The aim of this study is to provide data that increase knowledge about the possible health effects of exposure to 90Sr contaminant in drinking water. 90Sr detection in the mouse bone model plays an important complementary role with computational dosimetry in these investigations. S-value (absorbed dose per unit cumulated activity) calculations using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations, 90Sr detection by liquid scintillation β counting in the femur bone and X-ray microanalysis were carried out. The present work is focused on using MCNPX and its validation at a cellular level. The cytoplasm (Cy), nucleus (N) and 90Sr radiation source were simulated with the MC code MCNPX. Cells are assumed to be spherical, with the radii of the cell and cell nucleus ranging from 2 to 10 μm. The S-value (in Gy/Bq.s) calculations were provided for a 90Sr source distributed uniformly in the cell nucleus or cytoplasm and for two source-target combinations (t←s). A comparison between the calculated MC results and the MIRD values agreed very well since the relative deviations are less than 4%. The earliest results of X-ray microanalysis indicated that the 90Sr was below the detection limit (<0.1%) in the bone tissue. However, the measurements by liquid scintillation showed the presence of 90Sr in the femur bone.