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This chapter examines how computers and smartphones are used with (or instead of) face-to-face (F2F) interactions for relationship maintenance. After explicating two different definitions of the phrase “relationship maintenance,” we summarize research on the role of particular communication technologies in relationship maintenance. We argue that much contemporary relationship maintenance in romantic relationships occurs in mixed-media relationships, which occur when the “parties conduct in whole or in part through the use of multiple media, including F2F” (Parks). The primary focus of this chapter is on the maintenance of romantic relationships, yet we also review research on other types of relationships when the processes examined seem applicable to close relationships more broadly. We conclude with several important points for future research on relational maintenance and communication technologies, including recognizing that (a) even though technologies can help people maintain their relationships, they also can create burdens and problems; (b) the way people use technologies influences the effects of those technologies in relationships; (c) there is a need for more research on the specific behaviors using technologies in romantic relationships; and (d) even with the rise of communication technologies, face-to-face maintenance behaviors remain important.
Given the accelerating pace of information available in today’s world, our ability to be able to reflect critically on this information is more important today than ever before; but with the growth of social media and its unfortunate consequences – “fake news,” “post-truth,” and “truth decay” – critical reflection has become harder and harder to do. This apparent paradox, why “facts” and “evidence” seem to have so little effect on rational behavior, is explored, along with the research evidence on the self-reinforcing nature of confirmation bias and its sequelae, belief persistence, polarization, and tribalism.
The third chapter, “Life After the Marriage Plot,” examines how the women of Elizabeth Gaskell’s Cranford preserve a temporal zone from the dual threat of patriarchy and modernization. The late-life romance between Miss Matty and Mr. Holbrook—a marriage plot without the possibility of marriage—generates narrative interest because it follows a set of temporal rules that originate from within Cranford rather than conforming to conventions about age and romantic love from outside the community. The superannuation of persons relates to a similar crisis in the marriage plot, which no longer reflects the experience of the older characters it purports to organize. Thus, I read Cranford’s representation of other forms of media—such as storytelling, the newspaper, and the letter—as a reflection on the formal obsolescence that takes place within the larger narrative economy of the novel. What emerges is a reconceptualization of the utility of what is “old,” insofar as the women of Cranford reterritorialize the obsolete as a particularly feminine challenge to the temporality of modernity.
Universal access on equal terms to audiovisual content is a key point for the full inclusion of people with disabilities in activities of daily life. As a real challenge for the current Information Society, it has been detected but not achieved in an efficient way, due to the fact that current access solutions are mainly based in the traditional television standard and other not automated high-cost solutions. The arrival of new technologies within the hybrid television environment together with the application of different artificial intelligence techniques over the content will assure the deployment of innovative solutions for enhancing the user experience for all. In this paper, a set of different tools for image enhancement based on the combination between deep learning and computer vision algorithms will be presented. These tools will provide automatic descriptive information of the media content based on face detection for magnification and character identification. The fusion of this information will be finally used to provide a customizable description of the visual information with the aim of improving the accessibility level of the content, allowing an efficient and reduced cost solution for all.
Particle image velocimetry measurements have been carried out to assess the fully developed turbulence in square-sectioned porous duct flows. To the bottom duct wall, this study applies two types of porous media whose porosities are approximately 0.8 and ratios of wall-normal to streamwise permeabilities are 0.8 and 7.8. Both over- and under-surface turbulence of the porous layers are discussed at inlet flow Reynolds numbers of
and 7500. Cross-sectional secondary flows are detected with an enhanced magnitude of approximately 6 % of the inlet bulk velocity. The secondary flow pattern consisting of four large vortices is observed to be insensitive to the porous structures. Over the porous wall, although turbulence is enhanced by the permeability, it is confirmed that turbulence over and under the porous surfaces is rather insensitive to the wall-normal permeability compared with the streamwise permeability as seen in porous-wall channel flows. In the present range of streamwise permeability Reynolds numbers of
, the wall-normal fluctuations become dominant once underneath the porous surface while the streamwise ones become dominant again deep inside the porous layer. Applying streamwise–spanwise plane averaging, which covers a 52 % area in the middle of the duct, to the flow quantities, it is confirmed that the correlations between the pore-scale Reynolds number and the log-law parameters are similar to those seen in a wide range of porous-wall channels. The above characteristics are generally the same as those of porous-wall channels in the same range of porosities and permeability Reynolds numbers even with the enhanced secondary flows. However, from the spectral analysis of flows at the porous walls, it is found that, near the symmetry planes, the wavelengths of the Kelvin–Helmholtz waves become a little shorter than those in turbulent porous-wall channels possibly because of the sidewall boundary layers, particularly at low Reynolds numbers.
We aimed to investigate the relationships between use of media to obtain information on radiation and radiation anxiety among community residents in Fukushima, 5.5 years after the nuclear power plant accident.
