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The present study aimed to assess the associations of the stages of Fe deficiency (Fe deficiency without anaemia (ID) and Fe-deficiency anaemia (IDA)) and anaemia with metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Ecuadorian women. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 5894 women aged 20–59 years, based on data from the 2012 Ecuadorian National Health and Nutrition Survey. The sample was stratified by age. A χ2 test was used to assess the possible associations of ID, IDA and anaemia with MetS. The prevalence ratio (PR) for each stage of Fe deficiency and anaemia was estimated considering women without MetS as a reference. The total prevalence of MetS, ID, IDA and anaemia was 32⋅3 % (se 0⋅6), 6⋅2 % (se 0⋅3), 7⋅1 % (se 0⋅3) and 5⋅0 % (se 0⋅3), respectively. In women aged 20–29, 30–39 and 40–49 years, MetS was associated with a lower prevalence of ID (PR (95 % CI; P-value)): 0⋅17 (0⋅06, 0⋅46; P < 0⋅001), 0⋅69 (0⋅48, 0⋅99; P = 0⋅044) and 0⋅44 (0⋅29, 0⋅67; P < 0⋅001), respectively. In women aged 50–59 years, MetS was associated with IDA and anaemia (PR (95 % CI; P-value)): 0⋅12 (0⋅02, 0⋅96; P = 0⋅026) and 0⋅22 (0⋅07, 0⋅64; P = 0⋅002), respectively. In conclusion, Ecuadorian women of reproductive age with MetS have a lower prevalence of ID compared with those without MetS. Furthermore, the MetS and IDA coexist at the population level. These findings require an analysis from a dietary pattern approach, which could provide key elements for developing public policies that simultaneously address all forms of malnutrition.
The hypothesis was that maternal intake of the antioxidant alpha-lipoid acid (ALA), during the developmental period of the hypothalamic orexigenic neurons, causes a permanent beneficial effect in offspring metabolism. Pregnant Wistar rats were fed with standard diet (food) + ALA (0.4% wt/wt) from day 14 of gestation to day 20 of lactation (n = 4) or food (n = 4). At 3 months of age, male offspring born from ALA-fed rats or controls (CT) were randomly assigned to be fed with food + 10% fructose solution in drinking water (F) or food + tap water (C), resulting in four groups: ALAF, ALAC, CTF, and CTC (n = 5/group). Food intake and body weight (BW) were measured twice a week for 31 days. Metabolites’ levels in blood, mRNA expressions of Npy, Agrp (hypothalamus), Fasn, Srebf1, Ppard, and Pparg (liver), and the antioxidant capacity of the liver were determined. Results significance was set at p < 0.05. Average BW gain, daily BW gain, and intraabdominal fat tissue at necropsy were higher in CTF group followed by CTC, ALAF, and ALAC groups. There were no differences between groups in Kcal intake per day. mRNA expressions of hypothalamic and hepatic genes and plasmatic levels of glucose and triglycerides were higher in CTF group followed by ALAF, CTC, and ALAC groups. Fructose intake affected the oxidative capacity of the liver, but this effect was not observed in the ALAF group. In conclusion, maternal ALA intake protected the adult offspring to develop metabolic symptoms associated with high fructose in the drinking water.
The impact of diet on the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and CVD has been investigated widely, but few studies have investigated the association between dietary patterns (DP) and the predicted CVD, derived from reduced rank regression (RRR). The objectives of this study were to derive DP using RRR and principal component analysis (PCA) and investigate their associations with the MetS and estimated 10-year atherosclerotic CVD (ASCVD). We used the baseline dataset from the Xinjiang multi-ethnic cohort study in China, collected from June 2018 to May 2019. A total of 14 982 subjects aged 35–74 years from Urumqi, Huo Cheng and Mo Yu were included in the analysis. The 10-year ASCVD risk was estimated using the Chinese ASCVD risk equations. The associations of DP with the MetS and 10-year ASCVD were determined using multivariable logistic regression models. In Urumqi and Mo Yu, the increased RRR DP score was associated with a higher OR of having the MetS and with a higher OR of elevated 10-year ASCVD risk. However, only the first DP determined by PCA in Urumqi was inversely associated with the MetS and elevated 10-year ASCVD risk. The prevalence of the MetS and elevated ASCVD risk in urban population is higher than that in rural areas. Our results may help nutritionists develop more targeted dietary strategies to prevent the MetS and ASCVD in different regions in China.
