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A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies were performed to assess the dose–response associations between fruit or vegetable consumption and the chance of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Studies on the association between fruit or vegetable consumption and the risk of the MetS published from January 1958 to 30 October 2018 were searched using the PubMed, MEDLINE and Embase databases, and the references of relevant articles were reviewed. Random-effects models were used to estimate the summary OR with 95 % CI for the MetS, and dose–response analysis was conducted to quantify the associations. Heterogeneity among studies was evaluated using Q and I2 statistics. A total of nine observational studies (seven cross-sectional studies and two cohort studies) were included in the meta-analysis. In a dose–response analysis of cohort studies and cross-sectional studies, the summary estimate of the MetS for an increase of 100 g/d in fruit consumption (nine studies) was 0·97 (95 % CI 0·95, 0·99; I2 = 26·7 %), whereas an increase of 100 g/d in vegetable consumption (nine studies) was not associated with a reduction in the MetS (OR 0·98; 95 % CI 0·96, 1·01; I2 = 54·6 %). In conclusion, an increased intake of fruit may reduce the risk of the MetS. For future research, prospective studies or randomised clinical trials are needed to identify the effects of fruits and vegetables by variety on the risk of the MetS.
Obesity phenotypes can be regarded as an indicator of cardiovascular disease risk factors. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of adolescents with different obesity phenotypes and the role of obesity phenotypes in prediction of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adults. For this population-based cohort study, 2159 adolescents aged 11-18 years were included. Subjects were divided into four obesity phenotype groups: Metabolically healthy normal weight (MHNW), metabolically healthy obese (MHO), metabolically unhealthy normal weight (MUNW), and metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO). Cox proportional hazard modeling was used to estimate incidence of MetS in adults after a median follow-up of 11.3 years. The incidence rate of MetS in early adulthood was 111.6 per 10000 person-year (95% CI: 98.7-126.3), with higher values in boys [210.1 (95% CI: 183.0-241.3)], compared to girls [39.7 (95% CI: 30.2-52.1)]. In the age- and adult BMI-adjusted model, the HR of MetS in adulthood for boys was 3.33 (95% CI: 2.08-5.32) among MUO phenotype followed less than 6 years, 1.71 (95% CI: 1.01-2.90) among MHO, and 2.52 (95% CI: 1.72-3.68) among MUNW. All associations were attenuated in girls except for MUO phenotype followed less than 6 years [5.72 (95% CI: 2.14-15.3)]. In conclusion, MUNW and MHO phenotypes in boys, but not in girls and MUO phenotype in both sexes with less than 6 years of follow up increased risk of adult MetS compared to MHNW. It seems that lack of obesity at least in boys does not protect them from development of MetS in adulthood.
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with reduced life expectancy in patients with affective disorders, however, whether MetS also plays a role before the onset of affective disorder is unknown. We aimed to investigate whether MetS, inflammatory markers or oxidative stress act as risk factors for affective disorders, and whether MetS is associated with increased inflammation and oxidative stress.
We conducted a high-risk study including 204 monozygotic (MZ) twins with unipolar or bipolar disorder in remission or partial remission (affected), their unaffected co-twins (high-risk) and twins with no personal or family history of affective disorder (low-risk). Metabolic Syndrome was ascertained according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. Inflammatory markers and markers of oxidative stress were analyzed from fasting blood and urine samples, respectively.
The affected and the high-risk group had a significantly higher prevalence of MetS compared to the low-risk group (20% v. 15% v. 2.5%, p = 0.0006), even after adjusting for sex, age, smoking and alcohol consumption. No differences in inflammatory and oxidative markers were seen between the three groups. Further, MetS was associated with alterations in inflammatory markers, and oxidative stress was modestly correlated with inflammation.
Metabolic syndrome is associated with low-grade inflammation and may act as a risk factor and a trait marker for affective disorders. If confirmed in longitudinal studies, this suggests the importance of early intervention and preventive approaches targeted towards unhealthy lifestyle factors that may contribute to later psychopathology.
