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The consistently high prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has urged the need for punctual and effective prevention. Extended research on this specific area has demonstrated the influence of fetal and neonatal periods on the risk of developing CVD in adulthood. Thus, the role of traditional and novel biological markers to the effective screening of CVD among the neonatal population is widely investigated. The objective of the present narrative review is to examine those neonatal biomarkers that may play a role in the development of CVD, to exhibit scientific data that appertain to their association with various perinatal conditions leading to CVD predisposition, and their potential role on prediction and prevention strategies. Multiple biomarkers, traditional and novel, have been mined across the studied literature. Adiposity, insulin resistance, altered lipid profile, inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction seem among the headliners of CVD. Even though various novel molecules have been studied, their clinical utility remains controversial. Therefore, it is quite important for the scientific community to find elements with strong predictive value and practical clinical use.
Experiencing mental ill-health has long been recognised as being associated with a range of physical conditions that shorten life or impose limitations on physical well-being. Although the causes of this association are uncertain, it is absolutely clear that the experience of enduring mental ill-health in both Australia and Aotearoa New Zealand will be associated with a shorter life span (Firth et al. 2019; Cunningham, Peterson et al., 2014). The chapter addresses the more commonly experienced co-occurrring physical conditions (also known as comorbidities), looking at the prevalence and specific characteristics of each among those experiencing recurring mental ill-health. The effects of medication on physical health and well-being are explored. Complementary approaches to augmenting well-being are addressed. This includes exercise, diet and stress-reduction strategies as well as over-the-counter (OTC) drugs and complementary and alternative medicines (CAM). The final part of the chapter looks at approaches that are useful in preventing, or limiting the effects of co-occurring physical ill-health.
Meal timing is a key factor in synchronising the circadian clock in peripheral tissues. Circadian disorders are associated with the metabolic syndrome. Previously, we demonstrated that a skipping breakfast regimen (SBR) with a high-fat diet increased body weight gain in rats. In this study, we investigated whether SBR with a normal diet led to abnormal lipid metabolism and muscle metabolism in mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed during zeitgeber time (ZT) 12–24 in the control group and ZT 16–24 in the SBR group for 2 weeks. SBR mice showed increased body weight gain and perirenal adipose tissue weight. The plantar muscle weight was decreased in the SBR group compared with that in the control group. Furthermore, SBR delayed the circadian oscillations in clock gene expression in peripheral tissues, such as the liver, adipose tissue and muscle, as well as the oscillations in the expression of lipid metabolism-related genes in the liver and adipose tissue. These results suggest that skipping breakfast over a long period of time is associated with a risk of obesity, the metabolic syndrome and muscle loss, such as sarcopenia.
The present study examines how alcohol intake from wine and non-wine alcoholic beverages (non-wine) in g/d, as well as cups of coffee and tea included as continuous covariates and mutually adjusted are associated with all-cause, cancer, non-cancer and CVD mortality. Consumption was assessed in 354 386 participants of the UK Biobank cohort who drank alcohol at least occasionally and survived at least 2 years after baseline with 20 201 deaths occurring over 4·2 million person-years. Hazard ratios (HR) for mortality were assessed with Cox proportional hazard regression models and beverage intake fitted as penalised cubic splines. A significant U-shaped association was detected between wine consumption and all-cause, non-cancer and CVD mortality. Wine consumption with lowest risk of death (nadir) ranged from 19 to 23 g alcohol/d in all participants and both sexes separately. In contrast, non-wine intake was significantly and positively associated in a dose-dependent manner with all mortality types studied except for CVD in females and with the nadir between 0 and 12 g alcohol/d. In all participants, the nadir for all-cause mortality was 2 cups coffee/d with non-coffee drinkers showing a slightly increased risk of death. Tea consumption was significantly and negatively associated with all mortality types in both sexes. Taken together, light to moderate consumption of wine but not non-wine is associated with decreased all-cause and non-cancer mortality. A minor negative association of coffee consumption with mortality cannot be excluded whereas tea intake is associated with a consistently decreased risk of all mortality types studied.
Metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) might be an alternative valuable target in obesity treatment. We aimed to assess whether alternative Mediterranean (aMED) diet and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet were favourably associated with obesity and MHO phenotype in a Chinese multi-ethnic population. We conducted this cross-sectional analysis using the baseline data of the China Multi-Ethnic Cohort study that enrolled 99 556 participants from seven diverse ethnic groups. Participants with self-reported cardiometabolic diseases were excluded to eliminate possible reverse causality. Marginal structural logistic models were used to estimate the associations, with confounders determined by directed acyclic graph (DAG). Among 65 699 included participants, 11·2 % were with obesity. MHO phenotype was present in 5·7 % of total population and 52·7 % of population with obesity. Compared with the lowest quintile, the highest quintile of DASH diet score had 23 % decreased odds of obesity (OR = 0·77, 95 % CI 0·71, 0·83, Ptrend < 0·001) and 27 % increased odds of MHO (OR = 1·27, 95 % CI 1·10, 1·48, Ptrend = 0·001) in population with obesity. However, aMED diet showed no obvious favourable associations. Further adjusting for BMI did not change the associations between diet scores and MHO. Results were robust to various sensitivity analyses. In conclusion, DASH diet rather than aMED diet is associated with reduced risk of obesity and presents BMI-independent metabolic benefits in this large population-based study. Recommendation for adhering to DASH diet may benefit the prevention of obesity and related metabolic disorders in Chinese population.
The purpose of the study was to verify the effect of 4 weeks of a high-fructose diet (HFD) associated with aerobic training on the risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases. Twenty-one young adults were randomised into three groups: HFD (HFD: 1 g/kg body weight of fructose/day), high-glucose diet (HGD: 1 g/kg body weight of glucose/day) and high-fructose diet and exercise (HFDE: 1 g/kg body weight of fructose/day + 3 weekly 60-minute sessions of aerobic exercise). Before and after the 4 weeks of the intervention, blood samples were taken and flow-mediated dilatation, insulin resistance index, pancreatic beta cell functional capacity index, insulin sensitivity index and 24-h blood pressure were evaluated. HFD showed an increase in uric acid concentrations (P = 0·040), and HGD and HFDE groups showed no changes in this outcome between pre- and post-intervention; however, the HFDE group showed increased uric acid concentrations from the middle to the end of the intervention (P = 0·013). In addition, the HFD group showed increases in nocturnal systolic blood pressure (SBP) (P = 0·022) and nocturnal diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (P = 0·009). The HGD group exhibited decreases in nocturnal SBP (P = 0·028) and nocturnal DBP (P = 0·031), and the HFDE group showed a decrease in 24-h SBP (P = 0·018). The consumption of 1 g/kg of fructose per day may increase uric acid concentrations and blood pressure in adults. Additionally, aerobic exercises along with fructose consumption attenuate changes in uric acid concentrations and prevent impairment in nocturnal blood pressure.
