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Alterations in the circadian cycle are known to cause physiological disorders in the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal and the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axes in adult individuals. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate whether exposure of pregnant rats to constant light can alter the reproductive system development of male offspring. The dams were divided into two groups: a light–dark group (LD), in which pregnant rats were exposed to an LD photoperiod (12 h/12 h) and a light–light (LL) group, in which pregnant rats were exposed to a photoperiod of constant light during the gestation period. After birth, offspring from both groups remained in the normal LD photoperiod (12 h/12 h) until adulthood. One male of each litter was selected and, at adulthood (postnatal day (PND) 90), the trunk blood was collected to measure plasma testosterone levels, testes and epididymis for sperm count, oxidative stress and histopathological analyses, and the spermatozoa from the vas deferens to perform the morphological and motility analyses. Results showed that a photoperiod of constant light caused a decrease in testosterone levels, epididymal weight and sperm count in the epididymis, seminiferous tubule diameter, Sertoli cell number, and normal spermatozoa number. Histopathological damage was also observed in the testes, and stereological alterations, in the LL group. In conclusion, exposure to constant light during the gestational period impairs the reproductive system of male offspring in adulthood.
Spermatogenesis is an androgen-dependent event, and testosterone is the major androgen source. The enzyme 5-alpha reductase converts testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in testicular and peripheral tissues. Polymorphisms in genes encoding 5-alpha reductase may be associated with impaired male fertility. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between 5-alpha reductase type 2 (SRD5A2) gene rs523349 polymorphism and non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) in Turkish patients. The study included 75 NOA patients and 43 fertile men from Turkey. No significant relationship was found between SRD5A2 gene rs523349 polymorphism and male infertility (P = 0.071). There was a statistically significant difference in total testosterone level and total testis volume between NOA patients and the control groups, however there was no significant difference between serum follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone levels. Our results showed that SRD5A2 gene rs523349 polymorphism was not associated with NOA in Turkish patients.
The magnitude and consistency of the sex differences in meningococcal disease incidence rates (IR) have not been systematically examined in different age groups, countries and time periods. We obtained national data on meningococcal disease IR by sex, age group and time period, from 10 countries. We used meta-analytic methods to combine the male to female incidence rate ratios (IRRs) by country and year for each age group. Meta-regression analysis was used to assess the contribution of age, country and time period to the variation in the IRRs. The pooled male to female IRRs (with 95% CI) for ages 0–1, 1–4, 5–9, 10–14 and 15–44, were 1.25 (1.19–1.32), 1.24 (1.20–1.29), 1.13 (1.07–1.20), 1.21 (1.13–1.29) and 1.15 (1.10–1.21), respectively. In the age groups 45−64 and over 65, the IR were lower in males with IRRs of 0.83 (0.78–0.88) and 0.64 (0.60–0.69), respectively. Sensitivity analysis and meta-regression confirmed that the results were robust. The excess meningococcal IR in young males and the higher rates in females at older ages were consistent in all countries, except the Czech Republic. While behavioural factors could explain some of the sex differences in the older age groups, the excess rates in very young males suggest that genetic and hormonal differences could be important.
Shortly before the presidential election, the Washington Post released a videotape from 2005 in which Donald Trump described “grabbing [women] by the pussy.” Trump dismissed the exchange as “locker-room banter,” meaning a non-serious, not necessarily truthful and thus essentially harmless exchange of a kind that is common when men talk among themselves. This chapter analyzes this type of “banter,” among (presumptively) heterosexual men talking about sex, as a ritualized social practice which helps to maintain and reproduce a “fratriarchal” form of structural male dominance. The chapter also considers what the videotape adds to our understanding of Trump’s communication style and his speaking persona, along lines of class and masculinity. Vulgarity and “lewdness” are among the linguistic resources the wealthy Trump has deployed in his bid to be seen by less privileged Americans, especially disaffected White working-class men, as a “man of the people.” While the language he used on the tape may have damaged his prospects with some voters, it made him seem more appealing to others.
Heavy alcohol consumption is associated with poorer cognitive function in older adults. Although understudied in middle-aged adults, the relationship between alcohol and cognition may also be influenced by genetics such as the apolipoprotein (ApoE) ε4 allele, a risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease. We examined the relationship between alcohol consumption, ApoE genotype, and cognition in middle-aged adults and hypothesized that light and/or moderate drinkers (≤2 drinks per day) would show better cognitive performance than heavy drinkers or non-drinkers. Additionally, we hypothesized that the association between alcohol use and cognitive function would differ by ApoE genotype (ε4+ vs. ε4−).
