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In this chapter the major conservation issues bears face is reviewed and management actions that can address these conservation issues are highlighted. The future of bears across the world is bright for some species but dark for others. In some areas such as North America and in parts of Europe and Asia, bear populations have increased and stabilized because of increased management effort and increasing support for bears and their needs by the humans who share habitat with them. However, for most bear species, the future is uncertain. Andean bears continue to be threatened by habitat loss and human encroachment. In much of Asia outside Japan, Asiatic black bear, sloth bear, and sun bear populations are increasingly threatened by unmanaged excessive mortality combined with habitat loss to timber harvest, plantation agriculture, and human encroachment. The long-term future for polar bears is threatened by the unmanageable threat of climate change. Giant pandas are fragmented into small populations despite intense conservation efforts. Improving public and political support for bears is the most important need if we are to realize successful bear conservation and management.
This chapter presents an overview of ursids in captive facilities. Examples of how bear populations in zoos and rescue centres (i.e. ex situ) can support wild bear (i.e. in situ) conservation now and in the future are provided, and the potential for reintroduction of captive bears is also discussed.
In Japan, the brown bear (Ursus arctos) occurs only in Hokkaido. With recent increase and range expansion of the bear population, conflicts among people and bears, as well as the number of control bear kills, have also increased. Recently, bear intrusions into urban areas, such as Sapporo City, as well as agricultural damage to corn and fruits, have increased in various parts of Hokkaido, although there has been little livestock damage. The number of bear kills has increased from 200 to 300 per year in the 1990s to over 850 by 2010. The purpose of >90% of recent kills was damage control. The average cost of annual agricultural damage and number of bear kills between 2010 and 2017 were 13.7 and 679 million yen, respectively. In this chapter, the current situation of bear management issues in Hokkaido is presented, including the paradigm of Brown Bear Management Plan of Hokkaido, urban bear management in Sapporo, and the human resource development and management system to develop proper brown bear management
The interruption of animal movement by fragmentation is a major force with far-reaching ecological and conservation consequences. Understanding fragmentation processes underpins our ability to manage landscapes for connectivity, facilitating many ecological processes including gene flow interpopulation dynamics and demographic rescue. Here the current status of fragmentation, connectivity, methods, consequences, and management of the world’s eight bear species is reviewed. The metapopulation paradigm is also considered, i.e. are bears being forced into some form of functioning metapopulation or are they simply being fragmented into a series of isolated populations that, without conservation action, will likely be slowly extirpated, population by population?
Human–bear conflicts differ geographically across the range of eight bear species. First, a brief summary of how conflict studies started in international relationships and then entered to the field of wildlife conservation is given. Then, an overall picture of human–bear conflict management is provided and how current conflict management plans can be improved by considering them as logic models is discussed. Finally, 12 key factors for managing human–bear conflict in challenging environments are presented.
This chapter describes human dimensions studies on black bear management conducted in Japan, by reporting: (1) a study on the media coverage regarding black bear issues in Japan; (2) the results from interviews and surveys that were conducted on local residents of the northern part of Hyogo Prefecture regarding their attitudes and behaviors related to human–bear conflicts; (3) the effectiveness of community seminars in mitigating human–black bear conflicts; and (4) how human–bear conflicts could be used to educate university students and train them to potentially become wildlife managers.
This chapter presents the evolution of the higher education sector and some policy reforms in Africa, looking particularly at the area of university governance. It situates the trends in African higher education governance reform within the broader context of international, continental, national, and institutional policy shifts. It highlights a range of factors, control mechanisms, and challenges that continue to impede the progress of university reform in African higher education. After presenting the general trends of higher education governance and its reform in the continent, the chapter focuses on the governance of Ethiopian higher education as an illustrative case.
Callery pear (Pyrus calleryana) is rapidly spreading in the U.S., gaining attention in the last two decades as a serious invasive pest. Recommended control methods include foliar, basal bark, cut-stump and hack-and-squirt application of herbicides, but there are few published studies with replicated data on efficacy. Four readily available herbicidal active ingredients and a combination of two active ingredients were tested for control efficacy against Callery pear in old field areas and loblolly pine understory. Basal bark applications (triclopyr, triclopyr + aminopyralid), foliar applications (glyphosate, imazapyr), and a soil application (hexazinone) effectively killed Callery pear with the exception of hexazinone at one site, where rainfall may not have been optimal. Foliar application of glyphosate provided the most consistent control. Our results demonstrate efficacy of registered herbicide formulations for Callery pear control in two geographic locations and two habitat types. The need for development of integrated pest management programs for Callery pear is discussed.