Greater psychosocial risk in childhood and adolescence predicts poorer cardiometabolic outcomes in adulthood. We assessed whether the timing of psychosocial risk from infancy through adolescence predicts cardiometabolic outcomes in young adulthood. Young adults and their mothers participated in a longitudinal study beginning in infancy in Santiago, Chile (N = 1040). At infancy, 5 years, 10 years, and adolescence, mothers reported on depressive symptoms, stressful experiences, support for child development in the home, father absence, parental education, and socioeconomic status (SES) to create a psychosocial risk composite at each time point. Young adults (52.1% female; 21–27 years) provided fasting serum samples and participated in anthropometric and blood pressure (BP) assessments, including a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan for measuring body fat. Greater infant psychosocial risk was associated with a greater young adult metabolic syndrome score (β = 0.07, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.01 to 0.13, p = 0.02), a higher body mass index and waist circumference composite (β = 0.08, 95% CI: 0.03 to 0.13, p = 0.002), and a higher body fat (DXA) composite (β = 0.07, 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.12, p = 0.02). No psychosocial risk measure from any time point was associated with BP. Infant psychosocial risk predicted cardiometabolic outcomes in young adulthood better than psychosocial risk at 5 years, 10 years, or adolescence, mean of psychosocial risk from infancy through adolescence, and maximum of psychosocial risk at any one time. Consistent with the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease model, findings suggest that infancy is a sensitive period for psychosocial risk leading to poorer cardiometabolic outcomes in young adulthood.
The aim was to systematically analyse the association of the specific flavonoids, Mg and their interactions from different food sources with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components in a cohort study. A total of 6417 participants aged 20 to 74 years from the Harbin Cohort Study on Diet, Nutrition and Chronic Non-communicable Diseases were included. Multivariate logistic regression analyses, forest plot and restricted cubic spline were performed in the study. After a 5·3-year follow-up, 1283 incident cases of the MetS were reported. Those with a higher total flavonoid intake had a lower risk of the MetS (fourth v. first quartile, relative risk (RR) 0·58; 95 % CI 0·37, 0·93; P = 0·024) and central obesity (RR 0·56; 95 % CI 0·33, 0·95; P = 0·032). Further analysis showed that the specific flavonoids quercetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, luteolin, and flavonoids from fruits, potatoes and legumes had the similar associations with risk of the MetS and central obesity (P < 0·05 for all). A higher intake of total flavonoids, quercetin and luteolin combined with a high level of Mg was more strongly associated with a lower risk of the MetS (RR 0·60; 95 % CI 0·45, 0·81 for total; RR 0·61; 95 % CI 0·45, 0·82 for quercetin; RR 0·52; 95 % CI 0·38, 0·71 for luteolin; all Pfor interaction < 0·01). Dose–response effects showed an L-shaped curve between the total intake of five flavonoids and the risk of the MetS. A higher flavonoid intake is associated with a lower risk of the MetS and central obesity; their combination with Mg helps to strengthen their negative association with the MetS.
Healthy dietary habits reduce the likelihood for the metabolic syndrome (MS). The present study investigated whether awareness of nutrition information is associated with a decreased likelihood for the MS after adjusting for potential confounders among Korean adults aged 20 years and older. Data were obtained from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2016–2018. Of the 14 490 participants, 4001 (27·6 %) participants had the MS. In total, 3815 (26·3 %) participants checked nutritional facts and made labelling-dependent purchasing decisions (aware + consider), 7001 (48·3 %) checked nutritional facts but did not make labelling-dependent purchasing decisions or were aware of nutrition facts but did not check them when making food purchasing decisions (aware + not consider) and 3674 (25·4 %) were unaware of nutritional facts (not aware). The aware + consider group was less likely to develop the MS than other groups. The aware + not consider, and not aware groups were at higher association with the MS compared with the aware + consider group. Statistically significant associations were observed between the MS and several demographic characteristics including sex, age, household income, education level, employment status, public health insurance status, smoking status, alcohol consumption and aerobic exercise.
To assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Chinese adults living in Ningbo and to examine the association between alcohol consumption, and MetS and its medical components.
A representative survey in Ningbo was conducted in 2015 covering socio-demography. A food frequent questionnaire together with additional questionnaires was used to collect information on alcohol consumption, diet, demography, lifestyle, and medical information. Multivariable logistic regression and generalized linear models were used to examine the association between alcohol consumption, and both MetS and its medical components, respectively.
Total 2853 adults ≥20 years (44% men) in this final analysis.
The prevalence of frequent alcohol drinkers and MetS were 29.9% and 28.0%, respectively. Significantly higher prevalence of MetS and mean values of medical components were found in the group of frequent alcohol drinkers with an exception for HDL-C, compared to less or non-alcohol drinkers. Frequent alcohol consumption was associated with higher odds of developing MetS and positively associated with medical components excepting waist circumference.
Frequent alcohol consumption contributed to higher prevalence of MetS, and unfavorable influence on MetS and its medical components among Chinese adults. A public health intervention on alcohol restriction is necessary for the prevention and control the ongoing epidemic MetS.
The associations between sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) and artificially sweetened beverage (ASB) consumption and the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) remain controversial. A quantitative assessment of dose–response associations has not been reported. This study aims to assess the associations between the risk of MetS and SSB, ASB, and total sweetened beverage (TSB, the combination of SSB and ASB) consumption by reviewing population-based epidemiological studies.
We searched PubMed, Embase and Web of Science databases prior to 4 November 2019, for relevant studies investigating the SSB–MetS and ASB–MetS associations. A random effects model was used to estimate pooled relative risks (RR) and 95 % CI. Dose–response association was assessed using a restricted cubic splines model.
We identified seventeen articles (twenty-four studies, including 93 095 participants and 20 749 MetS patients).
The pooled RR for the risk of MetS were 1·51 (95 % CI 1·34, 1·69), 1·56 (1·32, 1·83) and 1·44 (1·19, 1·75) in high consumption group of TSB, SSB and ASB, respectively; and 1·20 (1·13, 1·28), 1·19 (1·11, 1·28) and 1·31 (1·05, 1·65) per 250 ml/d increase in TSB, SSB and ASB consumption, respectively. Additionally, we found evidence of non-linear, TSB–MetS and SSB–MetS dose–response associations and a linear ASB–MetS dose–response association.
TSB, SSB and ASB consumption was associated with the risk of MetS. The present findings provide evidence that supports reducing intake of these beverages to lower the TSB-, SSB- and ASB-related risk of MetS.
A high-carbohydrate diet could achieve a protein-sparing effect, but it may cause negative impacts on the growth condition of fish due to their poor utilisation ability of carbohydrate. How to reduce the adverse effects caused by a high-carbohydrate diet is important for the development of aquaculture. In the present study, we aimed to identify whether inulin could attenuate the metabolic syndrome caused by a high-carbohydrate diet in fish. Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) (1·19 (sd 0·01) g) were supplied with 35 % carbohydrate (CON), 45 % carbohydrate (HC) and 45 % carbohydrate + 5 g/kg inulin (HCI) diets for 10 weeks. The results showed that addition of inulin improved the survival rate when fish were challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila, indicating that inulin had an immunostimulatory effect. Compared with the HC group, the HCI group had lower lipid accumulation in liver and the gene expression analyses indicated that addition of inulin down-regulated genes related to lipogenesis and up-regulated genes relevant to β-oxidation significantly (P < 0·05). Higher liver glycogen and glucose tolerance were found in the HCI group compared with the HC group (P < 0·05). These results indicated that inulin could alleviate the metabolic syndrome induced by a high-carbohydrate diet. Furthermore, addition of inulin to a high-carbohydrate diet changed the intestinal bacterial composition and significantly increased the concentration of acetic acid and propionic acid in fish gut which have the potential to increase pathogen resistance and regulate metabolic characteristics in fish. Collectively, our results demonstrated a possible causal role for the gut microbiome in metabolic improvements induced by inulin in fish.
