To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
This Chapter studies the management of living resources under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea considering the so-called precautionary principle/approach. It strives to give insights on the question whether the UN Convention demands application of the precautionary principle/approach with respect to the management of living resources vel non. The notions of the precautionary principle/approach, management and lastly that of living resources are discussed to evaluate the demand on common grounds. Taking the Southern Bluefin Tuna cases as a departure point, the analysis focuses on Part XII of the UN Convention. Finally, it gives an outlook on potential consequences of the required application to the ’package deal’.
Unsustainable hunting threatens biodiversity in the tropics through the removal of key seed-dispersing frugivorous primates. Traditionally, hunting in the Amazon Basin was managed through hunter territoriality, with the threat of social sanctions for overexploitation. We examined hunter territoriality and differential prey selection as alternative hypotheses to central-place foraging. Territoriality occurred beyond common hunting grounds, which were on major rivers and immediately surrounding the community. Hunters displayed selectivity in prey choice, with 50% of hunters not hunting primates. The combination of hunter territoriality and differential prey selection means that over 22% of the hunted area of the Sucusari river basin could be considered primate refuge. Of the remaining hunted area, 16% was hunted relatively little by primate hunters. We suggest that the combination of territoriality and selection against primates creates refuges, mitigating the effects of sustained hunting pressure and contributing to the conservation of these species.
Border management is a government activity affecting immigration and the economy. Benefit–cost and equivalent decision analyses are used to evaluate U.S. border management for 2017. Controversial issues arise. Among these are the issue of standing and the values of asylum, a criminal career, child custodial care, foreign deaths, fiscal and labor market effects, and distributional weighting. Sixteen unique shadow prices (imputed marginal value) are computed. Those shadow pries are combined with proportions and levels of border management outcomes. The aggregate result is not only a large expected present value net benefit per year from managed outcomes of $46.6 billion but also a large residual unmanaged annual cost of $23.7 billion. Significant uncertainty exists, but estimated net benefits remain positive.
This paper aims to trace the historical trajectory of management as a professional discipline in the post-independence period in India during the 1950s and 1960s. It tracks the discipline’s formative interests in the management of industrial labor, the views of its major proponents, and the processes through which the discipline sought generalized relevance within the postcolonial regime. It also discusses the intersection of managerial concerns with the globally emergent discourses on development and industrial reform and follows the eventual institutionalization of the discipline as an educational concern through the setting up of management schools. In doing so, the paper examines the modes and rationales through which managerialism established its own normative vocabulary and deployed it for assessing not just the objectives of industrial capital but also the newly consolidating postcolonial state and its developmental ambitions. This circulation of management ideas is analyzed by following the experiments that were conducted in the industrial enterprises of Ahmedabad by a group of textile industrialists, UN developmental pedagogues, and Ford Foundation consultants. Even when, in most cases, such studies on management did not succeed in achieving their ascribed goals, the paper demonstrates how managerialism maintained its relevance by parallelly turning its focus onto the postcolonial state and its developmental activities. Broadly, the paper argues that management in the mid-twentieth century functioned as a solution in search of a problem. It eventually acquired prominence by tautologically reading institutions and various aspects of the society as organizations that needed the prescription of management to resolve their operations.
Outdoor group housing is generally reported as being beneficial to the welfare of horses compared to single boxes, being considered to show greater similarities with the living conditions of feral horses, allowing full expression of behaviours such as grazing, social interactions and free movement. However, concerns persist regarding the ability to maintain a good nutritional state and the possibility of acquiring injury. No data reporting a comprehensive assessment of welfare for horses in outdoor group-housing systems are currently available. The present study aimed at applying a scientifically valid welfare assessment protocol to group-housed outdoor horses in ‘parcours’, a particular management system used in the south of France. ‘Parcours’ are semi-natural areas, grazed by domestic herbivores located in lowland, mountain, or marsh. One hundred and seventy-one horses older than a year pertaining to six farms and kept on ‘parcours’ were evaluated by a trained veterinarian using a modified version of the second level Animal Welfare Indicators (AWIN) welfare assessment protocol for horses. No major welfare issues were detected. Horses in ‘parcours’ displayed few abnormal behaviours, they could move freely for most of the day and interact with conspecifics, maintaining a healthy state of nutrition and a good relationship with humans. The main welfare concerns were related to the presence of superficial integument alterations such as alopecia, difficulty in reaching quality controlled water sources and a lack of shelter. As the number of facilities involved in this study is relatively limited, further harmonised data collection should aim to enlarge the sample size and allow comparison with different outdoor group-housing conditions.