A questionnaire survey was administered between August and October 2016 to 2000 randomly sampled residents in Fukushima prefecture. Radiation anxiety toward health and regarding discrimination and prejudice were assessed with 4- and 3-item scales, respectively. Participants nominated their most-used media for acquiring information on radiation by choosing up to 3 sources from 12 information sources listed (eg, local newspaper, TV news, websites, social networking sites [SNS], local government newsletter, word of mouth). We investigated associations of most-used media types and radiation anxiety, controlling for sociodemographic characteristics and anxiety regarding radiation’s health effects immediately after the accident, using multivariate linear regression analyses.
Valid responses were obtained from 790 (39.5%) residents. Acquiring information about radiation by word of mouth was related to higher radiation anxiety toward health. Regarding radiation anxiety concerning discrimination and prejudice, SNS use was related to higher anxiety, whereas acquiring information through Nippon Hoso Kyokai (NHK) TV news was related to lower anxiety.
Interpersonal interactions rather than gaining information from media – characterized by unidirectional information exchange – may increase radiation anxiety.
Where do partisans get their election news in the contemporary media environment? We track the online news consumption of a national sample during the 2016 presidential campaign. We find levels of partisan isolation in news exposure are two to three times greater than in prior studies, although the absolute level of isolation remains modest. The partisan divide for election-related news exceeds the divide for non-political news. This tendency of partisans to follow like-minded news providers occurs despite the relatively small differences in the partisan slant of the content offered by the majority of sources they visited. Finally, we find that partisans who gravitated to congenial news providers did not shift their evaluations of the presidential candidates during the campaign.
The online public sphere, and the ways in which its digital media platforms influence discourse, is a crucial but understudied area of research in the six Arab monarchies of the Persian Gulf. Through a case study of the ongoing Gulf diplomatic crisis, which began in June 2017, this essay draws on the disciplines of political science, communication, and digital media studies to analyze qualitative examples of digital discourse: the role of women, territorial boundaries, and the FIFA World Cup 2022. Linking these flash points to historical struggles between the countries, this essay suggests that the politicization of the online public sphere in the region does not represent a fundamental change in the diplomacy of the region but rather a new battleground for old regional rivalries.
“Social media,” Saudi artist Abdullah al-Shehri (known as Shaweesh) observes, is the “best tool we have available to showcase and express our art,” because it allows millions of Saudis to share and comment on a given work of art simultaneously. Building on this insight, this essay argues that Saudi artists, who have among the largest followings on the country's social media, have used the online public sphere to build a new social movement. They have adopted a role akin to Antonio Gramsci's concept of organic intellectuals – namely, men and women who are not part of the traditional intellectual elite, but who, through the language of culture, articulate feelings and experiences the masses cannot easily express. To paraphrase Ezra Pound, Saudi artists are the “antennae” of the kingdom's society, whose work is not “mere self-expression,” but, in the words of Marshall McLuhan, the “distant early warning system that can always be relied upon to tell the old culture what is beginning to happen to it.” As a leading Saudi artist Abdulnasser Gharem observed in June 2019, “people need to listen to the artist.”
Thin, roughly horizontal low-permeability layers are a common form of large-scale heterogeneity in geological porous formations. In this paper, the dynamics of a buoyancy-driven plume in a two-dimensional layered porous medium is studied theoretically, with the aid of high-resolution numerical simulations. The medium is uniform apart from a thin, horizontal layer of a much lower permeability, located a dimensionless distance
below the dense plume source. If the dimensionless thickness
of the low-permeability layer are small, the effect of the layer is found to be well parameterized by its impedance
. Five different regimes of flow are identified and characterized. For
, the layer has no effect on the plume, but as
is increased the plume widens and spreads over the layer as a gravity current. For still larger
, the flow becomes destabilized by convective instabilities both below and above the layer, until, for
, the spread of the plume is dominated by convective mixing and buoyancy is transported across the layer by diffusion alone. Analytical models for the spread of the plume over the layer in the various different regimes are presented.
Social wellbeing is important to health, but maintaining social relations often becomes difficult in later life due to retirement, chronic disease, and the death of spouses and friends. Social media platforms, such as Facebook and Twitter, present accessible and low-cost communication technologies that have been demonstrated to enhance feelings of social connection and reduce loneliness in younger age groups. This exploratory study uses a four-week social media training workshop as an intervention in a randomised controlled study to examine whether similar social benefits might be realised for those at older ages, aged 65+ years. Social wellbeing measures of social capital, loneliness, social connectedness and social provisions were examined, revealing only small differences in social integration. As these findings seemingly contradict studies conducted with younger persons, the contexts of social media use in older adulthood are discussed, along with proposals for future research directions.
Public responsiveness to policy is contingent on there being a sufficient amount of clear and accurate information about policy available to citizens. It is of some significance then, that there are increasing concerns about limits being placed on media outlets around the world. We examine the impact of these limits on the public’s ability to respond meaningfully to policy by analyzing cross-national variation in the opinion–policy link. Using new measures on spending preferences from Wave 4 of the Comparative Study of Electoral Systems, merged with OECD data on government spending and Freedom House measures of press freedom, we assess the role of mass media in facilitating public responsiveness. We find evidence that when media are weak, so too is public responsiveness to policy. These results highlight the critical role that accurate, unfettered media can play in modern representative democracy.