We explored the role of lipid accumulation products and visceral adiposity on the association between red meat consumption and markers of insulin resistance (IR) and inflammation in US adults. Data on red meat consumption, and health outcome measurements were extracted from the 2005-2010 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Overall 16,621 participants were included in the analysis (mean age = 47.1 years, 48.3% men). Analysis of co-variance and “conceptus causal mediation” models were applied, while accounting for survey design. In adjusted models, a lower red meat consumption was significantly associated with a cardio-protective profile of IR and inflammation. Body mass index (BMI) had significant mediation effects on the associations between red meat consumption and C-reactive protein (CRP), Apolipoprotein-B, fasting glucose (FBG), insulin, homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) IR and β-cell function, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), triglyceride to high density lipoprotein (TG:HDL) ratio and triglyceride-glucose (TyG) index (all p < 0.05). Both waist circumference and anthropometrically predicted visceral adipose tissue (apVAT) mediated the association between red meat consumption with CRP, FBG, HbA1c, TG: HDL ratio and TyG index (all p < 0.05). Our findings suggest that adiposity, particularly the accumulation of abdominal fat, accounts for a significant proportion of the associations between red meat consumption IR and inflammation.
Personalised nutrition is at its simplest form the delivery of dietary advice at an individual level. Incorporating response to different diets has resulted in the concept of precision nutrition. Harnessing the metabolic phenotype to identify subgroups of individuals that respond differentially to dietary interventions is becoming a reality. More specifically, the classification of individuals in subgroups according to their metabolic profile is defined as metabotyping and this approach has been employed to successfully identify differential response to dietary interventions. Furthermore, the approach has been expanded to develop a framework for the delivery of targeted nutrition. The present review examines the application of the metabotype approach in nutrition research with a focus on developing personalised nutrition. Application of metabotyping in longitudinal studies demonstrates that metabotypes can be associated with cardiometabolic risk factors and diet-related diseases while application in interventions can identify metabotypes with differential responses. In general, there is strong evidence that metabolic phenotyping is a promising strategy to identify groups at risk and to potentially improve health promotion at a population level. Future work should verify if targeted nutrition can change behaviours and have an impact on health outcomes.
The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of disorders dominated by abdominal obesity, hypertriacylglycerolaemia, low HDL-cholesterol, high blood pressure and high fasting glucose. Diet modification is a safe and effective way to treat the metabolic syndrome. Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) is a dietary pattern rich in fruits, vegetables and low-fat dairy products, and low in meats and sweets. DASH provides good amounts of fibre, K, Ca and Mg, and limited quantities of total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol and Na. Although DASH was initially designed for the prevention or control of hypertension, using a DASH diet has other metabolic benefits. In the present review, the effect of each dietary component of DASH on the risk factors of the metabolic syndrome is discussed. Due to limited fat and high fibre and Ca content, individuals on the DASH diet are less prone to overweight and obesity and possess lower concentrations of total and LDL-cholesterol although changes in TAG and HDL-cholesterol have been less significant and available evidence in this regard is still inconclusive. Moreover, high amounts of fruit and vegetables in DASH provide great quantities of K, Mg and fibre, all of which have been shown to reduce blood pressure. K, Mg, fibre and antioxidants have also been effective in correcting glucose and insulin abnormalities. Evidence is provided from cross-sectional investigations, cohort studies and randomised controlled trials, and, where available, from published meta-analyses. Mechanisms are described according to human studies and, in the case of a lack of evidence, from animal and cell culture investigations.