The metabolic syndrome is common in older adults and may be modified by the diet. The aim of this study was to examine associations between a posteriori dietary patterns and the metabolic syndrome in an older New Zealand population. The REACH study (Researching Eating, Activity, and Cognitive Health) included 366 participants (aged 65–74 years, 36 % male) living independently in Auckland, New Zealand. Dietary data were collected using a 109-item FFQ with demonstrated validity and reproducibility for assessing dietary patterns using principal component analysis. The metabolic syndrome was defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. Associations between dietary patterns and the metabolic syndrome, adjusted for age, sex, index of multiple deprivation, physical activity, and energy intake were analysed using logistic regression analysis. Three dietary patterns explained 18 % of dietary intake variation – ‘Mediterranean style’ (salad/leafy cruciferous/other vegetables, avocados/olives, alliums, nuts/seeds, shellfish and white/oily fish, berries), ‘prudent’ (dried/fresh/frozen legumes, soya-based foods, whole grains and carrots) and ‘Western’ (processed meat/fish, sauces/condiments, cakes/biscuits/puddings and meat pies/hot chips). No associations were seen between ‘Mediterranean style’ (OR = 0·75 (95 % CI 0·53, 1·06), P = 0·11) or ‘prudent’ (OR = 1·17 (95 % CI 0·83, 1·59), P = 0·35) patterns and the metabolic syndrome after co-variate adjustment. The ‘Western’ pattern was positively associated with the metabolic syndrome (OR = 1·67 (95 % CI 1·08, 2·63), P = 0·02). There was also a small association between an index of multiple deprivation (OR = 1·04 (95 % CI 1·02, 1·06), P < 0·001) and the metabolic syndrome. This cross-sectional study provides further support for a Western dietary pattern being a risk factor for the metabolic syndrome in an older population.
In recent years, a wealth of factors are associated with increased risk of developing non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and NAFLD is now thought to increase the risk of multiple extra-hepatic diseases. The aim of this review is first to focus on the role of ageing and sex as key, poorly understood risk factors in the development and progression of NAFLD. Secondly, we aim to discuss the roles of white adipose tissue (WAT) and intestinal dysfunction, as producers of extra-hepatic factors known to further contribute to the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Finally, we aim to summarise the role of NAFLD as a multi-system disease affecting other organ systems beyond the liver. Both increased age and male sex increase the risk of NAFLD and this may be partly driven by alterations in the distribution and function of WAT. Similarly, changes in gut microbiota composition and intestinal function with ageing and chronic overnutrition are likely to contribute to the development of NAFLD both directly (i.e. by affecting hepatic function) and indirectly via exacerbating WAT dysfunction. Consequently, the presence of NAFLD significantly increases the risk of various extra-hepatic diseases including CVD, type 2 diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease and certain extra-hepatic cancers. Thus changes in WAT and intestinal function with ageing and chronic overnutrition contribute to the development of NAFLD – a multi-system disease that subsequently contributes to the development of other chronic cardiometabolic diseases.
The burden of depression is increasing worldwide, specifically in older adults. Unhealthy dietary patterns may partly explain this phenomenon. In the Spanish PREDIMED-Plus study, we explored (1) the cross-sectional association between the adherence to the Prime Diet Quality Score (PDQS), an a priori-defined high-quality food pattern, and the prevalence of depressive symptoms at baseline (cross-sectional analysis) and (2) the prospective association of baseline PDQS with changes in depressive symptomatology after 2 years of follow-up. After exclusions, we assessed 6612 participants in the cross-sectional analysis and 5523 participants in the prospective analysis. An energy-adjusted high-quality dietary score (PDQS) was assessed using a validated FFQ. The cross-sectional association between PDQS and the prevalence of depression or presence of depressive symptoms and the prospective changes in depressive symptoms were evaluated through multivariable regression models (logistic and linear models and mixed linear-effects models). PDQS was inversely associated with depressive status in the cross-sectional analysis. Participants in the highest quintile of PDQS (Q5) showed a significantly reduced odds of depression prevalence as compared to participants in the lowest quartile of PDQS (Q1) (OR (95 %) CI = 0·82 (0·68, 0·98))). The baseline prevalence of depression decreased across PDQS quintiles (Pfor trend = 0·015). A statistically significant association between PDQS and changes in depressive symptoms after 2-years follow-up was found (β (95 %) CI = −0·67 z-score (–1·17, −0·18). A higher PDQS was cross-sectionally related to a lower depressive status. Nevertheless, the null finding in our prospective analysis raises the possibility of reverse causality. Further prospective investigation is required to ascertain the association between PDQS and changes in depressive symptoms along time.