A 29-year-old G2P1 at seven weeks’ gestation is referred to your tertiary center for consultation and prenatal care. Obstetric history is significant for fetal growth restriction (FGR) requiring preterm delivery at 33 weeks’ gestation. Her son’s birthweight was 1400 g. The patient’s prenatal care and delivery were at another center, and her medical chart is unavailable at the time of initial consultation.
A 37-year-old G6P3A2 at 20+3 weeks’ gestation is referred from a community hospital center for consultation at your tertiary center’s high-risk obstetrics unit for ‘anterior placenta previa with abnormal features’ reported on ultrasound evaluation of the morphologically normal female fetus. First-trimester sonography performed in the same center, integrated with maternal serum biomarkers, revealed a low risk of fetal aneuploidy.
During an obstetrics call duty in your tertiary center, you are called urgently to assist in the management of vaginal bleeding in a 42-year-old G7P5A2 after recent vaginal delivery of dichorionic twins at term. Although your colleague was anticipating delivery in the operating room/theater, deliveries occurred in the labor suite. Due to a concurrent emergency, the obstetrician has just stepped out of the patient’s room, leaving the junior trainee to continue assisting you in the care of this patient.
You are covering an obstetrics clinic for your colleague who left for vacation. A 30-year-old G2P1 at 37+2 weeks’ gestation by first-trimester sonogram presents for a prenatal visit. Screening tests revealed a male fetus with a low risk of aneuploidy and a normal second-trimester morphology sonogram. Maternal investigations were unremarkable in the first trimester. Your colleague’s note from a second-trimester prenatal visit details the counseling provided with regard to prior shoulder dystocia; a recent note indicates the intent to review management during this visit.
Who managed large corporations during the first half century of their emergence? How did modernizing firms navigate periods of rapid technological change such as those that swept the U.S. economy in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries? What role did engineers play in the management of large corporations? This paper draws on an original database of tens of thousands of mining and metallurgical engineers who graduated from universities during this period, examining patterns in their employment records, job descriptions, and career trajectories, matching our data on individual engineers with a linked database of mining and metallurgical corporations. We trace two distinct phases in engineers’ managerial role that corresponded to periods of rapid technological change and technological quiescence in the industry. We argue that explaining the rise of the modern corporation and the historical dynamics of corporate management requires a better understanding of technical expertise in management.
The history of Indian management education is overwhelmingly focused on the period from the 1950s and 1960s onward. This article traces the hitherto underexplored history of how, from the 1860s until the 1950s, Indians thought about and implemented education and training for managers. In particular, it demonstrates how Indian nationalist politicians articulated the nation-building utility of managers and managerial training, and how business education became yoked to nationalists’ broader visions of India’s economic regeneration. Beginning in the early twentieth century, Indian nationalists championed commercial education, advocating its evolution out of its vocational roots into something more scientific and specialized for producing skilled indigenous managers. The precise evolution of Indian commercial education exercised long-term influences on postcolonial management programs. First, Indians established a tradition of surveying the latest pedagogical methods and institutional models from around the world and adapting them to Indian conditions. Second, Indian advocates of commercial education carved out an important role for the state, working on commercial education endeavors with British officials in the colonial era and, later on, placing management education within the ambit of centralized state planning. Management had a fundamentally political valence in India. For this reason, commercial and management education programs in India, unlike in the West, largely avoided questions about their legitimacy.
To examine Nigerian footballers’ knowledge and attitudes towards sport-related concussion (SRC) and associated contextual factors.
A cross-sectional study design was used with an online questionnaire distributed to Nigerian footballers affiliated with a registered team. The questionnaire included demographic information and the Rosenbaum Concussion Knowledge and Attitudes Survey (RoCKAS-ST). The concussion knowledge index (CKI, 0–25) and attitude index (CAI, 15–75) were calculated. The association between various contextual factors with “high” knowledge and attitude were determined.