CVD affect about one-third of the population and are the leading cause of mortality. The prevalence of CVD is closely linked to the prevalence of obesity because obesity is commonly associated with metabolic abnormalities that are important risk factors for CVD, including insulin resistance, pre-diabetes, and type-2 diabetes, atherosclerotic dyslipidaemia, endothelial dysfunction and hypertension. Women have a more beneficial traditional CVD risk profile (lower fasting plasma glucose, less atherogenic lipid profile) and a lower absolute risk for CVD than men. However, the relative risk for CVD associated with hyperglycaemia and dyslipidaemia is several-fold higher in women than in men. The reasons for the sex differences in CVD risk associated with metabolic abnormalities are unclear but could be related to differences in the mechanisms that cause hyperglycaemia and dyslipidaemia in men and women, which could influence the pathogenic processes involved in CVD. In the present paper, we review the influence of a person's sex on key aspects of metabolism involved in the cardiometabolic disease process, including insulin action on endogenous glucose production, tissue glucose disposal, and adipose tissue lipolysis, insulin secretion and insulin plasma clearance, postprandial glucose, fatty acid, and triglyceride kinetics, hepatic lipid metabolism and myocardial substrate use. We conclude that there are marked differences in many aspects of metabolism in men and women that are not all attributable to differences in the sex hormone milieu. The mechanisms responsible for these differences and the clinical implications of these observations are unclear and require further investigation.
Although the first description of a syndrome defined by the co-existence of atherogenic and diabetogenic metabolic abnormalities is debated in the literature, it was Gerald Reaven who proposed, in his landmark 1988 Banting award lecture, that a significant proportion of individuals (with diabetes or not) were characterised by insulin resistance causing prejudice to cardiovascular health. However, Reaven was influenced by seminal observations made more than 50 years earlier by Himsworth who proposed that there were two forms of diabetes (insulin resistant v. insulin sensitive). Reaven went further in proposing the theory that insulin resistance was the most prevalent cause of CVD associated with metabolic abnormalities that he named syndrome X. Because there was a syndrome X documented in cardiology, the term evolved to insulin resistance syndrome. As Reaven could also find insulin-resistant individuals in non-obese subjects, he did not include obesity as a feature of syndrome X. Imaging studies then revealed that excess adipose tissue in the abdominal cavity, a condition described as visceral obesity, was the form of overweight/obesity associated with insulin resistance and its related abnormalities. As obesity risk assessment and management remain largely based on body weight (BMI) and weight loss, it is proposed that our clinical approaches and public health messages should be revisited. First, patients should be educated about the importance of monitoring their waistline as a crude index of abdominal adiposity. Secondly, public health approaches focussing on ‘lifestyle vital signs’ including achieving healthy waistlines rather than healthy body weights should be developed.
The gut microbiota has a profound impact on human health. Emerging data show that dietary patterns are associated with different communities of bacterial species within the gut. Prevotella species have been correlated with plant-rich diets, abundant in carbohydrates and fibres. Dysbiosis within the gut ecosystem has been associated with the development of non-communicable diseases such as obesity, the metabolic syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, colorectal cancer, type 1 diabetes, allergies and other diseases. The purpose of this comprehensive literature review was to evaluate the available data on the impact of diet on the Prevotella genus, as a dietary fibre fermenter in the gut as well as its implications as a potential biomarker for homeostasis or disease state through its metabolite signature. Studies were identified by conducting PubMed, Web of Science Core Collection and Google Scholar electronic searches. We found eighty-five publications reporting the impact of dietary patterns on gut microbial communities, including Prevotella or Prevotella/Bacteroides ratio in particular. Moreover, the role of Prevotella species on health status was also evaluated. Prevotella possess a high genetic diversity, representing one of the important groups found in the oral cavity and large intestine of man. The gut commensal Prevotella bacteria contribute to polysaccharide breakdown, being dominant colonisers of agrarian societies. However, studies also suggested a potential role of Prevotella species as intestinal pathobionts. Further metagenomic studies are needed in order to reveal health- or disease-modulating properties of Prevotella species in the gut.
