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The chapter begins with an exploration of the geo-physical environment that shaped Jingdezhen’s past, followed by a discussion of Jingdezhen’s place within the administrative structures of the Ming empire. From Jingdezhen’s place in the administrative organization of the empire, the regional environment, and the kiln locations that make up the Jingdezhen kiln site complex, the chapter moves to the spatial lay-out and organization of the imperial kilns within that complex, and ends with the space of a single workshop within the imperial kiln. The mountains and rivers, the offices of the county administration, the office buildings of the imperial kiln, and the numerous workspaces all coexisted in this sixteenth-century moment. These features were not located in physically different spaces, but assert their own order over the space, thereby representing different visions of the space. The workers in each workshop were dependent on the production processes in the other workshops, and overall, their work formed part of the way in which the imperial state organised its procurement of porcelain. The imperial kiln formed one small part of the administration of the whole empire.
We define the resolvent and spectrum of a bounded linear operator and discuss the relationship between the spectrum and the ‘point spectrum’, which is the set of all eigenvalues. We prove some basic properties of the spectrum and the Spectral Mapping Theorem for polynomials.
We introduce the property of completeness and prove some abstract results about complete normed spaces (Banach spaces). We then give a number of examples of Banach spaces: l^p, L^p, and spaces of continuous functions. We then discuss convergence of series in Banach spaces and end the chapter with a proof of the Contraction Mapping Theorem.
Once again we use the Baire Category Theorem to prove results about linear maps between Banach spaces. We prove the Open Mapping Theorem and, as a corollary, the Inverse Mapping Theorem, which allows for some simplification in the spectral theory of bounded operators. As an application, we prove the existence of a ‘basis constant’ for any Schauder basis in a separable Banach space. Finally, we use the Inverse Mapping Theorem to prove the Closed Graph Theorem, which gives an alternative way to check whether a linear map T from X into Y is bounded, provided both X and Y are Banach spaces.
In this paper we study a class
of harmonic mappings on the open unit disk
in the complex plane that is an extension of the classical (analytic) Zygmund space. We extend to the elements of this class a characterisation that is valid in the analytic case. We also provide a similar result for a closed separable subspace of
which we call the little harmonic Zygmund space.
Since the mid-1970s radio-echo soundings have been conducted on Iceland's temperate glaciers. Since then, low-frequency radar technology has furthered the study of most of the island's ice caps. Their masses and volumes have been quantified and detailed subglacial topographic maps produced which demarcate glacial drainage basins and identify subglacial lakes and volcanoes. Even internal tephra layers have been charted. The resulting data have been used to force and validate models of past and future glacier evolution. Many practical applications in glacier hydrology have come into being, including hydropower management, road and bridge planning and the prediction of catastrophic flood paths from subglacial eruption sites. Finally, emerging landscapes can now be foreseen in places where glaciers may soon disappear. These achievements would not have been possible without the advances in RES technology.
We present a detailed overview of the cosmological surveys that we aim to carry out with Phase 1 of the Square Kilometre Array (SKA1) and the science that they will enable. We highlight three main surveys: a medium-deep continuum weak lensing and low-redshift spectroscopic HI galaxy survey over 5 000 deg2; a wide and deep continuum galaxy and HI intensity mapping (IM) survey over 20 000 deg2 from
$z = 0.35$
to 3; and a deep, high-redshift HI IM survey over 100 deg2 from
$z = 3$
to 6. Taken together, these surveys will achieve an array of important scientific goals: measuring the equation of state of dark energy out to
$z \sim 3$
with percent-level precision measurements of the cosmic expansion rate; constraining possible deviations from General Relativity on cosmological scales by measuring the growth rate of structure through multiple independent methods; mapping the structure of the Universe on the largest accessible scales, thus constraining fundamental properties such as isotropy, homogeneity, and non-Gaussianity; and measuring the HI density and bias out to
$z = 6$
. These surveys will also provide highly complementary clustering and weak lensing measurements that have independent systematic uncertainties to those of optical and near-infrared (NIR) surveys like Euclid, LSST, and WFIRST leading to a multitude of synergies that can improve constraints significantly beyond what optical or radio surveys can achieve on their own. This document, the 2018 Red Book, provides reference technical specifications, cosmological parameter forecasts, and an overview of relevant systematic effects for the three key surveys and will be regularly updated by the Cosmology Science Working Group in the run up to start of operations and the Key Science Programme of SKA1.