Antipyschotic medications have benefited countless people with a wide variety of pyschiatric disorders. However, they do have potential to induce metabolic disturbances in a population that is known to have a high risk of cardiovascular disease. This can result in the development of metabolic syndrome and associated complications. There is a strong association between the presence of metabolic syndrome and developing type 2 diabetes. Patients with severe mental illness are at increased risk for metabolic syndrome, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. This is likely due to a number of factors, including higher rates of smoking, poor diet and disordered lifestyle with minimal physical activity. In addition, this population is less likely to receive prompt diagnosis and treatment for modifiable risk factors such as hypertension, dyslipidaemia and prediabetes. Overall, second-generation antipsychotic agents have a stronger association with these adverse effects compared to their first-generation counterparts, and previously untreated patients are at highest risk. With this in mind, healthcare professionals and patients should be well informed on this issue and institute close monitoring and prompt treatment of at-risk individuals.
We assessed the association between the dietary inflammatory index (DII) and the development of metabolic syndrome in the elderly over 55 years in Northern China. The data of 1936 Chinese adults aged 55 years and over from a community-based neurological disease cohort study from 2018 to 2019 were analysed. Multiple logistic regression and restricted cubic splines regression were used for analysis, and social demographics, lifestyle and health-related factors were adjusted. In the fully adjusted model, the risk of metabolic syndrome increased by 1·28-fold in people with a pro-inflammatory diet. When we divide the metabolic syndrome by its components, high pro-inflammatory diet and hyperglycaemia, TAG, hypertension and abdominal obesity, we failed to observe a significant association between a high pro-inflammatory diet and HDL-cholesterol. However, these associations are moving in the expected direction. At the same time, the results of BMI subgroup analysis showed that with the increase of DII, obese people are at increased risk of metabolic syndrome, hyperglycaemia, high TAG, hypertension and abdominal obesity. Also in overweight people, the increase in DII is accompanied by an increased risk of hyperglycaemia and abdominal obesity. Higher inflammatory diet is related to metabolic syndrome, hypertension, hyperglycaemia, abdominal obesity and hypertriglyceridaemia. Further research is needed to confirm the role of inflammation and diet in the development of metabolic syndrome; however, it is desirable to reduce the dietary components associated with inflammation.
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is closely related to obesity, inflammation, and insulin resistance, all together being etiologically linked to metabolic syndrome (MetS) development. The depressive disorder has a neuroendocrinological component, co-influencing the MetS, while MetS is characterised by increased cytokine levels, which are known to cause a depressed mood. This study aimed to establish biological subtypes of the depressive disorder based on researched clinical, laboratory, and anthropometric variables.
We performed a cross-sectional study on a sample of 293 subjects (145 suffering from a depressive disorder and 148 healthy controls). Results were analysed with multivariate statistical methods as well as with cluster and discriminant analysis. In order to classify depressive disorder on the grounds of laboratory, anthropometric, and clinical parameters, we performed cluster analysis, which resulted in three clusters.
The first cluster is characterised by low platelet serotonin, high cortisol levels, high blood glucose levels, high triglycerides levels, high Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score, high waist circumference, high C-Reactive Protein values, and a high number of previous depressive episodes, was named Combined (Metabolic) depression. The inflammatory depression cluster is defined with average platelet serotonin values, normal cortisol, and all other parameter levels, except for increased IL-6 levels. The serotoninergic depression cluster is characterised by markedly low platelet serotonin, and all other parameters are within the normal range.
From a biological point of view, depressive disorder is not uniform, and as such, these findings suggest potential clinically useful and generalisable biological subtypes of depressive disorder.
It is unclear what the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in drug-naïve first-episode of psychosis (FEP) is, as previous meta-analyses were conducted in minimally exposed or drug-naïve FEP patients with psychotic disorder at any stage of the disease; thus, a meta-analysis examining MetS in naïve FEP compared with the general population is needed.