India has the second largest number of people with type 2 diabetes (T2D) globally. Epidemiological evidence indicates that consumption of white rice is positively associated with T2D risk, while intake of brown rice is inversely associated. Thus, we explored the effect of substituting brown rice for white rice on T2D risk factors among adults in urban South India. A total of 166 overweight (BMI ≥ 23 kg/m2) adults aged 25–65 years were enrolled in a randomised cross-over trial in Chennai, India. Interventions were a parboiled brown rice or white rice regimen providing two ad libitum meals/d, 6 d/week for 3 months with a 2-week washout period. Primary outcomes were blood glucose, insulin, glycosylated Hb (HbA1c), insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance) and lipids. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) was a secondary outcome. We did not observe significant between-group differences for primary outcomes among all participants. However, a significant reduction in HbA1c was observed in the brown rice group among participants with the metabolic syndrome (−0·18 (se 0·08) %) relative to those without the metabolic syndrome (0·05 (se 0·05) %) (P-for-heterogeneity = 0·02). Improvements in HbA1c, total and LDL-cholesterol were observed in the brown rice group among participants with a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 compared with those with a BMI < 25 kg/m2 (P-for-heterogeneity < 0·05). We observed a smaller increase in hs-CRP in the brown (0·03 (sd 2·12) mg/l) compared with white rice group (0·63 (sd 2·35) mg/l) (P = 0·04). In conclusion, substituting brown rice for white rice showed a potential benefit on HbA1c among participants with the metabolic syndrome and an elevated BMI. A small benefit on inflammation was also observed.
Agents that block the renin–angiotensin system (RAS) improve glucoregulation in the metabolic syndrome disorder. We evaluated the effects of egg white hydrolysate (EWH), previously shown to modulate the protein abundance of RAS component in vivo, on glucose homeostasis in diet-induced insulin-resistant rats. Sprague–Dawley rats were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 6 weeks to induce insulin resistance. They were then randomly divided into four groups receiving HFD or HFD supplemented with different concentrations of EWH (1, 2 and 4 %) for another 6 weeks in the first trial. In the second trial, insulin-resistant rats were divided into two groups receiving only HFD or HFD+4 % EWH for 6 weeks. Glucose homeostasis was assessed by oral glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance tests. Insulin signalling and protein abundance of RAS components, gluconeogenesis enzymes and PPARγ were evaluated in muscle, fat and liver. Adipocyte morphology and inflammatory markers were evaluated. In vivo administration of EWH increased insulin sensitivity, improved oral glucose tolerance (P < 0·0001) and reduced systemic inflammation (P < 0·05). EWH potentiated insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation in muscle (P = 0·0341) and adipose tissue (P = 0·0276), but minimal differences in the protein abundance of tissue RAS components between the EWH and control groups were observed. EWH treatment also reduced adipocyte size (P = 0·0383) and increased PPARγ2 protein abundance (P = 0·0237). EWH treatment yielded positive effects on the inflammatory profile, glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and adipocyte differentiation in HFD-induced insulin resistance rats. The involvement of local RAS activity requires further investigation.
Early-life chronic exposure to environmental contaminants, such as bisphenol-A, particulate matter air pollution, organophosphorus pesticides, and pharmaceutical drugs, among others, may affect central tissues, such as the hypothalamus, and peripheral tissues, such as the endocrine pancreas, causing inflammation and apoptosis with severe implications to the metabolism. The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) concept articulates events in developmental phases of life, such as intrauterine, lactation, and adolescence, to later-life metabolism and health. These developmental phases are more susceptible to environmental changes, such as those caused by environmental contaminants, which may predispose individuals to obesity, metabolic syndrome, and chronic noncommunicable diseases later in life. Alterations in the epigenome are explored as an underlying mechanism to the programming effects on metabolism, as the expression of key genes related with central and peripheral metabolic functions may be altered in response to environmental disturbances. Studies show that environmental contaminants may affect gene expressions in mammals, especially when exposed to during the developmental phases of life, leading to metabolic disorders in adulthood. In this review, we discuss the current obesity epidemics, the DOHaD concept, pollutants’ toxicology, environmental control, and the role of environmental contaminants in the central and peripheral programming of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Improving environmental monitoring may directly affect the quality of life of the population and help protect the future generations from metabolic diseases.
Depression is a heterogeneous disorder with multiple aetiological pathways and multiple therapeutic targets. This study aims to determine whether atypical depression (AD) characterized by reversed neurovegetative symptoms is associated with a more pernicious course and a different sociodemographic, lifestyle, and comorbidity profile than nonatypical depression (nonAD).