To examine the associations between vitamins of the methionine-homocysteine (Hcys) cycle (B6, B12 and folate) and Hcys with metabolic syndrome (MetS) among Mesoamerican children and their adult parents.
We conducted a cross-sectional study. Exposures were plasma vitamins B6 and B12 concentrations, erythrocyte folate and plasma Hcys. In children, the outcome was a continuous metabolic risk score calculated through sex- and age standardisation of waist circumference, the homoeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance, mean arterial pressure (MAP), serum HDL-cholesterol and serum TAG. In parents, the outcome was the prevalence of MetS according to the Adult Treatment Panel III Criteria. We estimated mean differences in the metabolic risk score and prevalence ratios of MetS between quartiles of the exposures using multivariable-adjusted linear and Poisson regression models, respectively.
Capital cities of Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, the Dominican Republic, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Costa Rica and Chiapas State in Mexico.
In total, 237 school-aged children and 524 parents.
Among children, vitamin B12 was inversely associated with the metabolic risk score (quartiles 4–1 adjusted difference = –0·13; 95 % CI: –0·21, –0·04; Ptrend = 0·008) through MAP, HDL-cholesterol and TAG. In contrast, folate was positively associated with the metabolic risk score (quartiles 4–1 adjusted difference = 0·11; 95 % CI: 0·01, 0·20; Ptrend = 0·02). In adults, vitamin B6 was inversely associated with MetS prevalence, whereas vitamin B12 and folate were positively related to this outcome.
Vitamins of the methionine-Hcys cycle are associated with MetS in different directions. The associations differ between children and adults.
To assess the effects of treatment with lurasidone on risk for metabolic syndrome (MetS) in patients with schizophrenia.
Rates of metabolic syndrome during treatment with lurasidone (40-160 mg/d) were analyzed using pooled, short-term data from three randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies (vs olanzapine and quetiapine XR); long-term data from two active-comparator-controlled studies (vs risperidone and quetiapine XR); and data from two open-label studies in which patients were switched from olanzapine or risperidone to lurasidone.
MetS was defined based on the National Cholesterol Education Program criteria. In short-term studies, the odds of meeting criteria for MetS at week 6 LOCF (adjusted for baseline metabolic syndrome status) was similar for the lurasidone and placebo groups (OR = 1.18; [95% CI, 0.81-1.71]; P = .39), but the odds (vs placebo) were significantly greater for olanzapine (OR = 2.81; [95% CI, 1.53-5.15]; P < .001) and quetiapine (OR = 3.49; [95% CI, 1.93-6.29]; P < .0001). No dose effect was observed for lurasidone across the dose range of 40-160 mg/d. In long-term studies, the odds of MetS after 12 months of treatment was significantly higher for risperidone compared with lurasidone (OR = 2.12; 95% CI, 1.15-3.90; P = .016) and for quetiapine XR compared with lurasidone (OR = 3.92; 95% CI, 1.15-13.40; P = .029). In open-label extension studies, the rate of MetS decreased in patients switched to lurasidone after 6 weeks of treatment with olanzapine or 12 months of treatment with risperidone.
In this analysis of lurasidone clinical trials, the odds of developing metabolic syndrome were minimal during short- and long-term treatment with lurasidone (40-160 mg/d).
