars of the “science of elucidation” (ʿilm al-bayān), differs from simile and other rhetorical figures. Their beauty lies in the very fact that the word employed figuratively (in metaphor) or implicitly (in metonymy) distances its intended meaning by signifying it indirectly. This is inherently more poetic than explicit expressions, according to our medieval authors, because the listener must go through a process of determining the secondary meaning to which a word’s primary signification points. Metaphor, like simile, therefore, requires the listener to go through an experience of “discovery.” The experience in this case, however, takes place through signification. The chapter thus unveils a medieval Arabic aesthetic theory of signs and signification.
Experimental work has revealed causal links between physical cleansing and various psychological variables. Empirically, how robust are they? Theoretically, how do they operate? Major prevailing accounts focus on morality or disgust, capturing a subset of cleansing effects, but cannot easily handle cleansing effects in non-moral, non-disgusting contexts. Building on grounded views on cognitive processes and known properties of mental procedures, we propose grounded procedures of separation as a proximate mechanism underlying cleansing effects. This account differs from prevailing accounts in terms of explanatory kind, interpretive parsimony, and predictive scope. Its unique and falsifiable predictions have received empirical support: Cleansing attenuates or eliminates otherwise observed influences of prior events (1) across domains and (2) across valences. (3) Cleansing manipulations produce stronger effects the more strongly they engage sensorimotor capacities. (4) Reversing the causal arrow, motivation for cleansing is triggered more readily by negative than positive entities. (5) Conceptually similar effects extend to other physical actions of separation. On the flipside, grounded procedures of connection are also observed. Together, separation and connection organize prior findings relevant to multiple perspectives (e.g., conceptual metaphor, sympathetic magic) and open up new questions. Their predictions are more generalizable than the specific mappings in conceptual metaphors, but more fine-grained than the broad assumptions of grounded cognition. This intermediate level of analysis sheds light on the interplay between mental and physical processes.
I suggest that the phenomenon of conceptual metaphor is simultaneously offline and online. In the course of using conceptual metaphors offline conceptual structures in long-term memory (image schemas, domains, and frames) are put to cognitive work online in mental spaces in working memory. This view enables us to take into account a variety of metaphor-related mental activities that speakers engage in at this level. These include getting primed to use particular metaphors by context, giving metaphorical expressions specific socio-pragmatic functions, creating novel metaphors, using metaphors deliberately, mixing metaphors, and blending.
Primary metaphors form the foundation of conceptual metaphor theory. They are foundational, in that they are seen as directly emerging from our most basic embodied experiences and, also, in that they constitute complex metaphors. I will ask: Do they really emerge directly or do they emerge through a metonymic stage? There is a debate between scholars who suggest that many metaphors are based on, or derive from, metonymies, versus those who do not see such connection between the two. “Resemblance metaphors” do not seem to have anything to do with metonymy. However, in the case of “correlation metaphors” (on these, see, e.g., Lakoff and Johnson, 1980, 1999; Grady, 1997a, b, 1999), several researchers argue that metaphors arise from, and are not independent of, metonymies.
The chapter finds in Ulysses the logical end to Loyola’s project. It is Joyce’s most radical experiment thus far in creating his own ‘exercise’, his own set of impossible demands on the reader. It closely reads a particularly overloaded passage from the ‘Oxen of the Sun’ episode of Ulysses, a particular structure of paranoid frustration that Joyce has worked on before but one that here entails a most unstable position from the reader in the quest for that ‘sincere irony’ Loyola and Joyce demand.
The Moving Ego and Moving Time metaphors have provided a fertile testing ground for the psychological reality of space–time metaphors. Despite this, little research has targeted the linguistic patterns used in these two mappings. To fill that gap, the current study uses corpus data to examine the use of motion verbs in two typologically different languages, English and Spanish. We first investigated the relative frequency of the two metaphors. Whereas we observed no difference in frequency in the Spanish data, our findings indicated that in English, Moving Time expressions are more prevalent than are Moving Ego expressions. Second, we focused on the patterns of use of the verbs themselves, asking whether well-known typological patterns in the expression of spatial motion would carry over to temporal motion. Specifically, we examined the frequencies of temporal uses of path and manner verbs in English and in Spanish. Contra the patterns observed in space, we observed a preference for path verbs in both languages, with this preference more strongly evident in English than in Spanish. In addition, our findings revealed greater use of motion verbs in temporal expressions in Spanish compared to English. These findings begin to outline constraints on the aspects of spatial conceptualization that are likely to be reused in the conceptualization of time.