We here make some suggestions as to how a specifically sociological approach to politics can build upon the course corrections recently made in political and historical sociology, as well as in the theory of action and of social structures. We argue that late-twentieth-century political sociology was led in several directions that were unprofitable. First, this political sociology was characterized by a disproportionate (and largely disappointing) focus on large-scale transitions, like revolutions, or other significant outcomes, at the expense of the examination of regularities in conventional political process. Second, the sociology that did treat everyday, lay, political behavior tended to embrace a notion of action that confused the reasons people gave for their choices with the predictors of their actions. Third, there was relatively little attention to the sociology of political elites as members of face-to-face groups with their own imperatives and organizational principles.
In this paper, we give an overview of changes in area, length, surface elevation and mass balance of glaciers in mainland Norway since the 1960s. Frontal advances have been recorded in all regions except the northernmost glaciers in Troms and Finnmark (Storsteinsfjellbreen, Lyngen and Langfjordjøkelen). More than half of the observed glaciers, 27 of 49, had marked advances in the 1990s. The glaciological mass-balance values for the period 1962–2018, where 43 glaciers have been measured, show great inter-annual variability. The results reveal accelerated deficit since 2000, the most negative decade being 2001–2010. Some years with a positive mass balance (or less negative) after 2010s can be attributed to variations in large-scale atmospheric circulation. A surface elevation change and geodetic mass balance were calculated for a sample of 131 glaciers covering 817 km2 in the ‘1960s’ and 734 km2 in the ‘2010s’, giving an area reduction of 84 km2, or 10%. The sample covers many of the largest glaciers in Norway, and they had an overall change in surface elevation of −15.5 m for the ~50 year period. Converted to a geodetic mass balance this gives a mean mass balance of −0.27 ± 0.05 m w.e. a−1.
be the genus–g oriented surface with p punctures, with either g > 0 or p > 3. We show that
is acylindrically hyperbolic where DT is the normal subgroup of the mapping class group
powers of Dehn twists about curves in
for suitable K.
Moreover, we show that in low complexity
is in fact hyperbolic. In particular, for 3g − 3 + p ⩽ 2, we show that the mapping class group
is fully residually non-elementary hyperbolic and admits an affine isometric action with unbounded orbits on some
space. Moreover, if every hyperbolic group is residually finite, then every convex-cocompact subgroup of
The aforementioned results follow from general theorems about composite rotating families, in the sense of , that come from a collection of subgroups of vertex stabilizers for the action of a group G on a hyperbolic graph X. We give conditions ensuring that the graph X/N is again hyperbolic and various properties of the action of G on X persist for the action of G/N on X/N.
In Chapter 11, “The Fact and Fiction of a Homeland,” I have selected a work of fiction, Zeyn al-Abedin Maragheh’i’s Seyahat-Nameh-ye Ibrahim Beik/Ibrahim Beik’s Travelogue (1903). Born and raised in Iran, and after traveling around the region extensively, Maragheh’i finally settled in Istanbul, where he published his pioneering work of fiction and wrote extensively on current affairs for the leading progressive journals of his time. The significance of his magnum opus, Seyahat-Nameh-ye Ibrahim Beik, is that its protagonist is an Iranian who lives in Cairo and decides to travel to his homeland, and thus Maragheh’i writes it as a travelogue. The author uses this narrative plot in order to bring his lead character to visit his homeland with the fresh eyes of a familiar foreigner. The significance of this book is not just in being one of the most highly influential documents of the Constitutional period, but the fact that the genre of travelogue had become so widely popular that it informed the writing of one of the earliest works of fiction in Persian. What is particular about this book is the manner in which it reverses the gaze and the angle of vision back on Iran. It is no longer an Iranian who travels abroad, but an Iranian who travels home. This completes the cycle and brings the genre to a symbolic closure.