Participants were 1266 men from the Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging (VETSA; M age = 56; range 51–60) who completed a neuropsychological battery assessing seven cognitive abilities: general cognitive ability (GCA), episodic memory, processing speed, executive function, abstract reasoning, verbal fluency, and visuospatial ability. Alcohol consumption was categorized into five groups: never, former, light, moderate, and heavy.
In fully adjusted models, there was no significant main effect of alcohol consumption on cognitive functions. However, there was a significant interaction between alcohol consumption and ApoE ε4 status for GCA and episodic memory, such that the relationship of alcohol consumption and cognition was stronger in ε4 carriers. The ε4+ heavy drinking subgroup had the poorest GCA and episodic memory.
Presence of the ε4 allele may increase vulnerability to the deleterious effects of heavy alcohol consumption. Beneficial effects of light or moderate alcohol consumption were not observed.
In semiarid conditions, feed is often scarce and variable with underfeeding being common; these factors can potentially induce fertility reductions in both sexes. Sexually active bucks are able to very efficiently fertilize out-of-season goats, but we do not know whether underfeeding would reduce the ability of bucks to fertilize goats during these periods. Two experiments were conducted to determine (i) testicular size and change of odor intensity of undernourished bucks exposed to long days and (ii) the ability of these bucks to stimulate reproductive activity in seasonally anestrous goats. In experiment 1, bucks (n = 7) were fed 1.5 times the normal maintenance requirements from September to May and formed the well-fed group. Another group of bucks (n = 7) were fed 0.5 times the maintenance requirements and formed the undernourished group. All bucks were subjected to artificially long days from 1 November to 15 January; this period was followed by a natural photoperiod until 30 May. Body weight, scrotal circumference and male odor intensity changes were determined every 2 weeks. In experiment 2, two groups of female goats (n = 26 each) were exposed to well-fed (n = 2) or undernourished bucks (n = 2) on 31 March. Ovulations and pregnancy rates were determined by transrectal ultrasonography. In experiment 1, a treatment by time interaction was detected for BW, scrotal circumference and odor intensity changes (P < 0.001). The BWs of well-fed bucks were greater than those of the undernourished bucks from October to May (P < 0.01), as were the scrotal circumferences from December to March (P < 0.05) and odor intensities from February to May (P < 0.05). In experiment 2, the proportions of females that ovulated at least once (100% v. 96%) or those that were diagnosed as pregnant (85% v. 77%; P > 0.05) did not differ significantly between the goats exposed to well-fed or undernourished bucks. The interval between the introduction of bucks and the onset of estrous behavior was shorter in goats exposed to well-fed bucks compared to the interval for those goats exposed to undernourished bucks (2.5 ± 0.2 v. 9.5 ± 0.6 days; P < 0.05). We conclude that undernourishment reduces the testicular size and odor intensity responses in bucks exposed to long days, but that undernourished bucks are still able to stimulate reproductive activity in seasonally anestrous goats, as is also the case for well-fed bucks.
Afghanistan has made remarkable progress in reducing maternal mortality over the past few decades, and male participation in their pregnant partner’s reproductive health care is crucial for further improvement. This study aimed to examine whether male attendance at antenatal care (ANC) with their pregnant partners might be beneficially associated with the degree of utilization of reproductive health care by the pregnant partners. Data for 2660 couples (women aged 16–49 years) were taken from the 2015 Afghanistan Demographic and Health Survey (AfDHS). Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were employed to explore the association between male attendance at ANC with their pregnant partners and reproductive health care utilization outcomes, including adequate utilization (four or more visits) of ANC services, ANC visits during the first trimester (up to 12 weeks) of pregnancy, rate of blood and urine testing during pregnancy, rate of institutional delivery and utilization of postnatal check-up services. The results indicated that the rate of male attendance at ANC with their pregnant partners was 69.4%. After controlling for covariates, pregnant partners who were accompanied to ANC by their male partners were more likely to adequately utilize ANC services (AOR=1.42; 95% CI: 1.18–1.71), commence ANC visits even during the first trimester (AOR=1.21; 95% CI: 1.03–1.42), give birth at a health facility (AOR=1.23; 95% CI: 1.03–1.47) and present themselves for postnatal check-ups (AOR=1.24; 95% CI: 1.04–1.47) than those who were not accompanied by them. The study demonstrated that participation of male partners in ANC was positively associated with their pregnant partners’ utilization of reproductive health care services in Afghanistan. The findings suggest that, to improve maternal and child health outcomes in the country, it would be worthwhile implementing interventions to encourage male partners to become more engaged in the ANC of their pregnant partners.