Studies on individuals with FEP defined as drug-naïve (0 days exposure to antipsychotics) were included to conduct a systematic review. A meta-analysis of proportions for the prevalence of MetS in antipsychotic-naïve patients was performed. Prevalence estimates and 95% CI were calculated using a random-effect model. Subgroup analyses and meta-regressions to identify sources and the amount of heterogeneity were also conducted.
The search yielded 4143 articles. After the removal of duplicates, 2473 abstracts and titles were screened. At the full-text stage, 112 were screened, 18 articles were included in a systematic review and 13 articles in the main statistical analysis. The prevalence of MetS in naïve (0 days) FEP is 13.2% (95% CI 8.7–19.0). Ethnicity accounted for 3% of the heterogeneity between studies, and diagnostic criteria used for MetS accounted for 7%. When compared with controls matched by sex and age, the odds ratio is 2.52 (95% CI 1.29–5.07; p = 0.007).
Our findings of increased rates of MetS in naïve FEP patients suggest that we are underestimating cardiovascular risk in this population, especially in those of non-Caucasian origin. Our findings support that altered metabolic parameters in FEPs are not exclusively due to antipsychotic treatments.
We aimed to assess the individual and joint association of serum vitamin D and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) with obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetSyn). In this cross-sectional study 270 adults with an age range of 18 years and older were recruited from health centers from five districts in Tehran, Iran. CRF was assessed with Bruce protocol. MetSyn was defined based on International Diabetes Federation 2009. The odds ratio (OR) and 95 % confidence interval (CI) of obesity and MetSyn across tertiles of serum vitamin D and CRF were estimated with control for confounders. The results indicated that neither 25(OH)D nor 1,25(OH)D was associated with obesity and MetSyn. There was a strong inverse association between CRF and general (P-trend < 0.001) and abdominal adiposity (P-trend: 0.001). The joint association of vitamin D and CRF indicated that the inverse association of CRF with obesity was stronger in those with high serum vitamin D than those with low serum vitamin D and this joint association remained after considering age and diet quality. There was a significant inverse association for those with low serum 25(OH)D and high CRF (OR: 0.12, 95 % CI: 0.04–0.81; P = 0.02) compared to those with low serum 25(OH)D and low CRF in the crude model. Also, the OR of general obesity was 0.17 (95 % CI: 0.02–0.79; P = 0.03) for those with high CRF and low serum 1,25(OH)D compare with the reference group. Our findings indicated a strong inverse association between CRF and obesity, especially in those with high serum vitamin D.
The findings regarding the associations between red meat, fish and poultry consumption, and the metabolic syndrome (Mets) have been inconclusive, and evidence from Chinese populations is scarce. A cross-sectional study was performed to investigate the associations between red meat, fish and poultry consumption, and the prevalence of the Mets and its components among the residents of Suzhou Industrial Park, Suzhou, China. A total of 4424 participants were eligible for the analysis. A logistic regression model was used to estimate the OR and 95 % CI for the prevalence of the Mets and its components according to red meat, fish and poultry consumption. In addition, the data of our cross-sectional study were meta-analysed under a random effects model along with those of published observational studies to generate the summary relative risks (RR) of the associations between the highest v. lowest categories of red meat, fish and poultry consumption and the Mets and its components. In the cross-sectional study, the multivariable-adjusted OR for the highest v. lowest quartiles of consumption was 1·23 (95 % CI 1·02, 1·48) for red meat, 0·83 (95 % CI 0·72, 0·97) for fish and 0·93 (95 % CI 0·74, 1·18) for poultry. In the meta-analysis, the pooled RR for the highest v. lowest categories of consumption was 1·20 (95 % CI 1·06, 1·35) for red meat, 0·88 (95 % CI 0·81, 0·96) for fish and 0·97 (95 % CI 0·85, 1·10) for poultry. The findings of both cross-sectional studies and meta-analyses indicated that the association between fish consumption and the Mets may be partly driven by the inverse association of fish consumption with elevated TAG and reduced HDL-cholesterol and, to a lesser extent, fasting plasma glucose. No clear pattern of associations was observed between red meat or poultry consumption and the components of the Mets. The current findings add weight to the evidence that the Mets may be positively associated with red meat consumption, inversely associated with fish consumption and neutrally associated with poultry consumption.