In keeping with Jessup’s project of constructively contesting legal doctrinal understandings of law, this chapter analyses the Situation Room Photograph to illustrate transnational law as drama. The metaphor of law as drama inheres in Jessup’s text. Yoking Jessup’s turn to drama with anthropologist Victor Turner’s notion of social drama, this chapter shows how, as a text of transnational law, the Situation Room photograph illuminates the normalizing and legitimizing of the national security state, even as gestures and representations of law associated with liberal democracy thread through the image.
The Book of Revelation sits in a distinctive place in the canon of the New Testament, with its relentless succession of apocalyptic imagery—but also sits in a distinctive place within apocalyptic literature as a whole. Making theological sense of it demands both discipline and imagination on the part of the reader, but also mastery of some technical issues (numerology, structure, and its use of imagery) which put it at a cultural distance from the contemporary reader.
Many of the canonical subjects of pre-modern art were tales of aggression, conflict, combat, and destructiveness; remembrances and forewarnings of disasters worldly and otherworldly; visions of wounding and dismemberment; parables of suffering, abjection, and pain. Yet medieval Christian thought and behaviour, which everywhere registered the ambivalent nature of violence, contemplated all these things in the absence of an encompassing definition of violence as a category of experience. Rather than strive anachronistically for an inclusive “iconography of violence” or map the correspondences between representations and realities, this contribution locates the significant of visual violence in its effects, in the rhetorical force of description, and in the unseen cognitive violences works of art could precipitate when they impressed the “sensitive soul” of the beholder. Beginning with a critique of the idea that violence comprises a coherent subject within European art, this chapter analyses images of warfare and the special challenge of the pre-modern battle piece; the sculpted imagery of violent struggle and predation in the famous Romanesque trumeau at Souillac's monastery church; ekphrastic and visual descriptions of the biblical Massacre of the Innocents; and the rhetorical elaboration of the Passion story's violence in the work of late medieval panel painters.
The conceptualisation of urban systems is a crucial step in their assessment. It not only involves identifying the constituent parts of an urban system, but also directly influences the definition of appropriate measurement tools, evaluation criteria, and stakeholders for the assessment. Choices related to conceptualisation therefore have strong normative implications. Hence, there is a need to develop ways to analyse and compare different approaches in terms of their relative emphases, strengths, and weaknesses. The purpose of this chapter is to respond to this need by developing analytical tools that build on four contrasting metaphors commonly used for describing cities. The set of four metaphors (machine, organism, network, and melting pot) used for this purpose were selected based their ability to capture different existing scientific perspectives on cities. Through elaborating the implications that each of the four metaphors carries for the different aspects of an urban system, our work produced two frameworks, one for analysing approaches to conceptualising urban systems in general, and another directed more specifically at analysing approaches to the assessment of urban systems. In addition to their analytical functions, these frameworks can also provide the language that enables communication between different scientific approaches to urban systems.
This chapter explores the parallels between the critique of pure reason and the establishment of a civil condition in natural right theory. It shows how Kant’s conception of laws is ingrained in an extensive legal framework by focusing on two images, the one portraying the critique as the tribunal of reason and the other depicting the critique as the establishment of a rightful condition which is analogous to the establishment of a civil state. These images show that Kant’s account of a priori laws is not merely a colourful way of expressing a new philosophical approach; he is building an entire framework around a legal structure. In addition, the state of nature metaphor shows how the critique aims to provide a procedure for ending conflicts in metaphysics and thereby establish perpetual peace in philosophy.
This chapter shows that the antinomies of pure reason present an analogy between the critique and a civil trial in which reason in the narrow sense is challenged to prove that it can legitimately possess and use its ideas. In reconstructing the different parts of this image, Møller suggests reading the tribunal image as a second-order model of evaluation of judgements. In order to achieve this aim, Møller inspects the different roles and procedures mentioned in the juridical metaphors to see how they fit the different procedures in the antinomies. The chapter untangles the notions of the tribunal itself, the trial, the witnesses, the audience and the verdict. The image of the reader as judge is considered in its intellectual historical context, which shows an affinity between Kant’s use of this image and the project of enlightenment.