A total of 331 participants completed the questionnaire from 10 football clubs. Mean CKI and CAI scores were 14.0 ± 3.0 (56.2 ± 13.2%) and 54.5 ± 9.4 (72.6 ± 12.5%), respectively, and the association between scores was considered large (r = 0.530; 28%). A small proportion (n = 25; 7.6%) of participants reported a previous diagnosis of an SRC, with a further 40 (12.1%) suspecting they have suffered SRC. Thirty-five participants (10.6%) reported sustaining a SRC but did not seek medical help. Results indicated that men were at 4.8 times greater odds of having a “high[er]” CKI than women, and that those with 5–10 years playing experience had lower odds of a “high” CKI than those with >10 years’ experience. Men had 7 times greater odds of having a “high” CAI than women.
The results of this study suggest that Nigerian footballers have a moderate level of SRC knowledge, satisfactory symptom recognition, and high SRC attitudes. Those working with Nigerian football may consider these findings when seeking strategies to improve concussion knowledge, potentially by improving attitudes and considering sex and playing experience.
The variability of animal-based parameters was studied within a population of 41 farrow-to-finish farms. Data were collected during three visits, each corresponding to a different season within a two-year period. The largest between-farm variability was observed for stereotypic behaviour by pregnant sows, and for skin, ear and tail lesions, dirtiness and respiratory problems in growing pigs. Relationships with housing and management parameters were established to formulate advice on how to improve pigs' welfare. Group-housed sows performed less oral stereotypic behaviour than individual housed sows (18.7 versus 44.1%), but a higher proportion of skin lesions was observed in group-housed sows (15.4 versus 2.0%). Prevalence of tail-biting behaviour varied between 0 and 21%. The risk for tail biting was higher in cases of reduced levels of floor space per pig, and ear-biting behaviour occurred more often when tails were docked short. Coughing was not correlated directly with the occurrence of lung lesions, but the risk was higher in instances of reduced space availability per pig. Farms could be ranked according to these welfare parameters, ie either according to the score of each individual parameter or based on the summation of all scores. Hence, welfare status was defined in relation to farm-specific information, allowing formulation of advice on housing and management to ultimately improve pig welfare through the matching of a predefined benchmark.
In zoo and laboratory colonies of marmosets and tamarins (Callitrichidae) there has been an increasing need to adopt breeding control methods. In zoos, this need has been driven by a growth in populations. In laboratories, increased interest in control options has followed from the requirement to improve welfare by housing potential breeding animals together. Progestagen-containing contraceptive implants or depot-injections, prostaglandin injection regimes, vasectomy and various group-management methods have been used to control reproduction in marmoset and tamarin colonies. There is a need for advances in control techniques suitable for use in zoos. In the meantime, a policy of selective euthanasia or the use of vasectomy are recommended as control methods. In laboratories, although improved control methods are required, a number of techniques have been found to be satisfactory. When there are surplus marmosets and tamarins, the alternatives for their utilization include movement to other colonies, use for studies within zoos or in laboratories, sale to private keepers or euthanasia. Selling these animals privately is not recommended, except in exceptional circumstances. The preferred control option will differ in each circumstance and guidance is given in this paper.
Current research is focusing on integrated longitudinal assessment of animal welfare at farm-level. Housing and management systems may influence pain, discomfort, fear, hunger and abnormal behaviour of farm animals. Poor health records and increased levels of haptoglobin have been shown to correlate with an unfavourable environment but, as yet, few data are available regarding variation between individual animals. Hence, a project was carried out using 78 pig farms (farrow-to-finish), 19-20 in each season, with data on housing and management being collected during visits. At slaughter, pathological findings and blood samples were taken from 60 pigs from each farm. Blood samples were analysed for Lawsonia intracellularis (PIA), Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, salmonella, and haptoglobin values (HAP) (10 samples). Data were analysed with descriptive statistics and analysis of variance. Housing and management characteristics were considered separately and integrated according to Berns (1996). Pigs from higher-ranking farms (ie those scoring higher for housing [space score] and management [sanitary barriers, cleaning, disinfection, climatic control, breeding protocol]) showed lower HAP levels (P < 0.04), with lower within-farm variability (P < 0.06). HAP levels were higher in pigs infected with PIA (P < 0.04) or having lung lesions (P < 0.02). A negative correlation was found between fasting before transport and lung lesions, HAP levels being lower when pigs with lung lesions were fasted. Haptoglobin sampling in the slaughterline is, therefore, relevant for integrative welfare assessment of slaughter pigs at individual level and for longitudinal monitoring at farm level.