High Dynamic Range (HDR) displays can show images with higher color contrast levels and peak luminosities than the common Low Dynamic Range (LDR) displays. However, most existing video content is recorded and/or graded in LDR format. To show LDR content on HDR displays, it needs to be up-scaled using a so-called inverse tone mapping algorithm. Several techniques for inverse tone mapping have been proposed in the last years, going from simple approaches based on global and local operators to more advanced algorithms such as neural networks. Some of the drawbacks of existing techniques for inverse tone mapping are the need for human intervention, the high computation time for more advanced algorithms, limited low peak brightness, and the lack of the preservation of the artistic intentions. In this paper, we propose a fully-automatic inverse tone mapping operator based on mid-level mapping capable of real-time video processing. Our proposed algorithm allows expanding LDR images into HDR images with peak brightness over 1000 nits, preserving the artistic intentions inherent to the HDR domain. We assessed our results using the full-reference objective quality metrics HDR-VDP-2.2 and DRIM, and carrying out a subjective pair-wise comparison experiment. We compared our results with those obtained with the most recent methods found in the literature. Experimental results demonstrate that our proposed method outperforms the current state-of-the-art of simple inverse tone mapping methods and its performance is similar to other more complex and time-consuming advanced techniques.
Nested association mapping (NAM) captures the best features of both linkage and association mapping and enables the high power and high resolution of quantitative trait locus mapping through joint linkage-association analysis. In the current study, NAM population was developed by hybridizing JS 335, a popular variety of central India with 20 diverse soybean genotypes. The parents used in the study have various traits of economic importance such as drought and water-logging tolerance, bacterial pustule and yellow mosaic virus resistance, wider adaptability, resistance to mechanical damage and higher yield potential. High variability in the F2 populations of 20 crosses for grain yield and days to maturity indicated scope for development of high-yielding varieties. Genetic variability studies, correlation, regression, principal component analysis (PCA) and genetic diversity analyses were carried out in 900 NAM-recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from 11 crosses. Correlation and regression analysis indicated a significant positive effect of biomass, pods/plant, harvest index, branches/plant, nodes/plant and plant height on grain yield. Genetic diversity analysis grouped 900 NAM-RILs into 10 clusters. PCA revealed first two principal components to explain 63.78% of total variation mostly contributed by grain yield, biomass and number of pods. The inbred lines developed in this study will serve as an elite soybean genetic resource in understanding the genetic architecture underlying different traits of economic significance.
This article introduces the digital humanities and dance studies project Mapping Touring, and employs it in an analysis of Denishawn's touring prior to and immediately following the company's 1925–26 tour to Asia. Situated within the archival turn in dance, Mapping Touring emphasizes the possibilities of spatial and comparative analysis for touring dance artists, with information about their location and repertory drawn from archival sources, gathered and stored in a database, and plotted on interactive maps. With Denishawn as a case study, I contend that digital mapping can make visible some of the implications of travel and touring for the circulation and spread of theories of embodiment contained in dance repertory.
After acquiring 91 km2 of lidar data from the Zacapu region, West Mexico, we confronted a series of issues that most archaeologists using this technology face. These include the large volume of data available, the limited training of potential “analysts,” the difficult development of a collective mapping tool and protocol, and the reliability of desk-based interpretation of archaeological features. In this article, we present an initiative conducted in 2015 and 2017 as an attempt to answer these methodological and pedagogical issues. We developed a web mapping platform to collectively interpret archaeological features using lidar-derived imagery and to train volunteer students to participate in this desk-based web mapping within a crowdsourcing framework. After evaluating the results of this initiative, we discuss the potential and limitations of this method for both lidar-based research and future training.