Bears have fascinated people since ancient times. The relationship between bears and humans dates back thousands of years, during which time we have also competed with bears for shelter and food. In modern times, bears have come under pressure through encroachment on their habitats, climate change, and illegal trade in their body parts, including the Asian bear bile market. The IUCN lists six bears as vulnerable or endangered, and even the least concern species, such as the brown bear, are at risk of extirpation in certain countries. The poaching and international trade of these most threatened populations are prohibited, but still ongoing. Covering all bears species worldwide, this beautifully illustrated volume brings together the contributions of 200 international bear experts on the ecology, conservation status, and management of the Ursidae family. It reveals the fascinating long history of interactions between humans and bears and the threats affecting these charismatic species.
Within the ever-evolving field of cognitive and behavioral neurology, management remains the most challenging aspect in clinical practice. These cases are a testament to changing paradigms of care and the importance of understanding the impact of certain treatments.
Within the field of disaster studies there has always been the need to classify and label disasters. Researchers have distinguished between different types of disasters in terms of causes, outcomes, the element of surprise, scale, or scope. Chapter 2 discusses the pros and cons of the different classification systems, and also poses the question of whether it makes sense, in view of the large diversity of disasters, to study and compare these different types. Is it possible to move beyond the specificity of earthquakes or pandemics? We believe it does make sense. As historians, we can take a higher level of abstraction, revealing the similarities between different types of disasters. In order to understand why some societies coped more effectively with hazards and which characteristics were decisive in this, we can make use of various key concepts, namely disaster management, vulnerability, resilience, and risk. Overall, it is clear that hazards and disasters are not natural events but social processes.
Since the outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infection in Wuhan City, China, pediatric cases have gradually increased. It is very important to prevent cross-infection in pediatric fever clinics, to identify children with fever in pediatric fever clinics, and to strengthen the management of pediatric fever clinics. According to prevention and control programs, we propose the guidance on the management of pediatric fever clinics during the nCoV pneumonia epidemic period, which outlines in detail how to optimize processes, prevent cross-infection, provide health protection, and prevent disinfection of medical staff. The present consideration statement summarizes current strategies on the pre-diagnosis, triage, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of 2019-nCoV infection, which provides practical suggestions on strengthening the management of pediatric fever clinics during the nCoV pneumonia epidemic period.
‘Keep calm and carry on’ was a wartime message to the British public that has achieved renewed fame in the last few years. The strategy was simple: in times of extreme difficulty a cool head combined with stoicism is an appropriate response to ensure a successful outcome. The latest major challenge to society (COVID-19) met with a very different response, and only history will reveal whether ‘Stay home and worry’ will be equally effective. In devising blueprints or strategies it is extremely important to have a clear idea of what you are trying to achieve, whether it be maintaining world freedom or stopping a pandemic. In the case of livestock agriculture, it is helping to feed a rapidly growing global population in harmony with the needs of current and future generations. I hope that I have stated this clearly, and calmly. If so, I ask you to picture a scene. We are on a Calm Farm. Dairy animals go about their daily lives contented, unhurried and focused on the simple feeding and socialising activities that are so important to them. Unstressed, their productive capacities and abilities to avoid and, when necessary, cope with physiological and pathological challenges are maximised. They are not alone: the exact same characteristics also apply to the farmer and husbandry staff that we meet. How is this calm farming approach relevant to the aspirations we had when we established the EU COST Action DairyCare? Our objective was to harness the power of computing technologies to assist our management of dairy livestock. A simple rearrangement leads us to Computing Assisted Livestock Management, CALM. In this short Research Reflection I shall assess how far we have come towards the achievement of sensible goals related to technological assessment of dairy animal wellbeing, and speculate on what more things both can and need to be done to finish the job. It is a personal account. DairyCare was a major collaboration involving several hundred active researchers. To involve them all would be impossible, and I do not pretend to speak for them all. As will become evident, the wide skills base that was assembled was so successful in its primary objectives that different skills, chiefly in economics, are now needed to exploit all of the technological advance that has been achieved. DairyCare succeeded in a second direction. Whilst the focus was technology development, by assembling a large cohort of biologists with animal welfare interests, it soon became apparent that technology should run alongside and help to enable improved management practices. This Special Issue is, therefore, in two sections. The first is dedicated to technology development and the second to a novel management practice that has the potential to significantly improve the wellbeing of cows and calves: cow-calf contact rearing. That section is introduced by my DairyCare colleague, Sigrid Agenäs.