Among 157 366 adults who completed the UK Biobank Mental Health Questionnaire (MHQ), N = 37 434 (24%) met the DSM-5 criteria for probable lifetime major depressive disorder (MDD) based on the Composite International Diagnostic Interview Short Form. Participants reporting both hypersomnia and weight gain were classified as AD cases (N = 2305), and the others as nonAD cases (N = 35 129). Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine differences between AD and nonAD in depression features, sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, lifetime adversities, psychiatric and physical comorbidities.
Persons with AD experienced an earlier age of depression onset, longer, more severe and recurrent episodes, and higher help-seeking rates than nonAD persons. AD was associated with female gender, unhealthy behaviours (smoking, social isolation, low physical activity), more lifetime deprivation and adversity, higher rates of comorbid psychiatric disorders, obesity, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and metabolic syndrome. Sensitivity analyses comparing AD persons with those having typical neurovegetative symptoms (hyposomnia and weight loss) revealed similar results.
These findings highlight the clinical and public health significance of AD as a chronic form of depression, associated with high comorbidity and lifetime adversity. Our findings have implications for predicting depression course and comorbidities, guiding research on aetiological mechanisms, planning service use and informing therapeutic approaches.
CVD and associated metabolic diseases are linked to chronic inflammation, which can be modified by diet. The objective of the present study was to determine whether there is a difference in inflammatory markers, blood metabolic and lipid panels and lymphocyte gene expression in response to a high-fat dairy food challenge with or without milk fat globule membrane (MFGM). Participants consumed a dairy product-based meal containing whipping cream (WC) high in saturated fat with or without the addition of MFGM, following a 12 h fasting blood draw. Inflammatory markers including IL-6 and C-reactive protein, lipid and metabolic panels and lymphocyte gene expression fold changes were measured using multiplex assays, clinical laboratory services and TaqMan real-time RT-PCR, respectively. Fold changes in gene expression were determined using the Pfaffl method. Response variables were converted into incremental AUC, tested for differences, and corrected for multiple comparisons. The postprandial insulin response was significantly lower following the meal containing MFGM (P < 0·01). The gene encoding soluble epoxide hydrolase (EPHX2) was shown to be more up-regulated in the absence of MFGM (P = 0·009). Secondary analyses showed that participants with higher baseline cholesterol:HDL-cholesterol ratio (Chol:HDL) had a greater reduction in gene expression of cluster of differentiation 14 (CD14) and lymphotoxin β receptor (LTBR) with the WC+MFGM meal. The protein and lipid composition of MFGM is thought to be anti-inflammatory. These exploratory analyses suggest that addition of MFGM to a high-saturated fat meal modifies postprandial insulin response and offers a protective role for those individuals with higher baseline Chol:HDL.
Coffee consumption is inversely associated with the risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). A gap in the literature still exists concerning the intestinal mechanisms that are involved in the protective effect of coffee consumption towards NAFLD. In this study, twenty-four C57BL/6J mice were divided into three groups each receiving a standard diet, a high-fat diet (HFD) or an HFD plus decaffeinated coffee (HFD+COFFEE) for 12 weeks. Coffee supplementation reduced HFD-induced liver macrovesicular steatosis (P < 0·01) and serum cholesterol (P < 0·001), alanine aminotransferase and glucose (P < 0·05). Accordingly, liver PPAR- α (P < 0·05) and acyl-CoA oxidase-1 (P < 0·05) as well as duodenal ATP-binding cassette (ABC) subfamily A1 (ABCA1) and subfamily G1 (ABCG1) (P < 0·05) mRNA expressions increased with coffee consumption. Compared with HFD animals, HFD+COFFEE mice had more undigested lipids in the caecal content and higher free fatty acid receptor-1 mRNA expression in the duodenum and colon. Furthermore, they showed an up-regulation of duodenal and colonic zonulin-1 (P < 0·05), duodenal claudin (P < 0·05) and duodenal peptide YY (P < 0·05) mRNA as well as a higher abundance of Alcaligenaceae in the faeces (P < 0·05). HFD+COFFEE mice had an energy intake comparable with HFD-fed mice but starting from the eighth intervention week they gained significantly less weight over time. Data altogether showed that coffee supplementation prevented HFD-induced NAFLD in mice by reducing hepatic fat deposition and metabolic derangement through modification of pathways underpinning liver fat oxidation, intestinal cholesterol efflux, energy metabolism and gut permeability. The hepatic and metabolic benefits induced by coffee were accompanied by changes in the gut microbiota.