Although grape polyphenols can decrease chronic inflammations, their effect on C-reactive protein (CRP) levels is still controversial. So, this meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the effect of grape products containing polyphenols on CRP concentrations. In order to collect the relevant randomised controlled trials (RCT), the databases of PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Google Scholar were searched up to 30 March 2020. The random effects model, standardised mean difference (SMD) and 95 % CI were applied in data analysis. Meta-analysis was conducted over seventeen eligible RCT containing a total of 668 participants. The study registration number is CRD42018110169. Based on the results, grape products containing polyphenols decreased CRP levels significantly (SMD = −0·229; 95 % CI −0·41, −0·05; P = 0·013). Sensitivity analysis was performed by removing each individual study and the results did not change. According to the subgroup analysis, higher doses of grape polyphenols (>500 mg/d) and longer intervention periods (≥12 weeks) had significant effects on CRP levels. Furthermore, grape polyphenols significantly reduced the CRP levels in patients with a clinical condition. In the same vein, grape seed extract and other grape products, such as grape extract, juice and raisins, decreased CRP levels significantly. According to the meta-regression results, the CRP level depends on the dose and duration of the grape polyphenol supplementation. Based on the findings, grape products containing polyphenols had a significant effect on CRP levels. Further well-designed and long-term clinical trials are highly recommended to achieve more comprehensive and accurate results.
Decreasing high fat and high carbohydrate intake, together with the administration of natural bioactive drugs, is assumed to have a protective effect in the prevention and amelioration of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aim of the study was to evaluate effects of diet improvement and/or a phenolic compound (rosmarinic acid; RA) administration (100 mg/kg per d) on metabolic as well as functional changes of vessels and hippocampus caused by the MetS-like conditions. The MetS-like conditions were induced by a high-fat-fructose diet (HFFD) in Prague hereditary hypertriacylglycerolaemic (HTG) rats. The effect of diet improvement and RA administration was studied using biochemical and functional measurements. Consumption of HFFD by HTG rats resulted in the development of conditions like the MetS. The fat and fructose restriction from the diet led to amelioration of basic indicators of metabolic state in rats fed HFFD and to amendment parameters of glucose tolerance test and reduction of the IL-1β serum levels. Moreover, aortic endothelial function was improved with an impact on blood pressure. The functional measurement of electrophysiology of the hippocampus showed that long-term potentiation of neuronal transmission course deteriorated after HFFD was improved by energy restriction. Oral administration of RA had a supporting effect not only on lipid and glucose metabolism but also on the vascular endothelium. Combination of both types of therapy induced beneficial effect on glucose tolerance and lipid peroxidation. Thus, combined improvement of diet habits and treatment with natural bioactive drugs is assumed to have protective effect in prevention and amelioration of the MetS.
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is defined as a reproductive endocrine disease that results in a low-grade inflammatory and pro-oxidant state. Dietary factors, including n-3 fatty acids, may have a key role in improving metabolic disorders in PCOS patients. The present study aimed to investigate the influence of n-3 fatty acid supplementation on inflammatory and oxidative stress (OS) markers in patients with PCOS. A systematic literature search of Medline/PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Scopus and Lilacs, until November 2019, was conducted. Randomised clinical trials that reported inflammatory and OS markers as endpoints in women with PCOS receiving n-3 fatty acid supplementation were included. The pooled estimates of the weighted mean differences (WMD) and the standard mean differences (SMD) were calculated. Random effects models were adopted to measure the pooled outcomes. Among the 323 studies retrieved, ten fulfilled the inclusion criteria for a meta-analysis. We founded a significant decrease in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) (SMD –0·29 (95 % CI –0·56, –0·02) mg/l) and an increase in adiponectin (WMD 1·42 (95 % CI 1·09, 1·76) ng/ml) concentrations in the intervention group when compared with the placebo group. No statistically significant results were found in the meta-analysis for visfatin, nitric oxide, GSH or malondialdehyde levels or total antioxidant capacity. The data suggest that supplementation of n-3 fatty acids could reduce the inflammatory state in women with PCOS, through a decrease in hs-CRP and an increase in adiponectin levels.