This study sought to compare disease recidivism rates between canal wall up mastoidectomy and a canal wall down with obliteration technique.
Patients undergoing primary cholesteatoma surgery at our institution over a five-year period (2013–2017) using the aforementioned techniques were eligible for inclusion in the study. Rates of discharge and disease recidivism were analysed using chi-square statistics.
A total of 104 ears (98 patients) were included. The mean follow-up period was 30 months (range, 12–52 months). A canal wall down with mastoid obliteration technique was performed in 55 cases and a canal wall up approach was performed in 49 cases. Disease recidivism rates were 7.3 per cent and 16.3 per cent in the canal wall down with mastoid obliteration and canal wall up groups respectively (p = 0.02), whilst discharge rates were similar (7.3 per cent and 10.2 per cent respectively).
Our direct comparative data suggest that canal wall down mastoidectomy with obliteration is superior to a canal wall up technique in primary cholesteatoma surgery, providing a lower recidivism rate combined with a low post-operative ear discharge rate.
To evaluate the impact of platelet-rich fibrin therapy in tympanoplasty type 1 surgery on graft survival and frequency-specific hearing outcomes.
Patients who underwent tympanoplasty type 1 surgery were randomised into temporal fascia graft alone (n = 55) and temporal fascia graft plus platelet-rich fibrin therapy (n = 36) groups. Graft survival and hearing outcomes were recorded.
Graft survival rates were significantly higher in the temporal fascia graft plus platelet-rich fibrin therapy group than in the temporal fascia graft alone group at one (100.0 vs 85.5 per cent, p = 0.020), three (97.2 vs 80.0 per cent, p = 0.024) and six months post-operatively (94.4 vs 74.5 per cent, p = 0.031). The difference in hearing gain between groups was not significant.
Our findings revealed that the use of a platelet-rich fibrin plus temporal fascia graft for type 1 tympanoplasty was associated with more favourable post-operative outcomes than the use of temporal fascia alone, both in terms of tympanic membrane healing and graft survival; hearing restoration outcomes were similar.
This review aims to familiarize the reader with research efforts on the cultivation media of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). We have also included a brief discussion on standard ingredients used in LAB media and chemically defined media as related to bacterial growth requirements. Recent research has focused on modifying standard media for the enumeration, differentiation, isolation, and identification of starter cultures and probiotics. Even though large numbers of these media have been developed to serve dairy microbial control, they have failed to provide consistent results. The research consequently points to the need to develop a reliable lactobacilli growth medium for the dairy industry.
Do men and women respond differently to negative political communication? Only a limited collection of studies into the effects of negative campaigns have investigated this research question, and the conflicting results produced from such studies have prevented the development of a widely accepted answer. As campaigns transition to new media environments, further problems arise, as any potential gender gap may be magnified on the new political communication battlefield of social media. The present article contributes to this sparsely investigated area through an empirical study of men's and women's reactions on Facebook to US presidential candidate attacks during two general election campaigns (2012 and 2016) and two primaries (2016 Democratic and Republican). Across nearly 400 million reactions and 40 million unique users, women demonstrate lower receptivity to candidate attacks than men. Two potential explanatory factors for the gap are examined, but neither fully captures the magnitude of the differences observed. Conceptualizing the gender gap composition in terms of differential receptivity most accurately explains these findings and potentially resolves the competing explanations for the gap within the existing literature.
This chapter explores the media image of the royal family and the monarchy’s crises of legitimacy by focusing on the Shah’s third wife, Queen Farah Pahlavi, who played out many of the internal contradictions embodied by the modern woman of the Pahlavi state’s modernized patriarchy. Her public representations, both in the national and foreign media, crafted her image as a mediator between traditionalism and modernity, Iranianess and globalization. Different sets of representations presented Farah Pahlavi as a young capable woman who managed both family and public voluntary obligations, while personifying a modern "middle-class" Iranian woman and mother, alongside her promotion as an international celebrity. Appraising the propagation of the former Iranian queen, the Shah and the royal Pahlavi family by crosschecking both the local and international press, sheds additional light on the fading image of the Iranian monarchy, and on the complex nature of cultural contact and exchange between Iran and the West.
We used in-depth interviews with 101 participants in the East York section of Toronto, Canada to understand how digital media affects social connectivity in general—and networked individualism in particular—for people at different stages of the life course. Although people of all ages intertwined their use of digital media with their face-to-face interactions, younger adults used more types of digital media and have more diversified personal networks. People in different age-groups conserved media, tending to stick with the digital media they learned to use in earlier life stages. Approximately one-third of the participants were Networked Individuals: In each age-group, they were the most actively using digital media to maintain ties and to develop new ones. Another one-third were Socially Bounded, who often actively used digital media but kept their connectivity within a smaller set of social groups. The remaining one-third, who were Socially Limited, were the least likely to use digital media. Younger adults were the most likely to be Networked Individuals, leading us to wonder if the percentage of the population who are Bounded or Limited will decline over time.