Why are Dickinson’s poems abstract? For Dickinson, perceptual processing is abstraction, and generalizing and analogizing are both perceptual processes and powerful analytical tools. Perception involves classifying, but animals do it without language, and items like emotion seem to resist identification. What is the relationship between language and experience? It is abstract. Dickinson’s poems turn to empiricist rhetoric and evolutionary neuroscience like Bain’s to think about intelligence in animals, the physiology and semiology of emotion, the figural nature of sensory perception, and the question of natural kinds. Dickinson’s language traces the emotional figuration in the body’s perceptual processes, and she delights in unsettling conceptual metaphors at the heart of intuitive concepts like time and space. Dickinson’s propositions and aphorisms indicate a poetics not of lyric as overheard privacy, but of empiricist axiom. She works out a pragmatist approach to knowledge, inviting readers to continually renovate their perceptions and thus the culture.
Dickinson wants to affect her readers, but not to overwhelm them. Is language’s power literal, its causation direct? Even if it might be, language’s material, sensational aspects must be converted to meanings. The question for Dickinson is to what extent that conversion is automatic, irresistible. Dickinson uses the frameworks of Common Sense and Humean philosophies to think about the nature of power in causation. The more naïve or Common Sense realist version of “electric sympathy” literalizes words’ causative power, while Dickinson’s associationist rhetoric of sympathy observes a skeptical gap between persons. Campbell’s Humean rhetoric insists that cause is attributive and interpretive. Bain’s neuroscience suggests that electricity is integral, not inimical, to the perceptual process. Consistently, Dickinson employs a figurative, ambiguous style which maps onto the recipient’s processes of inference down to the neurological, that is, electrical, level, inducing a lightning in the mind which is the reader’s own power.
Chapter 1 has three goals. First, it provides motivation and history for the methodology by reviewing seminal insights and current debates about the relationship between language and thought, outlining how most research in this field concerns the structure of language rather than its use. Second, it outlines the scope for using CODA by identifying crucial and typical areas of application, with specific focus on mental representations and cognitive processes. Third, it highlights the scope and limits of language analysis of this kind, along with a discussion of reliability and generalisability of insights gained by using CODA. Altogether, the chapter provides in-depth insights into the foundational insights the method builds on, what it is intended for, why and where it is useful, and how it relates to other approaches to cognition.
In Chapter 12, “Professor Sayyah Comes Home to Teach,” I look closely at Fatemeh Sayyah’s life and career (1902–1948). Fatemeh Sayyah (aka Fatemeh Reza Zadeh Mahallati) did not write a travelogue, but her life and literary career are emblematic of a peripatetic environment that had made her professional character and literary culture possible. She was related to Hajj Sayyah, whose travelogue I examine in Chapter 7, and was briefly married to his son Hamid Sayyah, from whom she received her last name. Her father was a professor of Persian literature in Russia, and her mother was Russian, of German descent. She was born and raised in Moscow, received her early and advanced education in Russia, mastered Russian and French literatures, received her doctorate degree in comparative literature with a dissertation on Anatole France, and then traveled to her homeland in 1924 and was a pioneering figure in introducing the discipline of comparative literature to Iranians. What is important about Fatemeh Sayyah is the fact that she was born and raised outside Iran, received her higher education in Russia, was far more comfortable in Russian than in Persian, assumed a leading role in the women’s rights movement in her homeland, and traveled extensively abroad to represent Iran in various conferences, and thus best personifies the multifaceted cosmopolitan culture that had deeply informed the entire body of travelogues I examine in this book. But, and there is the rub, that personification was marked by a positivist Eurocentricity that went against the grain of the world travelers who had made her possible. In that paradoxical twist we will see the emotive split between the unwavering sovereignty of a nation and the vagaries of states that have sought to rule them.
In this chapter, I discuss the metaphors of mind that underlie researchers’ thinking about intelligence. I discuss the geographic, computational, biological, genetic-epistemological, sociological, anthropological, and systems metaphors. I point out some of the advantages and disadvantages of the various metaphors. I conclude by arguing that metaphors are not “right” or “wrong” but rather more or less useful for particular purposes. Sometimes, it is optimal even to mix metaphors to understand how different ways of understanding intelligence can be mutually enhancing.