Hispanic adults in the USA tend to have a disproportionate prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) as compared to other races.
We examined whether the association between acculturation and MetS and its components are mediated by the intake of fruit in Hispanics.
Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2009–2016 were used in this study.
A total of 2078 Hispanics aged ≥ 20 years were included in this analysis.
The mediating role of total fruit intake was assessed using multivariable-adjusted logistic structural equation models with the bootstrapping method by estimating indirect (IE) and direct (DE) effects from acculturation to MetS. High acculturation was associated with increased odds of MetS (adjusted OR = 1·20, 95 % CI 1·04, 1·39), central obesity (OR = 1·24, 95 % CI 1·07, 1·44) and high blood pressure (OR = 1·16, 95 % CI 1·02, 1·32) among Hispanic adults. Total fruits intake partially mediated the associations of acculturation with MetS (ORIE = 1·02, 95 % CI 1·00, 1·03) and central obesity (ORIE = 1·02, 95 % CI 1·00, 1·03), whereas fully mediated the association between acculturation and high blood pressure (ORIE = 1·03, 95 % CI 1·01, 1·06). Moreover, intake of total fruits fully mediated the acculturation–MetS association among Mexican Americans (ORIE = 1·02, 95 % CI 1·00, 1·05).
Our findings suggested that increasing fruit consumption may reduce the impact of high acculturation on MetS development in Hispanic adults. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings.
Schizophrenia is associated with lower life expectancy due to cardiovascular disease. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) occupies an important place among the main problems. Indicators of hormones regulating metabolism may be appealing candidates as biomarkers of metabolic side-effects. Certain role belongs to genetic factors that might be the basis of sensitivity to development of MetS.
The aim is to study polymorphisms of leptin gene (LEP) and serum leptin concentration in schizophrenia patients with metabolic syndrome.
After obtaining informed consent, patients with schizophrenia (ICD-10: F20) were included: 91 patients for biochemical research and 463 patients for genotyping. Patients were divided into two groups: 46 (119) with MetS; 45 (344) without it. Concentration of leptin was measured on an analyzer MAGPIX (Luminex, USA). Determination of 4 polymorphisms (rs2167270, rs3828942, rs10954173, rs4731426) of LEP was performed by PCR. Differences were considered significant at p<0.05.
The leptin concentration is significantly (p<0.001) higher in MetS (13511.5 [7392.5; 28278.75] pg/ml) compared to patients without MetS (6662 [2131.5; 11380] pg/ml). Significant differences were found in the distribution of rs3828942 (GG:GA:AA): 25.9%:44%:30.2% in MetS and 31.2%:52.6%:16.2% without MetS (χ2=10.545, p=0.005). The genotype AA and the allele A have a predisposing effect on the development of MetS (OR1=2.247, C.I:1.248-4.046; OR2=1.475, C.I:1.093-1.991, χ2=6.49, p=0.01).
A number of features are observed in patients with MetS, which impair the functioning of patients. These investigations should aim to optimize the approach to assess the risk of MetS. The study was supported by grants from the RSF 19-75-10012 (genetic research) and 18-15-00011 (determination of leptin concentration)
The study was supported by grants from the Russian Science Foundation №19-75-10012 (genetic research) and №18-15-00011 (determination of leptin concentration)
Metabolic syndrome (MS) is an often co-occurring condition that occurs during antipsychotic therapy and impairs social functioning
We tried to conduct a self - evaluation of social adaptation in patients with schizophrenia and MS
We examined 150 patients with schizophrenia receiving antipsychotic therapy at the clinics of Mental Health Research Institute. The study was supported by a grant from the Russian Science Foundation 18-15-00011. The IDF criteria were used to diagnose metabolic syndrome. We used «The social adaptation self - evaluation scale» (SASS).