In an increasingly competitive economic environment, innovation has become an invaluable asset to the organization and for effective knowledge management (KM). Nowadays, organizations are knowledge based and their success and survival depend on creativity, diversity, and innovation. A knowledge map is a vital tool for better KM and innovation. To this effect, the innovation processes on KMin education system through knowledge transfer activities will facilitate the shift from teaching as knowledge transmission to teaching as learning facilitation. In this context, we present a new approach based on, the one hand, the critical knowledge mapping being based on an extraction work of the expert knowledge and on the other hand, the description of the conceptual framework design which allows one to exploit and integrate knowledge capitalized and external knowledge by the open innovation process. In addition, this practice makes it possible to examine how KM, in particular, the knowledge mapping, can be used to establish the flow of the internal and external information in order to increase the efficiency of creativity and invention.
A question of Griffiths–Schmid asks when the monodromy group of an algebraic family of complex varieties is arithmetic. We resolve this in the affirmative for a class of algebraic surfaces known as Atiyah–Kodaira manifolds, which have base and fibers equal to complete algebraic curves. Our methods are topological in nature and involve an analysis of the ‘geometric’ monodromy, valued in the mapping class group of the fiber.
Distinguishing between hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and other causes ofleft ventricular hypertrophy can be difficult in children. We hypothesised that cardiac MRI T1 mapping could improve diagnosis of paediatric hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and that measures of myocardial function would correlate with T1 times and extracellular volume fraction.
Thirty patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy completed MRI with tissue tagging, T1-mapping, and late gadolinium enhancement. Left ventricular circumferential strain was calculated from tagged images. T1, partition coefficient, and synthetic extracellular volume were measured at base, mid, apex, and thickest area of myocardial hypertrophy. MRI measures compared to cohort of 19 healthy children and young adults. Mann–Whitney U, Spearman’s rho, and multivariable logistic regression were used for statistical analysis.
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients had increased left ventricular ejection fraction and indexed mass. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients had decreased global strain and increased native T1 (−14.3% interquartile range [−16.0, −12.1] versus −17.3% [−19.0, −15.7], p < 0.001 and 1015 ms [991, 1026] versus 990 ms [972, 1001], p = 0.019). Partition coefficient and synthetic extracellular volume were not increased in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Global native T1 correlated inversely with ejection fraction (ρ = −0.63, p = 0.002) and directly with global strain (ρ = 0.51, p = 0.019). A logistic regression model using ejection fraction and native T1 distinguished between hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and control with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.91.
In this cohort of paediatric hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, strain was decreased and native T1 was increased compared with controls. Native T1 correlated with both ejection fraction and strain, and a model using native T1 and ejection fraction differentiated patients with and without hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
This chapter examines Whitman’s correspondence from a big data perspective, mapping out networks that formed around the poet’s outreach and self-promotion efforts in order to demonstrate how these are echoed in his literary output. Following the poet from the Civil War through Reconstruction to literary fame in old age, “Reading Whitman’s Epistolary Database” sheds new light on key developments in Whitman’s life and writing. Employing a variety of visualization methods and distant reading tools, the authors situate Leaves of Grass within a broader range of writing activity, one in which published poetry and prose are viewed not as separate from epistolary media and communication formats, but intimately tied to them. The chapter aims to be a starting point for a more comprehensive look at Whitman’s textual production, as well as an introduction of this still-underutilized dataset to a wider audience of Whitman scholars and digital humanists.
Is phonological form perceived, understood, stored, and accessed in the same way and with the same neural mapping in signed and spoken languages? This is the complex and multifaceted question that the work on sign language processing has addressed since the beginning. The methodologies and technologies used to address this question have become more sophisticated over the last sixty years. Since the beginning, a psycholinguistic tradition was at the center of the work on sign languages, and we trace the trajectory of this work in this chapter.