The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors including obesity, insulin resistance (IR) and dyslipidaemia. Consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD) enriched in SFA leads to the accumulation of ceramide (Cer), the central molecule in sphingolipid metabolism. Elevations in plasma and tissue Cer are found in obese individuals, and there is evidence to suggest that Cer lipotoxicity contributes to the MetS. EPA and DHA have shown to improve MetS parameters including IR, inflammation and hypertriacylglycerolaemia; however, whether these improvements are related to Cer is currently unknown. This review examines the potential of EPA and DHA to improve Cer lipotoxicity and MetS parameters including IR, inflammation and dyslipidaemia in vitro and in vivo. Current evidence from cell culture and animal studies indicates that EPA and DHA attenuate palmitate- or HFD-induced Cer lipotoxicity and IR, whereas evidence in humans is greatly lacking. Overall, there is intriguing potential for EPA and DHA to improve Cer lipotoxicity and related MetS parameters, but more research is warranted.
The effects of dietary fibre (DF) and protein on insulin response, lipidaemia and inflammatory biomarkers were studied in a model experiment with juvenile obese Göttingen minipigs. After 20 weeks feeding on a high-fat fructose-rich low-DF diet, forty-three 30-week-old minipigs (31·3 (sem 4·0) kg body weight) were allocated to low- or high-DF and -protein diets for 8 weeks in a 2 × 2 factorial design. High DF contents decreased (P = 0·006) while high protein increased (P < 0·001) the daily gain. High protein contents increased fasting plasma concentrations of glucose (P = 0·008), NEFA (P = 0·015), ghrelin (P = 0·008) and non-fasting LDL:HDL ratios (P = 0·015). High DF increased ghrelin (P = 0·036) and C-peptide levels (P = 0·011) in the non-fasting state. High protein increased the gene expression of fructose-bisphosphatase 1 in liver tissue (P = 0·043), whereas DF decreased fatty acid synthase expression in adipose tissue (P = 0·035). Interactions between DF and protein level were observed in the expression of leptin receptor in adipose tissue (P = 0·031) and of PPARγ in muscle (P = 0·018) and adipose tissue (P = 0·004). In conclusion, high DF intake reduced weight gain and had potential benefit on β-cell secretory function, but without effect on the lipid profile in this young obese model. High dietary protein by supplementing with whey protein did not improve insulin sensitivity or lipidaemia, and combining high DF with high protein did not alleviate the risk of metabolic abnormalities.
No studies have investigated the associations between established plant-based diet indices and the metabolic syndrome (MetS). We evaluated the associations between an overall plant-based diet index (PDI), healthy PDI (hPDI), unhealthy PDI (uPDI) and the MetS in a nationally representative sample using data from 14 450 Korean adults (≥19 years) in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2012–2016. Dietary intakes were assessed by a semi-quantitative FFQ. In the PDI, all plant foods received positive scores. In the hPDI, only healthy plant foods received positive scores. In the uPDI, only unhealthy plant foods received positive scores. All indices reverse scored animal food intake. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between three PDI and the MetS by sex, adjusting for potential risk factors. A total of 23·3 % of Korean adults had the MetS. In the overall study population, individuals in the highest quintile of uPDI had greater odds (OR 1·54, 95 % CI 1·28, 1·86, Ptrend < 0·001) of the MetS than those in the lowest quintile. Higher uPDI score was associated with higher odds of hypertriacylglycerolaemia in men and abdominal obesity, high fasting glucose and hypertriacylglycerolaemia in women. No significant associations were observed between PDI, hPDI and the MetS. Greater adherence to unhealthy plant-based diets was associated with greater odds of the MetS and its components suggesting the importance of the quality of plant-based diet in South Korean adults. Sex differences may be considered when recommending plant-based diets for the prevention and management of metabolic diseases.
To assess the association between patterns of nutrient intake and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a large sample of Iranian adults.
Baseline data from the Shahedieh cohort study were used in the current cross-sectional study. Dietary intakes were assessed through the use of a validated semi-quantitative FFQ. Nutrient patterns (NP) were derived using factor analysis. The MetS was defined according to criteria introduced from the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III, modified for Iranian adults.