To determine the level of vitamin D and to identify the association between vitamin D and depressive symptoms in apparently healthy Korean male adults.
A retrospective study design. Among 43 513 participants between 1 March and 30 November 2018, after eliminating participants with a history of depression or vitamin D deficiency, 9058 were included. To determine the level of vitamin D, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] was measured. To assess the level of depression, the Korean version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) was used.
Male adults who underwent routine health check-ups.
The average vitamin D level was 22·31 ± 7·09 ng/ml as 25(OH)D, while the number of subjects in the vitamin D insufficiency group with a finding of <20 ng/ml was 3783 (41·8 %). The mean CES-D score in all subjects was 8·31 ± 5·97 points, and the proportion of the depressive symptoms group with a score of ≥16 was 8·71 %. The OR of patients in the depressive symptoms group also being in the insufficiency group was found to be 1·49 (95 % CI 1·12, 2·00).
A total of 41·8 % of apparently healthy male adults had vitamin D levels <20 ng/ml. We identified an association between vitamin D insufficiency and depressive symptoms in apparently healthy Korean male adults.
According to a number of high-quality studies, intrauterine insemination (IUI) with homologous semen should be the first choice of treatment in the case of moderate male factor subfertility. IVF and ICSI are clearly over-used in this selected group of infertile couples. The limited value of IUI in infertility treatment, as mentioned in the 2013 NICE guidelines, was surely a premature statement and should be adapted to the actual literature. Oxidative stress and high sperm DNA damage is associated with lower pregnancy rates after IUI. Concerning clinical outcome, there is no clear evidence of any sperm preparation technique to be superior. More evidence-based data are becoming available on different variables influencing the success rates after IUI. It can be expected that these findings may lead to a better understanding and use of IUI in the near future.
Varicocele is the most common surgically correctable factor identified in infertile men. The negative impact of varicocele on testicular function, semen parameters and fertility potential have been well recognized for decades. Despite this, the role of varicocele repair in managing infertility remains controversial, especially since the advent of assisted reproductive technologies (ART). This chapter details the current status of varicocele in male infertility. We describe the anatomy, pathophysiology and diagnostics of varicocele and discuss the methods of repair. We then take a critical look at the efficacy and clinical utility of varicocele repair in infertile couples, with an emphasis on clinical benefits for couples undergoing ART.
Figural rating scales are tools used to measure male body dissatisfaction. The present review aimed to examine the design and psychometric properties of male figural rating scales and make recommendations based on findings. Relevant databases were systematically searched for studies that had developed and validated male figural rating scales. Twenty studies were included in this review. Figural rating scales differed in terms of the number of images represented and type of stimuli used (hand-drawn silhouettes, hand-drawn figures, computer-rendered figures, and photograph figures). Reliability and validity evidence varied greatly in strength across all scales. Four of the 20 scales included a correlational analysis between figural rating scale scores and eating disorder symptoms. Results showed the moderate to high positive correlations between eating disorder symptoms and figural rating scale perceived and index scores, suggesting that figural rating scales are sensitive to detecting eating disorder symptoms. Ideally, male figural rating scales should show strong validity and reliability, include variations in both body fat and muscularity, utilise realistic body stimuli, and be interval scales. No existing male figural rating scale meets these criteria. However, this review identifies five figural rating scales that meet the majority of the recommended criteria.
Despite increasing interest in psychology of happiness, there have been few studies on personality correlates of happiness. This study examined the personality (EPQ)correlates of happiness(CHI)on Isfahan University male students and role of participating in sport activities. The results showed that athletes. in spite of being happy were no significantly different than non-athletes. Correlational analysis in two groups showed extraversion, and neuroticism to be a major correlate of happiness. Regressions performed separately for happiness was remarkably a predictor of happinees by extraversion and neuroticism traits of personality. However, other personality traits, athlete and non-athlete characteristics and variable did not predict happiness.