The relationship between social behaviour and skin injuries (caused by horns) of loose housed horned cows was investigated on 35 dairy farms. While the frequencies of two agonistic behaviour elements (push and chase away) were positively correlated with the occurrence of skin injuries, the frequencies of butting and horning were not. Butting appears to have an ambivalent motivation, in that its occurrence is correlated positively both with agonistic behaviour and with social licking. Horning showed a positive correlation with social licking only. Four groups of husbandry conditions that may be associated with the occurrence of social behaviour and of injuries were distinguished: i) herd management, with variables including problem solving management by the farmer, integration of new cows, and dealing with periparturient and oestrus cows; ii) human-animal relationship, with variables including ability to identify individual cows, frequency of brushing the cows, number of milkers, and frequency of personnel changes; iii) animal characteristics, with the variable of herd size; and iv) stable characteristics, with the variable of space per cow (m2). The relevance of the husbandry variables investigated here had been confirmed in a previous stepwise regression analysis (Menke 1996). The variables for herd management and human-animal relationship conditions correlated in a consistent way with the occurrence of agonistic behaviour and/or of injuries, while most of them also correlated in the opposite direction with the occurrence of social licking. Herd size correlated positively with agonistic behaviour, but negatively with social licking. Space per cow correlated negatively with agonistic behaviour and injuries. In more than 70 per cent of the herds investigated, the levels of agonistic behaviour and of skin injuries were low, implying that horned dairy cows can be kept with less risk than is often assumed. We argue that such risks strongly depend on management factors that can be improved.
Foxes have been kept in captivity in Europe for the purpose of fur production for 70-80 years. In comparison with the main domesticated animal species, this is a very recent intervention. This paper reviews available evidence concerning the welfare of farmed foxes in relation to housing and management. The bulk of the literature relates to early handling of cubs, with the intention of reducing their subsequent fear of humans, and to simple changes in the cage environment that may provide environmental enrichment for foxes. Fear of humans appears to be a significant and pervasive problem, and the barrenness of cages is also a cause for concern. The extent of abnormal behaviours and reproductive failure, both indicative of quite severe welfare problems, is not sufficiently documented. Some housing and management practices are less detrimental than others; nonetheless, the evidence suggests that the welfare of farmed foxes is poor.
Farmed mink are known for showing stereotypies and tail biting, behaviours that are mostly viewed as indicators of reduced welfare. Among the factors that are often described as being relevant for the welfare of mink are food management systems, age at weaning, and type/presence of nest boxes and bedding. In the present study of commercially farmed mink, all of these factors have been integrated in one housing system. The occurrence of stereotypies and tail biting were observed at six Dutch mink farms, which differed from one another with respect to the number of modifications and the time since the introduction of these modifications. On each farm, 60 non-lactating female mink were observed during winter and 50 lactating female mink (with kits) were observed during summer. Mink on the farm with the most modifications spent 4.1% and 0.8% of their time performing stereotypies in winter and in summer, respectively. Mink on the farm with the least modifications spent 32% and 10.9% of their time performing stereotypies in winter and in summer, respectively. The occurrence of stereotypic behaviour in winter gradually increased as feeding time approached. This gradual increase was not observed at the farm with the least modifications. In general, mink spent less time performing stereotypies in summer than in winter. No clear differences were found between the farms for the occurrence of tail biting in relation to the modifications of the new system, although one farm showed a lower percentage (4%) of tail biters during summer. In conclusion, the farms that had introduced more modifications into their husbandry system housed animals showing less stereotypic behaviour. The results of this field study demonstrate an inverse relationship between the number of modifications and the occurrence of stereotypies; because of the experimental design, however, a causal relationship is not implied. Further work is required to investigate the impact of each measure both in isolation and in the integrated system under more carefully standardised conditions.
Early research on farmed mink was predominantly concerned with increased productivity; however, in recent years there have been an increasing number of studies related to welfare. The biology of feral mink has also become better understood, and such knowledge can aid in the assessment of welfare on farms, or in the interpretation of problems related to captivity. This paper is a comprehensive review of research pertinent to the welfare of farmed American mink, Mustela vison, in relation to their housing and management. It indicates how housing conditions might be changed to improve welfare, and where our present knowledge is insufficient. Many significant aspects of mink behaviour in the wild, such as their lack of social contact, their tendency to travel long distances and use several den sites, and regular swimming and diving, are denied them in captivity. Farmed mink also show high levels of stereotypy, suggesting that their welfare is not good. Welfare may be improved by appropriate environmental enrichment and changes in the social environment of farmed mink. In general, studies aimed at improving housing conditions have been limited in scope and outlook.