A total of 7325 Iranian adults aged between 30 and 75 years.
Three NP were identified. A significant positive association was found between adherence to semi-plant NP (characterised by the high intakes of P; vitamins B1, B3, B6 and B5; Se; Mg; Fe; protein; Cr; Cu; fibre; biotin; Mn; Zn and Na) and odds of MetS (OR 1·68, 95 % CI 1·43, 1·98). However, after adjusting for potential confounders, this association became non-significant. In addition, after taking potential confounders into account, individuals in the highest quintile of the semi-animal NP, rich in Ca; K; vitamins B2, B12, A, D, K and C; SFA; dietary cholesterol and trans-fatty acid, were 26 % more likely to have MetS compared with those in the lowest quintile (OR 1·26, 95 % CI 1·05, 1·51). No significant association was seen between adherence to the high-carbohydrate/low-fat NP and odds of MetS.
We found that adherence to a semi-animal NP was associated with increased odds of MetS.
Inflammation and metabolic dysregulation are age-related physiological changes and are associated with depressive disorder. We tried to identify subgroups of depressed older patients based on their metabolic-inflammatory profile and examined the course of depression for these subgroups.
This clinical cohort study was conducted in a sample of 364 depressed older (⩾60 years) patients according to DSM-IV criteria. Severity of depressive symptoms was monitored every 6 months and a formal diagnostic interview repeated at 2-year follow-up. Latent class analyses based on baseline metabolic and inflammatory biomarkers were performed. Adjusted for confounders, we compared remission of depression at 2-year follow-up between the metabolic-inflammatory subgroups with logistic regression and the course of depression severity over 2-years by linear mixed models.
We identified a ‘healthy’ subgroup (n = 181, 49.7%) and five subgroups characterized by different profiles of metabolic-inflammatory dysregulation. Compared to the healthy subgroup, patients in the subgroup with mild ‘metabolic and inflammatory dysregulation’ (n = 137, 37.6%) had higher depressive symptom scores, a lower rate of improvement in the first year, and were less likely to be remitted after 2-years [OR 0.49 (95% CI 0.26–0.91)]. The four smaller subgroups characterized by a more specific immune-inflammatory dysregulation profile did not differ from the two main subgroups regarding the course of depression.
Nearly half of the patients with late-life depressions suffer from metabolic-inflammatory dysregulation, which is also associated with more severe depression and a worse prognosis. Future studies should examine whether these depressed older patients benefit from a metabolic-inflammatory targeted treatment.
To identify sex-specific cut-off points for waist circumference (WC) in the definition of metabolic syndrome (MetS) for the Chilean adult population.
MetS was defined as the presence of at least two out of four of the following criteria: TAG ≥1·7 mmol/l; HDL-cholesterol: <1·3 mmol/l in women and <1·0 mmol/l in men; systolic blood pressure ≥130 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥85 mmHg; and fasting glucose ≥ 5·6 mmol/l or current treatment for diabetes. The receiver operating characteristics curve and the AUC were computed to derive the specificity and sensitivity using bootstrapping (10 000 iterations restricted to have at least between 40 and 60 % of the original population). The optimal cut-off point for the Chilean population was computed by sex.
A representative sample of the Chilean population aged ≥15 years.
8182 participants (60 % women) from the three available Chilean National Health Surveys conducted in 2003, 2009–2010 and 2016–2017.
WC had a good predictive ability for MetS (AUC for men 0·74 (95 % CI 0·72, 0·76); AUC for women 0·71 (95 % CI 0·68, 0·73)). The optimal cut-off points for WC, in the definition of MetS, were 92·3 cm (95 % CI 90·5, 94·4) and 87·6 cm (95 % CI 85·8, 92·1) for men and women, respectively.
The mentioned cut-off points should be used for WC in the definition of MetS in Chile. As a result, the current recommendation (WHO/International Diabetes Federation) for WC, in the identification of MetS, is not supported by these findings in a representative sample of the Chilean adult population.