The chapter answers the following questions: Are female politicians making different decisions than male politicians? Is a gender-balanced composition of policymakers influencing the level of public spending and the allocation among different items? Is it reorienting the priorities of politicians towards, for example, social or welfare expenditures? Before analyzing the relationship between the gender of politicians and public policy outcomes, the chapter provides new evidence that male and female political candidates have different preferences which create expectations for a different political agenda. Both macro evidence and micro evidence are presented to identify the impact of women in decision-making positions on public policy. The chapter shows that, as a general result, the allocation of expenditures, rather than the total size, is responsive to the gender of politicians. Moreover, the results differ between developing and developed countries: in developing countries we observe that, as expected, a higher share of women is associated with policies that are more oriented towards social issues, education and women’s needs, whereas in developed countries, the evidence is much less conclusive. Finally, the chapter provides evidence of the impact of women in decision-making positions on a different dimension of public policy, for example, monetary policy.
The intellectual climate of the Enlightenment, with its stress on reason and individualism rather than tradition, was not a minor factor in challenging the customary view of women’s place being in the home. Among the young ladies who expressed frustration about being excluded from wider social circles, there were some who later became famous travellers. Increasingly, the model set by distinguished ladies like Mary Montagu, Hester Piozzi Thrale, Mary Hamilton and Mary Berry of being in charge of one’s own linguistic education at home raised expectations among young ladies of being able to use their foreign languages abroad, which implied freedom to travel. At the twilight of the Grand Tour, women writers aired a variety of fresh interests and inspirations in their new forms of travel narrative. The fact that most British women travellers did not regard Italy as a museum of antiquities but rather as a hospitable land of refuge from domestic oppression and social ostracism, certainly encouraged them to analyse the nature of social relations more objectively. What appeared to male travellers as a manifestation of moral degradation and social awkwardness was seen by women travellers as a different realisation of male and female roles in society.
The majority of travellers went abroad in the company of only one person, whose role is variously described in the literature as a tutor, a governor or a ‘bear-leader’. His key role was to act as an interpreter in order to minimise the time wasted in everyday communications and maximise language practice with selected audiences. While terms like ciceroni often recur in travel writing, the same cannot be said about interpreters, although we know that many individuals did perform translation duties. While ordinary women were apparently well hidden in Italy, rich and elegant ladies were not at all inhibited about inviting foreign noblemen to their palaces. In France the atmosphere was even more licentious, not only within the upper echelons of society but also among peasants and maidservants at the inns. Reports about using gestures are not found in the memoirs of travellers of high rank as these men were accompanied by tutors or attendants who were able to communicate with the locals. Conveying an urgent message to a foreigner through body language was more typically experienced by lone travellers or small groups where no one had knowledge of the foreign language.
This chapter deals with homicide and serious interpersonal violence in modern Europe, comparing this with the rest of the world for as much as the evidence allows. It focuses, but not exclusively, on male-on-male violence. This is discussed for three subperiods: 1800-1914, 1920-1970, 1970-present. More is known about the global context as we approach the present. In Europe homicide ceased to be a day-to-day affair in urban and rural communities, so that the remaining acts of murder assumed the character of sinister or sensational exceptions. In this connection, the phenomena of serial murder and the underworld are discussed. For the non-Western world, the evidence remains patchy and fragmented up to 1970. Traditional male honor remained important and affected interpersonal violence in independent Latin America as well as Colonial India and Indonesia. Dueling was rather prevalent among European men in colonial societies. The chapter concludes with a tentative thesis that we can speak of a world history of violence since about 1970, under the influence of globalization. International organized crime was a major factor in this.
This chapter deals with male-on-male homicide and serious interpersonal violence in Europe, 1500–1800. Although it uses a global perspective, the evidence for the non-Western world in this period is very limited. In much of Europe homicide rates declined markedly and since male-on-male fighting accounts for the great majority of these rates, it means that this type of violence declined as well. In the south, however, in particular in Italy, homicide rates did not begin to fall until the end of the seventeenth century. Everywhere high homicide rates went hand in hand with widespread value being laid upon the traditional concept of honour which obliged a man to uphold his reputation by violence. In Europe, again less so in the south, notions of honour gradually changed, while homicide became more fully criminalised. The traditional concept of male honour held sway in many regions of the non-Western world, in 1800 no less than in 1500. From this we may hypothesise that violence was endemic in these regions throughout the early modern period. A final feature of non-Western interpersonal violence, in contrast to Europe, was its being affected by ethnic differences and slavery.