63 patients (42%) had MS and 87 patients (58%) did not. In the subgroup of patients with MS, 59 people (93.65%) had disabilities or were unemployed, in the group without MS - 82 (94.26%) patients. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups (p ≥ 0.05). In the patients with schizophrenia and concomitant MS, the median SSAS scores was 35 [29; 39], which corresponds mainly to a high level of self - evaluation of social adaptation. At the same time, in patients with schizophrenia and without MS, on the contrary, the self - evaluation of social adaptation was 30 [23; 38] points (p = 0.03914). Perhaps this is due to the great attention from relatives and doctors of general somatic practice and the primary medical network in connection with the risk of developing severe somatic pathology.
Patients with MS can give a higher assessment of social adaptation, despite a objectively low social status.
Medication is primary tactics in schizophrenia treatment. First and second generation antipsychotics (FGA and SGA respectively) affect on core symptoms. Unfortunately, it causes side effects. Metabolic syndrome one of them and includes large number of affections like body mass index changes, lipidemias, hypertension and others.
To study the role of polymorphic variants FTO gene in metabolic syndrome in schizophrenia patients.
We were investigated 480 patients. Main criteria for inclusion in study was using antipsychotics, verified diagnosis of schizophrenia and metabolic syndrome. Mean age was 42,1±1,4 years. The metabolic syndrome was assessment based on clinical data. Standard phenol-chloroform protocol for DNA isolation was used. Genotyping was carried out on six SNP’s of FTO gene with real-time PCR. Statistical analysis was carried out with R 3.6.2 with basic functions and SNPassoc package.
The distribution of genotypes for variants rs7185735 and rs9939609 was not in according to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (a p-value less than 0.05) and excluded from further analysis. Patients with schizophrenia were divided into two groups: patients with metabolic syndrome and patients without it. We did not identify any statistically significant associations between genotypes and alleles of FTO gene and metabolic syndrome.
We did not find any associations of alleles and genotypes of FTO gene with metabolic syndrome in schizophrenia patients from Siberia region. Metabolic syndrome needs more further studies with larger number of samples and different populations. Conflict of interest. The authors declare no conflict of interests. Supported by Grant of RSF 19-75-10012.
Metabolic syndrome (MS) is associated with an increased risk of developing a cognitive vascular disorders and dementia.
The associations of cognitive disorders (CD) with components of methabolic syndrome (MS) such as : body mass index, lipid spectrum, arterial hypertension and glucose level (GL) in middle age subjects were study.
The 271 patients with MS according IDF criteria, (aged 30 – 60 years) were examend. Current mild cognitive impairment (MCI) was confirmed by psychodiagnostic interview according to the criteria of ICD-10. All patients passed through: MMSE test, Cognitive Failures Questionnaire, Wechsler memory scale, Symbol Coding and Category Fluency test. Level of blood glucose and plasma indicators of lipid spectrum were assessed in the blood samples with «Abbott» kits. To assess the results the NCEP criteria were used.
All 271 subject were divided into 2 groups, group A – with CD and/or MCI (212 subjects) and the group B -without affective disorders (49 subjects). Using the Mann-Whitney test significantly strong connection between high levels of total cholesterol (TC), cholesterol low density lipoprotein (LDL-C), lipoproteins of very low density (VLDL), the GL and MCI in group A were obtained. Optional subjects with sings of PH, MS and MCI had a fairly high level of VLDL and LDL-C in comparison with subjects without MCI.
The meaning of the relationship between metabolic syndrome and mild cognitive impairments in middle-aged people is in increasing in the level of LDL and VLDL that can provoke MCI in middleage subjects with MS.