Some food bioactives potentially exert anti-obesity effects. Anthocyanins (ACN), catechins, β-glucan (BG) and n-3 long chain PUFA (LCPUFA) are among the most promising candidates and have been considered as a strategy for the development of functional foods counteracting body weight gain. At present, clinical trials, reviews and meta-analyses addressing anti-obesity effects of various bioactives or bioactive-rich foods show contradictory results. Abdominal obesity is an important criterion for metabolic syndrome (MetS) diagnosis along with glucose intolerance, dyslipidaemia and hypertension. Food bioactives are supposed to exert beneficial effects on these parameters, therefore representing alternative therapy approaches for the treatment of MetS. This review summarises outcomes on MetS biomarkers in recent clinical trials supplementing ACN, catechins, BG and n-3 LCPUFA, focusing mainly on anti-obesity effects. Overall, it is clear that the level of evidence for the effectiveness varies not only among the different bioactives but also among the different putative health benefits suggested for the same bioactive. Limited evidence may be due to the low number of controlled intervention trials or to inconsistencies in trial design, i.e. duration, dose and/or the method of bioactive supplementation (extracts, supplements, rich or enriched food). At present, the question ‘Are bioactives effective in weight management and prevention of metabolic syndrome?’ remains inconclusive. Thus, a common effort to harmonise the study design of intervention trials focusing on the most promising bioactive molecules is urgently needed to strengthen the evidence of their potential in the treatment of obesity, MetS and related diseases.
Epidemiological investigations evaluating the association of dietary Ca intake with metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk have yielded controversial results. Therefore, a meta-analysis was conducted to quantitatively summarize the association between dietary Ca intake and the risk of MetS.
PubMed, Embase and Web of Science were searched for relevant articles published up to October 2018. The pooled OR and 95 % CI were calculated with a random-effects model.
Nine cross-sectional studies.
A total of nine articles with fifteen studies for dietary Ca intake were finally included in the meta-analysis. The combined OR with 95 % CI of MetS for the highest v. lowest category of dietary Ca intake was 0·80 (95 % CI 0·70, 0·91). For dose–response analysis, a non-linear relationship was found between dietary intake of Ca and risk of MetS (Pnon-linearity<0·001). The threshold for dietary Ca intake was 280 mg/d (OR=0·87; 95 % CI 0·82, 0·93), reducing the risk of MetS by 13 %.
The present meta-analysis suggests that dietary Ca intake might reduce the risk of MetS, which needs to be further confirmed by larger prospective cohort studies.
The aim of our study was to assess left ventricle and right ventricle systolic and diastolic functions in obese adolescents with metabolic syndrome using conventional echocardiography and pulsed-wave tissue Doppler imaging and to investigate carotis intima-media thickness, and asymmetric dimethyl arginine levels.
A total of 198 obese adolescents were enrolled in the study. The obese patients were divided into metabolic syndrome group and non-metabolic syndrome group. All subjects underwent laboratory blood tests, including asymmetric dimethyl arginine, complete two-dimensional, pulsed, and tissue Doppler echocardiography, and measurement of the carotid intima-media thickness.
Obese adolescents were characterised by enlarged left end-diastolic, end-systolic and left atrial diameters, thicker left and right ventricular walls compared with non-obese adolescents. The metabolic syndrome group had normal left ventricle systolic function, impaired diastolic function, and altered global systolic and diastolic myocardial performance. In the metabolic syndrome obese group patients, left ventricle mass was found positively correlated with body mass index, waist and hip circumferences, diastolic blood pressure, age, and waist-to-hip circumference ratio. The carotid intima-media thickness was found positively correlated with waist and hip circumferences and total cholesterol levels. Asymmetric dimethyl arginine levels were found positively correlated with systolic blood pressure, waist-to-hip circumference ratio, and diastolic blood pressure.