In this Research Reflection we review management practices in small family farms with less than 100 cows. Small farms represent the majority of farms in the EU and the world, and they are of great importance for the economy of a country. On cattle farms, the welfare of calves is of primary importance for the profitability of the herd, and poor management is one of the main factors influencing calf health and survival. Data on the risk factors for calf welfare issues in small-scale farms are limited. For this purpose, the literature data from six world countries were presented and compared, including Serbia and Slovenia where a survey related to the issue was carried out within the COST Action FA1308, DairyCare. Some practices within the following areas in calf management were considered: calving management, care for new-born calves, use of painful procedures, colostrum management, cow–calf separation, calf feeding, weaning, calf housing, and general monitoring. In each of the countries, the health and welfare of calves are threatened by some omissions in rearing practices and the major are related to the new-born calf management, the feeding and watering management, and the application of hygienic measures. Many farmers are well aware of the importance of proper calf rearing; others would need more incentive to improve calf management. Each country should pay attention to the education of farmers about the most common deficiencies in calf management.
The COVID-19 pandemic has posed a serious question over preparedness to deal with mass fatality. The current trend shows that there would be more bodies than the capacity and resources to handle them. The international agencies have alerted governments that the number of deaths may overwhelm the local capacity to handle dead bodies properly. Mass fatality management and planning are important to respecting the dignity of the deceased and surviving family. Inadequate capacity to deal with dead bodies may affect the psychological well-being of survivors which may result in distress to families and community.
Invasive alien plant species (IAPS) are spreading into protected areas worldwide; however, knowledge of these invasions and their impacts in Nepal’s protected areas is poor. Here, the spatial distribution pattern of IAPS in Bardia National Park (BNP), Nepal, was analysed using roadside surveys and grid sampling. The impacts of the most abundant IAPS, Lantana camara, on plant communities were analysed by comparing 60 pairs of non-invaded and invaded quadrats. Twelve IAPS, including two of the most prolific species globally, L. camara and Chromolaena odorata, were recorded from BNP. The Karnali floodplain in the south-western region of the park, a prime habitat of one-horned rhinoceros, was highly invaded by the IAPS. Tree canopy and distance to road, river and settlement were the major factors affecting IAPS occurrence. Lantana camara modified plant community structure and significantly reduced plant species richness and diversity; species richness of native plants was reduced to less than half in invaded plots. Plant invasions and impacts on native plant diversity have been increasing in BNP. We recommend management interventions involving immediate eradication of C. odorata and other species with single satellite populations and control measures for other widespread species such as L. camara and Ageratum houstonianum.
Correct diagnosis of cause of death is necessary to suggest the most effective management interventions to reduce perinatal lamb mortality. Haemorrhage on the surface of the brain has been used as a field diagnostic tool to allocate lambs to a cause of death category, but the usefulness of this method was unclear. This study aimed to evaluate whether gross pathology was related to neuronal death and whether haemorrhage of the central nervous system (CNS) was distinct between differing causes of death, enabling indicators to be used in field diagnoses. Lambs dying from natural causes (n = 64) and from euthanasia (n = 7) underwent postmortem examination, then the brain and spinal cord were extracted and examined histologically. Histological changes consistent with neuronal death were not detected in any lamb. Haemorrhage of the meninges and/or parenchyma of the CNS occurred in all lambs. The age of the haemorrhage indicated that it occurred near the time of death in most lambs. Dilation of blood vessels varied in severity but appeared to be unrelated to causal diagnosis, severity of subcutaneous oedema, breathing or milk status. Moderate or severe dilation of blood vessels and haemorrhage of the CNS did not occur in all lambs with alternative clear indicators of dystocia and occurred in all death classifications, so it could not be used as diagnostic indicators for classification of cause of death. Dilation and haemorrhage were unrelated to neuronal damage and may have been artefactual. In conclusion, haemorrhage of the CNS was not indicative of neuronal damage and could not be used to distinguish between lambs with clear indicators of differing causes of death, so it is not recommended as a field diagnostic tool.