As an epigenetic modification, DNA methylation may reflect the interaction between genetic and environmental factors in the development of schizophrenia (SCZ). Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene is a promising candidate gene of SCZ. In the present study, we investigate the association of COMT methylation with the risk of SCZ using bisulfite pyrosequencing technology. Significant association between DNA methylation of COMT and the risk of SCZ is identified (P = 1.618e−007). A breakdown analysis by gender shows that the significance is driven by males (P = 3.310e−009), but not by females. DNA methylation of COMT is not significantly associated with SCZ clinical phenotypes, including p300 and cysteine level. No interaction is found between COMT genotypes and the percent methylation of this gene. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve shows that DNA methylation of COMT is able to predict the SCZ risk in males (area under curve [AUC] = 0.802, P = 1.91e−007). The current study indicates the clinical value of COMT methylation as a potential male-specific biomarker in SCZ diagnosis.
Increased fat and carbohydrate intakes based on the Western diet are important lifestyle modifications that lead to hypercaloric inputs, obesity, and male fertility negative effects. Epigenetic transmission may also predispose descended generations to chronic diseases, such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, behavioral, and reproductive disorders. The present study sought to evaluate the influence of a high-fat-high-sugar (HFHS) diet supplied to Wistar rats from 25 to 90 days of life on reproductive and metabolic parameters in male generations F0, F1, and F2. The standard group received the normocaloric – Nuvilab Quimtia® –3.86 kcal/kg. The hypercaloric diet (HD) group received the HFHS diet – PragSoluções® –4.77 kcal/kg. Body weight, adiposity, F1 and F2 prepubertal age evaluations, oral glucose tolerance test, insulin tolerance test, organ weights, sperm count and morphology assessments, and histometric testicular analyses were performed. The HFHS diet promoted dyslipidemia, higher adiposity, lower relative organ weights, and higher mean kidney weight, decreased mean testicle and parenchyma weights and lower height of seminiferous epithelium (HE) for the F0 generation. F1 and F2 offspring of HD group displayed early preprepubertal development, although did not alter the metabolic parameters. Decreased HE and tubular testicular compartment volumetric density and increased intertubular testicular compartment volumetric density and volume in the F1 generation of HD group were observed. Alterations in histometry of intertubular testicular compartment were also noted. It is concluded that the HFHS experimental model altered only paternal metabolic parameters. However, reproductive parameters of the three generations were affected.
Economic margins on pig farms are small, and changing slaughter weights may increase farm profitability. However, one can question if the optimal slaughter weight is the same for each sex. On three farms, crossbred pigs (n = 1128) were used to determine the effect of sex and slaughter weight on performance, carcass quality and gross margin per pig place per year. On each farm, an equal number of entire males (EMs), barrows (BAs), immunocastrates (IC) and gilts (GIs) were housed separately in group pens. Pens were randomly divided into three categories of different slaughter weights: 105, 117 and 130 kg BW. In BA, the high average daily feed intake (ADFI) and the lower capacity to gain muscle led to a higher feed conversion ratio (FCR) and lower lean meat percentage in comparison to EM and IC. In all sexes, ADFI and FCR increased with an increasing slaughter weight but the effect of slaughter weight on carcass quality varied between sexes. In BA and GI, slaughter weight had no effect on carcass quality, but in EM and IC, carcass quality improved at higher slaughter weights. Gross margin per pig place per year was calculated as gross margin per pig × barn turnover per year, taking into account fixed costs per round, feed costs and output price per pig. The slaughter weight that gained the highest gross margin per year differed between sexes. Slaughtering BA and GI at 130 kg BW, compared to 105 or 117 kg BW, decreased the gross margin per pig place per year due to the lower margin per pig and barn turnover at higher weights. In IC and EM, no difference in gross margin per pig place per year could be demonstrated between slaughtering at 105, 117 or 130 kg BW. In IC, the increasing gross margin per pig with increasing slaughter weights counteracted with the lower barn turnover. In EM, gross margin per pig did not differ between slaughter weights, but the effect of barn turnover was too small to demonstrate significant differences between slaughter weights on gross margin per pig place per year. In conclusion, slaughter weight has an impact on profitability in BA and GI: they should not be slaughtered at 130 kg BW but at lower weights, but no effect could be demonstrated in EM and IC.