The results of this study demonstrate that metabolic syndrome in adolescence is associated with significant changes in myocardial geometry and function. In addition, it has been associated with a high level of asymmetric dimethyl arginine concentration and thicker carotid intima-media thickness reflecting endothelial dysfunction.
Non-fasting TAG – postprandial lipaemia (PPL) – are to a higher degree associated with cardiovascular risk compared with fasting TAG. Dietary protein, especially whey proteins (WP), may lower PPL. We hypothesised that a WP pre-meal (17·6 g protein) consumed 15 v. 30 min before a fat-rich meal reduces the PPL response in subjects with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and that a WP pre-meal has more potent effects than casein and gluten pre-meals. A total of sixteen subjects with the MetS completed an acute, randomised, crossover trial. WP pre-meals were consumed 15 and 30 min, and casein and gluten 15 min before a fat-rich meal. Blood samples were drawn 360 min postprandially to determine metabolite and hormone responses, S-paracetamol (for assessment of gastric emptying) and amino acids. Insulin and glucagon responses were affected by both timing and protein type (for all P <0·01), with significantly higher concentrations for WP given at –15 min than WP at –30 min and higher responses compared with gluten for the first 30 min after pre-meal consumption (for all P <0·05). The PPL responses changed neither by timing nor by protein type. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide but not glucagon-like peptide 1 responses differed between the three protein types. S-paracetamol concentration was higher for WP (–30 min) than for WP (–15 min) 15 min after the main meal (P = 0·028), and higher for casein and gluten than for WP at time point 30 min (for all P <0·05). In conclusion, the PPL response was not changed by ingestion of a 17·6 g protein pre-meal, whereas both timing and protein quality affected hormone secretion (insulin and glucagon).
To assess the prevalence of prediabetes and metabolic abnormalities among overweight or obese clozapine- or olanzapine-treated schizophrenia patients, and to identify characteristics of the schizophrenia group with prediabetes.
A cross-sectional study assessing the presence of prediabetes and metabolic abnormalities in schizophrenia clozapine- or olanzapine-treated patients with a body mass index (BMI) ≥27 kg/m2. Procedures were part of the screening process for a randomized, placebo-controlled trial evaluating liraglutide vs placebo for improving glucose tolerance. For comparison, an age-, sex-, and BMI-matched healthy control group without psychiatric illness and prediabetes was included. Prediabetes was defined as elevated fasting plasma glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance and/or elevated glycated hemoglobin A1c.
Among 145 schizophrenia patients (age = 42.1 years; males = 59.3%) on clozapine or olanzapine (clozapine/olanzapine/both: 73.8%/24.1%/2.1%), prediabetes was present in 69.7% (101 out of 145). While schizophrenia patients with and without prediabetes did not differ regarding demographic, illness, or antipsychotic treatment variables, metabolic abnormalities (waist circumference: 116.7±13.7 vs 110.1±13.6 cm, P = 0.007; triglycerides: 2.3±1.4 vs 1.6±0.9 mmol/L, P = 0.0004) and metabolic syndrome (76.2% vs 40.9%, P<0.0001) were significantly more pronounced in schizophrenia patients with vs without prediabetes. The age-, sex-, and BMI-matched healthy controls had significantly better glucose tolerance compared to both groups of patients with schizophrenia. The healthy controls also had higher levels of high-density lipoprotein compared to patients with schizophrenia and prediabetes.
Prediabetes and metabolic abnormalities were highly prevalent among the clozapine- and olanzapine-treated patients with schizophrenia, putting these patients at great risk for later type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. These results stress the importance of identifying and adequately treating prediabetes and metabolic abnormalities among clozapine- and olanzapine-treated patients with schizophrenia.